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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Megabyze. See MEGABYZUS.

Meg-a-by'zus or Meg-a-ba'zus, [Gr. McyaSvw 01
Mfj-ufio^'of ; Fr. MEGABYZE, ma'gi'bez, or MEGABAZE,
ma'gt'bSz',] a Persian nobleman, and one of the seven
who conspired against Smerdis the Magian in 521 B.C.
He afterwards commanded an army of Darius I. in

See HERODOTUS, books iii. and vii.

Megeera. See FURIES.

Meg'a-ra, [Gr. Me/opa ; Fr. MEGARE, mk'giV,] a
daughter of Creon, King of Thebes, was a wife of Her-
cules, who, after he had in a paroxysm of insanity killed
her children, gave her to lolas.

Megare. See MEGARA.

Megasthene. See MEGASTHENES.

Me-gas'the-ne, [Gr. Mryao0?w;f ; Fr. M*GASTHENE,
ma'gts'tin',] a Greek geographer under the reign of
S^leucus Nicator, King of Syria, whom he served as
secretary about 300 B.C. He was the author of a work
entitled " Indica," extracts from which are contained in
the writings of Strabo, ^Elian, and Arrian.


Meggot See ELWES.

Megingjord or Megingjardar. See THOR.

Me-gis'tl-as, [MfjwTi'ac,] a celebrated soothsayer, a
native of Acarnania, fell with Leonidas at Thermopylae.

Meglio, del, del mSl'yo, (JACOPO COPPI,) an Italian
painter of the Florentine school, born in 1523, assisted
Vasari in painting the pictures in the Palazzo Vecchio.
Died in 1591.

Mehegan, ma'i'goN', (GUILLAUME ALEXANDRE,) a
French littlrateur, born at La Salle in 1721. He became
professor of French literature at Copenhagen in 1751.
His most important work is entitled " Picture of Modern
History from the Fall of the Western Empire to the
Peace of Westphalia," (1766.) Died in 1766.

Mehemet-Alee, (or -All,) meh'heh-mJt i'lee, ot
Mo-ham'med-Al'ee, Viceroy of Egypt, was born at
Kavala in 1769. Having lost his parents at an early age,
he was protected by the Turkish governor of the town.
His distinguished abilities and energy soon won for him
a high reputation, and he was sent in 1799 to assist the
British in expelling the French from Egypt. He was
appointed in 1804 Pasha of Cairo, for his services in
defending that city from the oppression of the Mame-
lukes, and in 1806 was made Governor of Upper Egypt
by the Sultan. After a protracted contest with the Mame-
lukes, who had for centuries been the scourge of the
country, Mehemet Alee invited them to a festival at
Cairo, and, having enclosed them in the citadel, ordered
a general massacre, in which four hundred and seventy
perished, (iSll.) This sanguinary act was followed by
the destruction of the Mamelukes in other parts of Egypt.
In 1830 he invaded Syria, which he soon subdued, and
which, after the interference of the sovereigns of Europe,
was ceded to him by the Sultan, on condition of his being
a vassal of the Porte, (1833.) The Sultan, becoming
jealous of his powerful rival, made a treaty, in conjunc-
tion with several European powers, in 1841, by which Me-
hemet was obliged to relinquish Syria, but his family was
permitted to retain the pashalic of Egypt. He died in
1849, having the previous year resigned the government
to his son, Ibraheem Pasha. As a ruler, Mehemet Alee
displayed talents of a very high order, and few princes
have founded more beneficent institutions or shown a
more just and liberal spirit. He established schools and
colleges, created an army and navy, and introduced the
manufactures of Europe. He protected his Christian
subjects, and aided by his liberality the researches of
Champollion, Lepsius, and other eminent savants.

See K. MENGIN, Histoire de 1'Egypte sous le Gouvemement de
Mohammed Ali," 1839; A. DB VAULABELLE, " Histoire de Pfigypte."

Mehemet-Alee, (Pasha,) meh'heh-met a'lee pa'shi',
an Ottoman minister of state, born at Trebizond about
1807. He became a general of division in 1840, and mar-
ried a daughter of Sultan Mahmood in 1844. He was
grand vizier of Turkey from October, 1852, to May, 1853.
Died in 1865.

Mehul, ma'iil', (TIENNE HENRI,) a celebrated French
composer, born in the department of Ardennes in 1763.

; casj; ghard; gas/; G, H,*., guttural; N, nasal; 1.,trillid; sasz.' thasin//5i>. (Jj^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Having previously received some instruction from Hau-
ler, a German organist, he repaired in 1778 to Paris,
where he became a pupil of Gluck. In 1790 he brought
out his opera of "Euphrosyne and Coradin," which met
with brilliant success and was pronounced by Gretry equal
to the finest productions of Gluck. Among his operas,
which are more than forty in number, we may name
' Stratonice," " Joseph in Egypt," and " The Blind Man
of Toledo." His " Song of Victory" and other popular
melodies of the kind are also greatly admired. Mehul
was one o) the inspectors of the Conservatory of Music,
and a men.bfr of the French Institute. Died in 1817.

See QuATREMtRB DK QuiNcv, " Notice sur Me*hul ;" FiTis,
' Biographie Universelle des Musicieos :" VIEILLARD, "Notice sur
He"hul, sa Vie et ses CEuvres," 1859; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'-

Mehus, m&'iis', (Livio,) a Flemish painter, born at
Oudenarde in 1630, studied in Italy under Pietro da
Cortona, and died at Florence in 1691.

Mehus, ma'oos, (LORENZO,) an Italian scholar, a
native of Florence, lived about 1730-50.

Meibom, mi'bom, [LaL MEIBO'MIUS,] (HEINRICH,)
a German historian and philologist, born at Lemgo
in 1555. He devoted himself chiefly to the history of
Germany in the middle ages. Died in 1625.

Meibom, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a German physician
and littlrattur, born at Helmstedt in 1590, was a son of
the preceding. He wrote a number of medical treatises,
and also a " Life of Maecenas." Died in 1655. His son,
HEINRICH MEIBOM, born at Lubeck in 1638, became
professor of medicine at Helmstedt in 1661, and of his-
tory and poetry in 1678. He was the author of several
able medical works and a " History of Germany," (in
Latin.) Died in 1700.

Meibom, (MARKUS,) a German philologist, born at
Tonningen in 1630. He was a profound classical scholar,
and published a work entitled " Seven Greek Writers
on Music," (2 vols., 1652,) which he dedicated to Chris-
tina of Sweden. He became professor of history at
Amsterdam, where he died in 1711.

Meibomius. See MEIBOM.

Meier. See MAJOR, (GEORG.)

Meier, mi'er, (ERNST HEINRICH,) a learned German
Biblical scholar and philologist, was born at Rusbendt,
in Schaumburg-Lippe, May 17, 1813, and in 1848 took
a professorship of Semitic languages at Tubingen. He
wrote Scripture commentaries and works on Semitic
and Sanscrit subjects, Swabian folk-lore, etc., and a
volume of original poems. Died March 2, 1866.

Meier, (GEORG FRIEDRICH,) a German critic and
philosopher, born near Halle in 1718, was appointed
professor of philosophy at Berlin in 1746. He was the
author of a "Critique on the Poetry of Gottsched,"
"Thoughts on Spectres," (1748,) etc. Died in 1777.

Meier, (MoRiTZ HERMANN EDUARD,) a German an-
tiquary and philologist, born at Glogau in 1796, became
professor of eloquence at Halle, (1848.) He wrote "On
the Life and Orations of Lycurgus." Died in 1855.

Meierotto, mi'eh-rot'to, (JOHANN HEINRICH LUD-
WIG,) a German scholar, born at Stargard in 1742, be-
came professor in Berlin, (1772,) and wrote "On the Man-
ners and Customs of the Romans," etc. Died in 1800.

Meigga, megz, (HENRY,) an American contractor,
born in Catskill, New York, in 1811. Engaging with
varied success in business, first in Boston and then in
New York, he went to California in 1848, and acquired
wealth, but failed in 1854. From 1858 to 1877 he carried
on enormous railway enterprises in Chili and Peru, ac-
quiring incredible wealth, and paying off his California
debts, so that the State repealed the act by which he had
been outlawed. Died in Peru, September 29, 1877.

Meiga, megz, (JAMES AITKEN,) M.D., a distinguished
American physician and naturalist, born at Philadelphia
in 1829. He became in 1856 librarian of the Academj
of Natural Sciences, and in 1859 professor of the insr/-
tutes of medicine in Pennsylvania College. In 1868 he
was appointed professor of the institutes of medicine in
Jefferson Medical College as successor to Dr. Dunglison.
He published several ethnological treatises, among which
we may name " The Cranial Characteristics of the Races
of Men." Died November 9, 1879.

Meigs, (MONTGOMERY C.,) an American general, born
in Georgia about 1816. He graduated at West Point
in 1836, served several years as an engineer, and was
appointed about 1852 to superintend the extension of
the Capitol at Washington. In May, 1861, he became
quartermaster-general of the Union army, the duties of
which office he performed with distinguished zeal and
ability till the end of the civil war. Died Jan. 2, 1892.

Meigs, (RETURN JONATHAN,) an American officer,
born at Middletown, Connecticut, in 1740, served with
distinction in the Revolutionary war. Died in 1823.

His son, of the same name, became Governor of Ohio
in 1810, and in 1814 was appointed postmaster-general.
Died in 1825.

Meikle, mik'el, f (JAMES,) a Scottish surgeon and
writer, born at Carnwath in 1730. He wrote, besides
other works, "MetaphysicalMa.\ims,"(i797,)and "Soli-
tude Sweetened," (1803.) Died in 1799.

Meikle, (WILLIAM J.) See MICKLE.

Meil, mil, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a skilful German
designer and engraver, born at Gotha in 1729, furnished
illustrations for Gellert's and La Fontaine's Fables and
Burger's poems. Died in 1803.

Meil, (JoHANN WILHELM,) brother of the preceding,
was born at Altenburg in 1732. He became director of
the Academy of Fine Arts at Berlin. His prints and
vignettes are highly esteemed. Died in 1805.

Meilhac, mjl'ak', (HENRI,) a French dramatist, born
in Paris in 1832. In early youth he began dramatic com-
position. In a large part of his pieces he had the co-
operation of Ludovic Halevy, with whom his name is
generally associated. His best-known work is " Frou-
Frou." He was elected to the Academy in 1888.
Died July 6, 1897.

MeUleraie, de la, deh It mlt'ri' or m4'ye-r4',
(CHARLES de la Porte deh If poRt.) Due, a French
general, was cousin-german to Cardinal Richelieu. He
served in several campaigns, and in 1639 was created
marshal of France. He was regarded as the most skil
ful general of his time in conducting sieges. He died
in 1664, leaving an only son, who married Hortens*
Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin.

Meineke, ml'neh-keh, (JOHANN ALBRECHT FRIED-
RICH AUGUST,) a German scholar, born at Soest in 1791.
He published excellent editions of Menander and Phi-
lemon, and wrote a number of critical treatises on the
classics, among which are "Commentationes Miscel-
laneae," (1822.) His "Fragments of the Greek Comic
Poets," (" Fragmenta Comicorum Grascorum," 5 vols.,
1839-43,) preceded by biographical notices of the same,
is highly esteemed. Died at Berlin, December 12, 1870,

Meirier, ml'ner, (JoHANN WERNER,) a German phi-
| lologist, born in Franconia in 1723 ; died in 1789.

Meiners, mi'ners, (CHRISTOPH,) a learned German
writer and antiquary, born near Otterndorf, in Hanover,
in 1747. He obtained a chair of philosophy at Gottingen
about 1774, and published numerous and various works,
among which are a " History of the Origin, Progress,
and Decline of the Sciences in Greece and Rome," (2
vols., 1782,) and " Biographies of the Eminent Men of
the Time of the Renaissance," (" Lebensbeschreibung
beriihmter Manner aus den Zeiten der Wiederherstell,"
etc., 3 vols., 1796-99.) Died in 1810.

Meinhold, min'r-olt, (JOHANN WILHFLM,) a German
writer and divine, born in the island of Usedom. He was
the author of various poems, and a novel entitled "The
Amber Witch," ("Die Bernstein Hexe," 1843,) which
made a great sensation and was for some time regarded
as a true narrative. It was translated into English, and
is characterized by a writer in the " Quarterly Review"
as a tale worthy of De Foe. He also published " Sidonia
the Sorceress," etc., ("Sidonia von Borck die Kloster-
Hexe," New York, 1850.) Died in 1851.

See the "Quarterly Review" for June. 1844: "British Quarterly
Review" for February, 1846 ; " Fraser's Magazine" for October. 1848-

Meinicke, mi'nlk-keh, (KARL EDUARD,) a German
geographer, born in Brandenburg in 1803. Among hi
works we may name a " History of the European Colo-
nies in the West Indies," (1831,) and "The Continent
of Australia," (1837.) Died August 26, 1876.

a. e. T, 6, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, y, short; a, e. i, o, obscure: fir, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon:




Meir ben Todroa, mir ben to'dRds, a learned
Spanish rabbi, wrote several able treatises on the Tal-
mud and the Mosaic rites. Died in 1244.

Meisner, mis'ner, (BALTHASAR,) a German Lutheran
theologian, born in 1587; died in 1626.

Meissel, (CONRAD.) See CELTES.

Meissner, mis'ner, (ALFRED,) a German poet, born
at Toplitz in 1822, published, among other works,
" Ziska," an epic poem, "The Son of Atta Troll," and
"Recollections of Heinrich Heine." Died in 1885.

Meissner, (AUGUST GOTTLIEB,) a celebrated German
litterateur and dramatist, born in Upper Silesia in '753;
He wrote several dramas, of which his "John of Suabia"
is esteemed the best. He owes his reputation princi-
pally to his " Sketches," (" Skizzen,") consisting of nar-
ratives, anecdotes, fables, etc., which obtained extensive
popularity and have had many imitators. Died in 1807.

See MBUSEL, "GeJehrtes Deutschland."

Meissonier, mi'so'ne^', ()EAN Louis ERNEST,) a
celebrated French painteTTborn at Lyons Feb. 21, 1815.
Among his must admired works are " The Little Mes-
senger," " The Painter in his Studio," and " The Chess-
Players." His pictures are of small size but of exquisite
finish, and command high prices. He was made officer
ot the legion of honour in 1856, and received a number
ot medals. Died January 31, 1891.

Meissonier, (JUSTE AUR^LE,) a French artist, born
at Turin in 1675, was skilled in painting, sculpture, and
architecture. He excelled particularly in ornamental
gold-work, and became goldsmith to the king, Louis
XV. Died in 1750.

Meister, mis'ter, (JACQUES HENRI,) a Swiss writer,
born at Zurich in 1744, was an intimate friend of Necker,
Diderot, and Grimm. He wrote " Letters on Imagina-
tion," (1794,) "Studies on Man," (1805,) and other
works. Died in 1826.

Meister, (LEONHARD,) a Swiss littlratmr, born near
Zurich in 1741, wrote several historical works. Died
in 1811.

Meister, mis'ter, (SlMON,) a German painter, born
at Coblentz in 1803, studied under Horace Vernet, and
acquired great skill in painting battles and horses. Died
in 1844.

Mejanes, de, deh ma'zhin', (JEAN BAPTISTE MARIE
de Piquet deh pe'ki',) MARQUIS, a French nobleman,
born at Aries in 1729, was the owner of a library of more
than seventy-five thousand volumes, which at his death,
in 1 786, he bequeathed to the city of Aix.

Mejia. See MEXIA.

Mejia, ma-Hee'i, (iGNACio,) a Mexican soldier, born
at Zimatlan, August 14, 1814. He was much engaged in
the civil wars of his country, taking for the most part
the liberal side. He fought Tomas Mejia and the
French, and in 1865 was made war-minister, retaining
that place for many years, and doing much for his
country's advancement.

Mejia, or Mexia, mi-Hee'a, (ToMAS,) a Mexican
soldier of Indian blood, born about 1812. He had great
influence with the common people, and was called the
" King of the Mountains." He fought against the United
States, 1847-48, and was the head of many insurrections.
He acted with great honour, bravery, and moderation,
and was devoted to the cause of the Conservative or
Church party. Later, he attached himself with warmth
and zeal to the empire under Maximilian, with whom he
was taken prisoner at Queretaro, at which place he was
condemned and executed, June 19, 1867.

Mekhitar or Mecbitar, meK'e-tar', (PETER,) an
Armenian priest and reformer, born at Sebaste in 1676.
Having embraced Catholicism, he became a distinguished
and popular preacher, and founded, in 1740, an Armenian
monastery at Venice. He also established there a print-
ing-house for the Armenian language. Among the works
issued from this press were an Armenian Grammar and
Lexicon. Died April 29, 1749.

Mekhitar Kosh, THE BEARDLESS, a learned Arme-
nian ecclesiastic, born about 1 140, founded a monastery
in the valley of Dandsoud, in Eastern Armenia, of which
le became the first abbot. Died in 1213.

Me'la, (POMPONIUS,) an eminent Roman geographer,

born in Spain, flourished probably about 50 A.D. He
wrote a valuable work entitled "On the Situation of the
Earth," (" De Situ Orbis.") A good edition of it was
published by Tzschucke, Leipsic, (7 vols., 1807 tt nq.'\

See MALTH-BRUN, article on " Mela" in the " Biographic Unive.

Melampe. See MELAMPUS.

Me-lam'pus, [Gr. MfXa^n-ovc ; Fr. MELAMPE, ma'-
loNp',] a mythical personage of Argos, famous as a
soothsayer, was a son of Amythaon. He was considered
as the first mortal that possessed prophetic power, and
the first that practised medicine.

Me-lan-eh'thpn [Ger. pron. ma-linK'ton] or Me-
lan'thon, (PHILIP,) an eminent German Reformer and
scholar, whose original name was SCHWARZERD or
SCHWARZERDT, (shw'aRts'eRt : i.e. " Black Earth,") which,
according to the usage of the time, he changed into Greek,
was born at Bretten, in the Palatinate, February 16, 1497
His father was a skilful and prosperous armourer. He
entered in 1507 the Academy of Pforzheim, where he en-
joyed the patronage of Reuchlin, who was his great-uncle.
About the age of twelve he passed to the University of
Heidelberg, where he took the degree of bachelor of
arts, and went in 1512 to finish his studies in the Uni-
versity of Tubingen. He learned the Greek language,
mathematics, jurisprudence, etc., and remained in this
university a number of years, during which he gave
public lectures on the classics and other subjects. In
1518 he was appointed professor of Greek in the Uni-
versity of Wittenberg, then recently founded, and there
became the colleague and friend of Luther, whose doc-
trines he adopted. The renown of his learning and
eloquence soon attracted multitudes of students from
all parts of Germany. In 1519 Luther and Melanchthon
held a public disputation at Leipsic with Eckius, one
of the ablest champions of the Roman Catholic Church.
Melanchthon married in 1520 Katharina Krapp, daugh-
ter of a burgomaster of Wittenberg. It appears that
he was never ordained as a minister of the gospel. He
gave much attention to biblical exegesis, and became a
prominent advocate of the Reformed religion by his
writings. Compared with the other Reformers, he was
distinguished for moderation and gentleness, which
tended to restrain the impetuosity of Luther. In 1521
he published an able defence of the Reformed doctrines,
in a systematic treatise on theology, entitled "Loci com-
munes Rerum theologicarum," which enjoyed great popu-
larity. It was commended by Luther as being "next to
the Holy Scriptures the most excellent work on theol-
ogy." He aided Luther in his German translation of
the Bible, on which he expended much time, (1522-34.)
In 1529 he attended the Diet of Spire. Having been
appointed by the leading Reformers to compose a formal
exposition of the Lutheran faith, he wrote the celebrated
"Augsburg Confession," which was presented to the
emperor Charles V. at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530,
and is perhaps the most important symbolical book of
the Lutheran Church. A Latin version of this Con-
fession was published under the title of "Confessio Fidei
exhibita invictissimo Imperatori Carolo V.," etc., (1531.)
He also wrote, in reply to certain Catholic theologians,
an " Apologv of the Confession," (" Apologie der Augs
burgischen Confession.") He was invited by Henry VIII.
of England and Francis I. of France to visit their courts ;
but he declined both invitations, and remained at Wit-
tenberg. He was one of the theologians that disputeo.
with the Roman Catholics at the Conference of Worms
(1540) and the Conference of Ratisbon, (1541,) where he
proposed concessions and compromises which the othei
Reformers rejected. After the death of Luther, in 1546
Melanchthon was recognized as the leader of the Refor-
mation in Germany. His conduct was conformed to the
maxim "In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in om-
nibus caritas," ("In essentials unity, in doubtful points
liberty, in all things charity,") which subjected him to
violent denunciations from some Protestant zealots. In
1551 he was sent as a delegate to the Council of Trent,
which, however, was dispersed by the hostile movements
of Maurice of Saxony before Melanchthon arrived at
Trent. The latter years of his life were greatly troubled
by the acrimonious dissension* among the Protestant

Me'la, (POMPONIUS,) an eminent Roman geographer, by the acrimonious dissension* among the Protesta:

e as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural: N, nasal; K, trilled: s as z; th as in this. (J=See Explanations, p. 23





theologians. He died at Wittenberg on the igth of April,
1560, leaving three surviving children. He was a man
of small stature. Among his numerous works were
" Elements of Logic and Ethics," a Greek Grammar,
Commentaries on the Scriptures, editions of several
classic authors, with notes, and an extensive corre-
spondence with his eminent contemporaries. An edi-
tion of his works was published at Wittenberg by his
son-in-law, Peucer, in 1562-64.

See CAMERARIUS, "Vita P. Melanchthonis," 1566; F. A Cox.
"Life of P. Melanchthon," 1815; A. H. NIBMEYER, "P. Melanch-
thon als Preceptor Germaniz," 1817 ; C. MATTHES, " P. Melanch-
thon, seinLeben und Wirken," 1841 ;M. FACIUS, "P. Melanchthon '3 I
Leben," 1832; F. GALLR, "Vereuch einer Characteristik Melanch-
thon's," etc., 1840; LEDDERHOSB, "P. Melanchthon nach seinem
ftussem und innern Leben dargestellt," 1847; D. NISARD, " tudes
*ur la Renaissance;" D'AuBlGNB, " History of the Reformation."

Melander, ml-lan'der, or Melanderhjelm, ma-Ian'
der-he-elm', (DANIEL,) an eminent Swedish astronomer,
born at Stockholm in 1726. He succeeded Strbmer
as professor of astronomy at Upsal in 1761, and sub-
sequently became perpetual secretary to the Academy
of Sciences. He was also ennobled by Gustavus III.,
(1801.) He wrote a " Synopsis of Astronomical Lessons,"
and other treatises, (in Latin.) Melander was a corre-
sponding member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.
Died in 1810.

See LALANDB, " Bibliographic astronomique :" KJBLLIN, " Are-
minneofver D. Melanderhjelm," 1811.

Melanie. See MELANIA.

Melaiiippide. See MELANIPPIDES.

Mel-an-Ip'pI-des, [Gr. MeAavnnri(^c ; Fr. M6LA-
NIPPIDE, ma'lJ'ne'ped',] a Greek poet, born in the
island of Melos, lived in the time of Perdiccas, King of
Macedonia, (about 450 B.C.,) at whose court he died. He
is styled by Xenophon one of the greatest dithyrambic
poets of Greece ; and he also excelled in music. His
only writings extant are to be found in Bergk's " Poetae
Lyrici Graeci."

See PLUTARCH, "De Musica ;" XBNOPHON, "Memorabilia;"
FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grieca ;" SCHBIBBL, "Dissertatio de Me 1 -
lanippide," 1848.

Melauthe. See MELANTHIUS.

Me-laii'thl-iis or Me-lan'thus, [Gr. Mc^ov0u>c or
MfAavSof ; Fr. MELANTHE, ma'loNt',1 an eminent Greek ]
painter, was contemporary with Apelles, with whom he
studied under Pamphilus. He ranked among the first
artists of the time, and his pictures commanded very
high prices.

Melanthius, [MeAavOiof,] a Greek tragic poet of
Athens, flourished about 400 B.C., and was noted for his
wit. He was satirized by Aristophanes and other comic
poets. His works are lost.

Melanthus. See MELANTHIUS.

Melas, ma'lls, (MICHAEL,) BARON, an Austrian gen-
eral, born in Moravia in 1730. He served under Mar-
shal Daun in the Seven Years' war and in several subse-
quent campaigns against the French, and in 1796 became
commander-in-chief of the Austrian forces in Italy. He
was signally defeated by the French army at Marengo,
(1800,) and was obliged to sign a capitulation. Died in

Mel'ba, (NELLIE,) a prima-donna, horn in Aus- j
tralia in 1865. She appeared at Brussels in 1887, and
subsequently in grand opera in Europe and the United

Melbourne, mel'burn, (WILLIAM LAMB,) VISCOUNT,
a popular English statesman, son of Sir Peniston Lamb,
afterwards Lord Melbourne, was born in 1779. He
entered the House of Commons in 1805, and advocated
a moderate Whig policy. His father dying in 1828, he
inherited his title, entered the House of Lords, and, on
the formation of Earl Grey's ministry, in 1830, became
secretary of state. He was appointed first lord of the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 141 of 425)