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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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in 1893. In 1895, in consequence of a remark offen-
sive to President Cleveland, he was rebuked, and re-
tired from the service. Died in 1897.

Meade, (WILLIAM,) D.D., son of Richard Kidder
Meade, born in Clarke county, Virginia, in 1789.
He graduated at Princeton College in 1808, and in
1841 succeeded Bishop Moore as bishop of the Prot-
estant Episcopal Church in Virginia. He published
several theological works. Died in 1862.

Meadowcourt, med'o-kort, (RICHARD,) an English
critic, born in Staffordshire in 1697, published Notes on
Milton's "Paradise Regained." Died in 1769.

Meadows, mSd'oz, (ALFRED,) M.D., an English
physician, born at Ipswich, June 2, 1833. He studied
at King's College, London, and at Paris, and graduated
as M.D. at the University of London in 1858. Among
his works are " A Manual of Midwifery." Died 1887.

Meadows, (KENNY,) an English artist, born in 1787.
He achieved some celebrity as an illustrator of books
Died August 24, 1874.

Meagner, ma'Her or ma'er, (THOMAS FRANCIS,) a
general, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1823. He joined
the movement for the independence of Ireland, and was
condemned in 1848 to banishment or penal servitude
for life. He escaped from Tasmania in 1852, and took
refuge in the United States. He raised in 1861 an Irish
brigade, which he commanded at Gaines's Mill, June
27, at Antietam, September 17, and at Fredericksburg,
December 13, 1862. Died in 1867.

Mean, de, deh mi'6N', (CHARLES,) BARON, a Belgian
jurist, born at Liege in 1604; died in 1674.

Means, (ALEXANDER,) a Methodist minister, born
in North Carolina in 1801. He became professor of
natural science in Emory College in 1838, and professor
of chemistry in a medical college at Atlanta, Georgia,
in 1855. Died June 5, 1883.

Meaume, mom, (DOUARD,) a French jurist and
archaeologist, born at Rouen in 1812. Among his works
is a " Life of Jacques Callot," (1860.) Died in 1886.

Mecenate. See MAECENAS.

Mecene, the French of MAECENAS, (which see.)

Mechain, ma'shiN', (PIERRE FRANCOIS ANDR*,) an
eminent French astronomer, born at Laon in 1744.
Having visited Paris, he acquired the friendship and
patronage of Lalande. He was elected a member of the
Academy of Sciences about 1782, and in 1785 succeeded
Jeaurat as editor of the " Connaissances des Temps." In
1791 he was appointed, conjointly with Delambre, to
measure the arc of the meridian between Dunkirk and
Barcelona. Dissatisfied with the result of his calcula-
tions, he was preparing to prolong the measurement to
the Balearic Isles, when he was attacked with fever, and
died on the journey, (1805.)

See DHLAMBRH, " Histoire de I'Astronomie au dix-huitiem

Mecbel, mik'el, (CHRISTIAN,) a Swiss engraver, boru
at Bale in 1737; died in 1817.

Mecheln, me'K'eln, or Meckenen, van, vln meV-
keh-nen', (ISRAEL,) a celebrated German painter and
engraver, said to have been born near Bocholt, in the
bishopric of Munster. It is, however, supposed by many
that there were two artists of the name. The principal
works attributed to Meister Israel, as he was called, are
in the Pinakothek at Munich. They possess great excel-
lence, and entitle him to rank with Van Eyck, Memling.
and other eminent painters of the Flemish school. Died
in 1503.

Mecherino. See BECCAFUMI.

Mechitar See MEKHITAR.

Meokel, mek'kel, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) an eminent
German anatomist, born at Wetzlar in 1714. He became
surgeon to the King of Prussia. He made discoveries
in anatomy, and wrote numerous medical and anatomical
works. Died in 1774.

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mil; not; good; moon :




Meckel, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German anatomist,
born at Halle in 1781, was a grandson of the preceding.
He became professor of surgery and anatomy at Halle
in 1806. He published " Contributions to Comparative
Anatomy," and translated Cuvier's " Comparative Anat-
omy," to which he added valuable notes. Died in 1833.

Meckenen. See MECKELN.

Meda, ma'dt', or Merda, meVdt', (CHARLES AN-
DRE,) a French general, born in 1775, served in the prin-
cipal wars of the Revolution, and attained the rank of
general of brigade, (1808.) He was mortally wounded at
the battle of Moskwa, (1812.)

Mede, meed, (JOSEPH,) an eminent English scholai
and divine, born in Essex in 1586. He studied at Christ
College, Cambridge, where he afterwards became pro-
fessor of Greek. His " Clavis Apocalyptica," published
in 1627, is esteemed a standard work. Died in 1638.

See "Life of Joseph Mede," prefixed to his works, 1673.

Me-de'a, [Gr. MjSeta; FT. MEDEE, ma'di',] a famous
sorceress, daughter of jEetes, King of Colchis. Having
assisted Jason to obtain the golden fleece, she became
his wife and accompanied him to Greece. Being after-
wards deserted by him, she destroyed their two sons.
The story of Medea has formed the subject of tragedies
by Euripides and Sophocles among the ancients, and
Corneille among the moderns. Those written by Soph-
ocles, jEschylus, and Ovid are lost.

Medee. See MEDEA.

Mederer, ma'deh-rer, (JOHANN NEPOMUK,) a Ger-
man littirateur, born in 1734, published several works on
German history. Died in 1808.

MSd'httrst, (WALTER HENRY,) an English mission-
ary and Chinese scholar, born in London in 1796. Hav-
ing spent many years in China, Java, and Malacca, and
become thoroughly versed in the languages of those
countries, he published a "Chinese-and-English Dic-
tionary," (1842,) " Chinese Dialogues," (1844,) " English-
and-Japanese Vocabulary," and other works. Died in


Medici, de', da mWe-chee or ma'de-chee, (ALESSAN-
DRO,) the subverter of the liberties of Florence, born in
1510, is supposed by some to have been a natural son of
Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, and by others, of the cardi-
nal Giulio de' Medici, afterwards Clement VII. After
the sacking of Rome, in 1527, the latter made a treaty
with the emperor Charles V. in 1529, by which it was
agreed that the Medici should be restored to their
former rank at Florence, with Alexander as chief of the
republic. A marriage was also arranged between him
and Margaret of Austria, a natural daughter of the em-
peror. In 1530 Florence was taken by the Imperial
troops under Ferdinand de Gonzaga, and soon after the
pope obtained from the emperor a diploma which was
to decide the constitution of Florence. By this article
Alexander was declared head of the republic, but the
Florentines were left in possession of the same privileges
they had enjoyed under the former Medici. At length, by
the united intrigues of Clement VII. and Alexander, the
latter was declared duke of the republic in 1532, and the
old form of government was abolished. He now sig-
nalized himself by every species of cruelty and oppres-
sion. In 1535, Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, whom he
had long feared as a rival, was poisoned by his orders ;
and he is believed to have caused the death of his own
mother in the same manner. In 1537, Lorenzino de'
Medici, a distant relative of the duke, desiring to rid
his country of such a tyrant, procured his assassination.
Alexander left a son, named Giuliano.

See SISMONDI, " Histoiredes Republiques Italiennes;" MADAME
ALLART, " Histoire de la Republique de Florence."

Medici, de', (Cosnto or COSMO,) surnamed THE
ELDER, a celebrated statesman of the Florentine repub
lie, was born in 1389. He was a liberal patron of learning
and the arts, and made a munificent use of the immense
fortune he had accumulated by commerce, in adorning
his native city with public edifices and founding institu-
tions for educational and charitable purposes. Among the
most important of these was an academy at Florence for
teaching the Platonic philosophy, at the head of which
he placed Marsilio Ficino. He also made a large col

ection of Latin, Greek, and Oriental manuscripts, which
ne bestowed on the Laurentian Library. These benefits,
and the urbanity and moderation of his character, won
For himgreat personal popularity and the title of "Father
of his Country." To give a detailed account of his ser-
vices to literature and art would be to write the history
of the Renaissance in the first half of the fifteenth cen-
tury. In the words of Ginguene, " One saw at Florence
Masaccio and Lippi adorn churches and palaces with
the productions of their pencil, Donatelli give life and
expression to marble, and Brunelleschi, architect, sculp-
tor, and poet, raise the magnificent cupola of Santa
Maria del Fiore ; while the Greek refugees, in return
for the noble asylum he had given them, spread abroad
the treasures of their beautiful language and the master-
pieces of their orators, philosophers, and poets." Cosimo
died in 1464, leaving a son, named Piero.

Medici, de', (CosiMO,) called THE GREAT, [Lat.
COS'MUS MEDICE'US MAO'NUS,] son of the general
Giovanni de' Medici, was born in 1519. On the death ot
Alexander he was declared his successor in 1537, through
the influence of Cardinal Cibo, which choice was con
firmed by Charles V. In 1537 he obtained a victory a'
Montemerlo over the hostile Florentines. Cruel and
suspicious in his disposition, he caused upwards of four
hundred Florentine emigrants to be put to death in the
early part of his reign, and, having deprived the magis-
trates of all authority, was invested with absolute power.
In 1554 the Marquis de Marignano, one of his generals,
defeated the French army under Marshal Strozzi, at
Siannagallo, and soon after Philip II., having succeeded
the emperor, conferred upon the Duke of Florence the
state of Sienna, with the exception of the ports. In 1562
Giovanni de' Medici, a son of Cosimo, died suddenly,
as is supposed, by the hand of his brother Don Garcias.
A short time after, the latter also died, and his father
was charged with his death. Eleonora of Toledo, wife
of the grand duke, soon followed her sons, and her death
was likewise attributed to Cosimo. These fatal events
form the subject of Alfieri's tragedy of " Don Garcias."
In 1564 Cosimo made his son Francesco his associate in
the government, and in 1569 he was declared Grand
Duke of Tuscany by a bull of Pius V. He died in 1574,
leaving three legitimate sons, Francesco, Ferdinand, and

See BAUDINI, "Vita di Cosmo de' Medici I.," 1578: FABRONI,
"Magni Cosmi Medicei Vita;" ALDO MANUCCI, "Vita di Cosimo
de' Medici," 1586; SISMONDI, "Histoire des Republiques Itali-

Medici, de', (CosiMO II.,) Grand Duke of Tuscany,
born in 1590, was a son of Ferdinand I. He began to
reign in 1609, and ruled with moderation and clemency.
Died in 1621.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Republiques Italiennes."

Medici, de', (CosiMO III.,) a son of Ferdinand II.,
was born in 1642, and became grand duke in 1670. He
married Marguerite d'Orleans, (a daughter of Gaston de
France,) who regarded Cosimo with extreme dislike and
caused him much trouble. He died in 1723, and his
family then became extinct.

See BOTTA, "Storia d'ltalia."

Medici, de', (FRANCESCO,) Grand Duke of Tuscany,
was a son of Cosimo the Great, and was born March 25,
1541. He began to reign on his own account in 1574,
and proved a suspicious, false, and despotic tyrant. Love
of science, art, and letters was his only virtue. In 1578
he married his mistress, the beautiful Bianca Capello.
Died at Poggio a Caiano, October 18, 1587.

Medici, de', (GIOVANNI.) See LEO X.

Medici, de', (GIOVANNI,) an Italian statesman, born
in 1360, was the father of Cosimo the Elder, noticed
above. He amassed a large fortune by commerce, and
rose through various offices to be gonfaloniere of justice
in 1421. Died in 1428.

See MACHIAVEL, "Stone Florentine."

Medici, de', (GIOVANNI,) an Italian general, of the
same family as the preceding, was born in 1498. He
distinguished himself both by his courage and his
ferocity in the civil wars of his country, and afterwards
entered the French service. He was mortally wounded
in battle in 1526.

as/fc: casj; ghard; g as/; G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal: K.trilleJ- sasi: %h as in this. <S3f = 'See Explanations, p. 23. >




Medici, de', (GIULIANO,) youngest son of Lorenzo
the Magnificent, was born in 1478. He married in 1515
Philiberta of Savoy, aunt of Francis I., by whom he
was created Duke of Nemours. Died in 1516.

See SISMONDI, "Histoire des Rrfpubliques Italiennes."

Medici, de', (GiULio.) See CLEMENT VII.

Medici, de', (IPPOLITO,) an Italian cardinal, born at
Urbino in 1511, was a natural son of Giuliano, noticed
above. He possessed immense wealth, and was noted
for his accomplishments and his profligacy. He died
in 1535, from the effects of poison administered, it is
iupposed, by order of Alessandro de' Medici, Duke
of Florence.

See VARCHI, "Istoria Fiorentina."

Medici, de', (LORENZO I.,) surnamed THE MAGNIFI-
CENT, [Fr. LAURENT LE MAGNIFIQUE, lo'r&N' leh mtn'-
It. LORENZO IL MAGNIFICO, lo-rSn'zo 41 min-yef'e-ko,]
Prince of Florence, was born in 1448. He was the son
of Piero I., and grandson of Cosimo the Elder, and,
having early entered public life, succeeded to the influ-
ence and popularity of his predecessors. He was care-
fully educated by the best masters of the time, being
instructed in the Platonic philosophy by the celebrated
Marsilio Ficino. In 1478 he narrowly escaped falling
a victim to a conspiracy formed by the Pazzi family of
Florence in conjunction with the Archbishop of Pisa
and Pope Sixtus IV. His brother Giuliano was assas
sinated, and he received a slight wound. The Arch-
bishop of Pisa was hanged for this offence, and Lorenzo
was excommunicated by Pope Sixtus IV. In 1484 the
latter died, and was succeeded by Innocent VIIL, who
became a friend and ally of Lorenzo. Florence enjoyed
great prosperity under the government of Lorenzo, who
acquired the favour of the people by his munificence,
prudence, and clemency. He was highly distinguished
as a patron of literature and art, founded at Florence an
academy for the study of the antique, and expended large
sums in the erection of public edifices and in the collec
tion of libraries. He also attained considerable eminence
as a poet Died in April, 1492.

See ROSCOE, " Life of Lorenzo de' Medici," a vols. 410, 1705 ;
ANGELO FABRONI, " Laurentii Medicis Magnifici Vita," 3 vols.,
1784; PAPIRE-MASSON, "Vila Laurenrii Medicis," 1587; MACCHIA
YBU.I, " Istorie Florentine;" N. VALORI, " Laurentii Medicei Vita,'
1749; SCIPIONE AMMIRATO, " Istorie Florentine;" SISMONDI, " His-
toire des R^publiques Italiennes;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'

"~ rope;" " Lives of tha

rale ;" LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe .

Italian Poets," by the REV. HENRY STEBBING, London, 1831.

Medici, de', (LORENZO II.,) eldest son of Piero II.
born at Florence in 1492, was placed, through the in-
Buence of his uncle, Leo X., at the head of the republic.
He married in 1518 Madeleine de La Tour, daughter of
Jean, Count d'Auvergne, and died in 1519, leaving an
infant daughter, Catherine de Midicis, afterwards Queen
of France.

Medici, de', (Luoovico,) Duke of Sarto, called also
the CHEVALIER DE MEDICI, a Neapolitan statesman, born
in 1760. He was appointed minister of finance in 1810
and in 1815 was sent as ambassador to Vienna. Die(
in 1830.

Medici, de', (PIERO I.,) eldest son of Cosimo th
Elder, born in 1414, succeeded his father as chief of th
Florentine republic. He had powerful rivals in th
Pitti family and other nobles of Florence, whose attemp
to assassinate him was defeated by the prudence of hi.
on Lorenzo. Died in 1469.

See SISMONDI, "Histoire des Re'publiques Italiennes."
Medici, de', (PiERo II.,) eldest son of Lorenzo th
Magnificent, was born at Florence in 1471. Hesucceedei
to the rank and influence of his father in the republic
but his arrogance and rashness soon deprived him of th
popularity hitherto enjoyed by his family. On the in
vasion of Italy by Charles VIII., in 1494, Piero mad
overtures to the French king, into whose hands he sur
rendered several important places. Having subsequent!
entered the French army, he shared in its defeat at th
Garigliano by Gonsalvo de C6rdova in 1503, and was
drowned in attempting to cross the river.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des R^publiques Italiennes.' 1

Medici, de', (SALVESTRO,) a Florentine statesman
belonged to the Ghibeline faction, and was one of th

rincipal rivals of the Albizzi family. He was maae
onfaloniere of justice in 1378 ; but, the Guelph party
aving again come into power, he was banished in 1381.

See NOBLE, " Memoirs of the House of Medici."


Medicus, ma'de-kus, (FRIEDRICH CASIMIR,) a Ger-
man botanist, born at Grumbach in 1736. He published
everal able botanical and medical works. Died in 1808.

Me-dill', (JOSEPH,) an American journalist, born in
he province of New Brunswick, April 6, 1823. In 1832
ic was taken to Ohio, where he became a lawyer and
^ree-Soil Whig editor. He edited papers at Coshocton
nd Cleveland, and in 1854 removed to Chicago, where
le became principal owner and editor of the "Tribune."
ie was mayor of Chicago in 1872-73. Died in 1899.

Medina, mi-dee'ni, (Sir JOHN BAPTIST,) a Flemish
painter, of Spanish extraction, born at Brussels in 1630,
esided the greater part of his life in Great Britain. He
vas a pupil of Rubens, and enjoyed a high reputation.
Jied in 1711.

Medina, ma-Dee'nl, (PEDRO,) a Spanish writer, born
t Seville about 1510, was the author of several historical
and mathematical works, and a treatise on navigation,
entitled "Arte de Navegar," (1545,) which was trans-
ated into several languages.

Medina, de, da mi-Dee'ni, (SALVADOR JACINTO
POLO,) a Spanish poet, born at Murcia, wrote the " Fable
of Apollo and Daphne," and a number of epigrams,
yrics, etc. Died about 1660.

Medina de Medinilla, de, da mi-Dee'na da ma-De-
nel'yi, (PEDRO,) a Spanish poet, supposed to have been
a native of Seville. He wrote an eclogue on the death
of Isabella, wife of Lope de Vega, his intimate friend.

Medina -Sidonia, de, da mi-Dee'na se-do'ne-i,
ALONZO de Guzman di gooth-man',) DUKE, a Span-
sh grandee, who was governor of Milan and Captain-
general of Andalusia, and was appointed admiral of the
great Armada or fleet sent in 1588 to attack England.
Almost entirely ignorant of naval affairs, the duke was ill
atted to contend either with the severe storms of that un-
fortunate expedition or with the active and hardy English
sailors, led by Effingham, Hawkins, Drake, and Frobisher.
(See ELIZABETH.) Medina-Sidonia returned to Spain
with scarcely a third of his fleet.

Medina - Sidonia, de, di ma-oee'nj se-do'ne-1,
(GASPAR ALONZO Perez de Guzman pa'rgth di
gooth-mln',) DUKE, a Spanish grandee, who lived about
1640, was a nephew of the prime minister Olivarez. He
formed a project to make himself King of Andaluria ;
but his design was discovered before he began to exe-
cute it

Meding, ma'ding, (OsKAR,) a German novelist, born
at Konigsberg, April u, 1829. He was educated at
Heidelberg and Berlin, and in 1851 became a lawyer.
He was a close personal adherent of the fortunes of the
King of Hanover, but in 1870 became a Prussian sub-
ject. Most of his numerous novels were published un-
der the name of GREGOR SAMAROW. He wrote " For
Sceptre and Crown," (1872,) " Mines and Counter-Mines
of Europe," (1873,) "Two Imperial Crowns," (1875,)
"Cross and Sword," (1875,) "Heights and Depths,"
(a social romance, 20 vols., 1879-80,) "Memoirs of

Contemporary History," (iSSl,) " Gippel und Ab-
grund," (1888,) "Der Weisse Adler," (1891,) etc.

Medinilla, mi-De-nel'yi, ( BALTHASAR ELISIO,) a
Spanish poet, born at Toledo in 1585, was a friend and
disciple of Lope de Vega, who wrote an elegy on his
early death.

Med-I-tri'na, a Roman goddess of medicine, in whose
honour the festival of Meditrinalia was celebrated in the
month of October.

M6d'6ws, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English general, born
in 1738. He served in America, and was wounded in
the battle of Brandywine, (1777.) He was made lieu-
tenant-general in 1792, and in 1801 succeeded Lord
Cornwallis as Viceroy of Ireland. Died in 1813., di mi-DRl'no, (FRANCISCO,) a bpanisl
lyric poet of the seventeenth century, whose works are
highly praised. Little is known of his life.

Me-du'sa, [Gr. Malm/o-a; Fr. M*DUSE, mi duz',] one

i, e, 1, 6, u, yJo>'.?: A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a. e. T. o. u. v. short; a, e, i. o. obscure; far, fall fit; mft; n6t; good; moon:




ef the Gorgons, was represented as a beautiful woman
who captivated Neptune and offended Minerva by re-
ceiving his embraces in her temple. The goddess changed
her hairs into serpents, after which Perseus cut off her
head and gave it to Minerva, who placed it in the centre
of her zgis. (See GORGON.)

Meduse. See MEDUSA.

Mee'han, (THOMAS,) an author and botanist, born at
Potter's Bar, near Barnet, Herts, England, March 21,
1826. He grew to manhood in the Isle of Wight, and
studied botany at the Kew Gardens. In 1848 he removed
to Philadelphia, where he became a landscape-gar-
dener, and afterwards established a very successful
nursery. His principal works are a " Hand-Book of
Ornamental Trees," (1853,) and "Native Flowers
and Ferns," of which the first part appeared in 1878.
He was for many years botanist to the State Board of
Agriculture, editor of the "Gardener's Monthly" for
thirty years after 1859, and afterwards of " Meehan's
Monthly." For years he was vice-president of the
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and con-
tributed many valuable papers to its " Proceedings."

Meek, (ALEXANDER BEAUFORT,) n American lawyer
and writer, born at Columbia, South Carolina, in 1814.
As a member of the legislature of Alabama, he procured
the adoption of a system of free schools about 1853.
Among his works is a volume of " Songs and Poems of
the South," (1857.) He died November 30, 1865.

Meek, (FIELDING BRADFORD,) an American palaeon-
tologist, born at Madison, Indiana, December 10, 1817.
He was engaged, 1848-58, on various State and United
States geological surveys, and after that lived in Wash-
ington, where he was occupied in palasontological work
for the government. His reports are numerous and im-
portant, especially the great " Report on Invertebrate
Cretaceous and Tertiary Fossils," (1876.) Died at
Washington, D.C., December 28, 1876.

Meet See MIEL.

Meer, van der, vtn der maR, (JAN,) an eminent
Dutch painter, born at Schoenhoven in 1627. His fa-
rourite subjects were sea-views, landscapes, and animals,
in which he attained great excellence. Died about 1690.

See DESCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands, HollaDdais," etc.

Meer, van der, (JAN,) a Dutch landscape-painter,
born at Haarlem about 1665, was a pupil of Nicholas
Berghem. Died in 1704.

Meerbeeck, van, vSn maVbak, (ADRIAN,) a Flemish
writer, born at Antwerp in 1 563, was the author of several
historical works in Latin and Flemish. Died about 1630.

Meerman, maVmin, (GERAART,) a learned Dutch
jurist, born at Leyden in 1722, was appointed pensionary
of Rotterdam. He published a valuable work on civil
law, entitled " Novus Thesaurus Juris Civilis," etc., (7
vols., 1751,) and "Origines Typographicae," (176^,) a
treatise on the origin of printing. Died in 1771.

Meerman, (JAN,) son of the preceding, was born at
the Hague in 1753. He studied at Gottingen, and took
his degree of doctor of law at Leyden. He was made a
senator and count of the empire by Napoleon, (1811,)
and became minister of public instruction under Louis
Bonaparte. He wrote a supplement t3 his father's
"Thesaurus," and published several works in French.
He died in 1815.

See CRAS, " Elogium Johannis Meerman," 1817.

Meerza or MSrza, meeR'zS, (SAMUEL,) a Persian his-
torian, born near Ispahan about 1490, was a son of Shah
Ismail, founder of the dynasty of Sofis. He wrote a
" History of Poets." Died after 1550.

Meerza- (or Mirza-) Iskaiidei -Kazem-Beg, mee R'-
A is-kin'der ki'zem-beg, (Moham'med Al'ee,) a
Persian philologist, born in the province of Ghilan in
1803. Having settled in Russia, he was converted to
Christianity in 1822, and subsequently became professor
of the Persian language and literature at the University
of Saint Petersburg. He published an " Essay on Arabic
Literature," (in Persian,) and other works in Russian and
Persian, and wrote a " Concordance to the Koran," (in
Arabic,) and a " General History of the Turks," (in
Russian.) Died December 8, 1870.

Meetkercke. See METKERKE, (ADOLPHUS.)

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 140 of 425)