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rius, King of Persia, attained the rank of high admiral,
and Governor of Western Asia. He had great military
talents. Died in 333 B.C.

See CLINTON, "Fasti Hellenici."

Memnon, a Greek historian, supposed to have lived
under the reign of Augustus or the Antonines. He
wrote a history of Heraclea, of which only fragments
ire extant.

See Vossius, "De Historicis Grscis."

Mena, de, da ma'na, (FELIPE GIL,) a Spanish por-
trait-painter of great merit, born at Valladolid in 1600;
died in 1674.

Mena, de, (JUAN,) a Spanish poet, born at C6rdova
about 1410. He was patronized by John II., King of Castile,
who made him his Latin secretary and historiographer.
His principal work is an allegorical poem, entitled " The
Labyrinth," (" El Labirinto,") which enjoyed a high repu-
tation in his time. He was an intimate friend of Henry
de Villena, the Marquis de Santillana, and other eminent
writers of that age. Died in 1456.

See TICKNOR, " History of Spanish Literature ;" PRESCOTT,
" History ot Ferdinand and Isabella," vol. i. pp. 18, 19, 20; LONG-
FELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Menabrea, ma-na-bRa'a, (LEON CAMII.LE,) a titth-a-
(fur, born near Chambery in 1804. He wrote several
works on medieval antiquities, and left unfinished an
important work entitled " Les Alpes historiques." Died
in 1857.

Menabrea, ma-na-bRa'a, (LuiGi F.,) COUNT, an Ital-
ian general and statesman, born about 1809. He was
appointed minister of foreign affairs and president of
the council of ministers of the kingdom of Italy in 1867
and in 1869.

Mensechmus, mi-ne'k'mus, | MtVo^/ioc, ] a Greek
sculptor, born at Naupactus, lived about 480 B.C. His
principal work was a statue, in gold and silver, of
Diana Laphyra at Calyclon, in which he was assisted
by Soidas.

Menage, ma'nfch', (GiLLES,) a celebrated French
critic and scholar, born at Angers in 1613. He studied
law, and practised for a time in Paris, where he became
an advocate to the Parliament. He subsequently de-
voted himself entirely to literary pursuits, and his house
became the resort of the distinguished wits and writers
of the time, including Balzac, Sarrazin, and Madame
Rambouillet. He was patronized by Paul de Gondi,
afterwards Cardinal de Retz, whose favour he subse-
quently lost, owing to his arrogance and strong propen-
sity for satire. He was also involved in a literary feud
with Boileau, who has severely satirized him in one of
his poems, and with Moliere, who introduced him into
his " Femmes savantes," in the character of Vadius.
His reputation rests principally on his " Etymological
Dictionary of the French Language," (1650,) which is
still a useful work. He also published poems in Latin,
French, and Italian, and his friends made a collection of
his witticisms, etc., entitled "Menagiana," (1693,) which
ranks among the best productions of the kind. His
" Request of the Dictionaries," a satire on the I Hctionary
of the French Academy, is believed to have been the
cause of his exclusion from that institution. Died in
Paris, July 23, 1692.

See ANTOINE GALLAND, "Menagiana," 1693; BAVLE, "His-
torical and Critical Dictionary ;" " Metnoires pour servir a )a Vie de
Menage," prefixed to the "Menagiana," 1715; MOR^RI, " Diction-
oaire Historique ;" " Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale."

Menageot, ma'ni'zho', (FRANC.OIS GUILLAUME,) a
painter, of French extraction, born in London in 1744.
He studied in Paris under Vien and Boucher, and wai
appointed director of the French Academy at Rome in
1787. Among his works may be named "Time arrested
by Study," and "Diana seeking Adonis." Died in 1816.

Men'a-hem, [Heb. DHJ^,] the son of Gadi, having
slain Shallum, King of Samaria, usurped his throne
and reigned ten years over that country.

See II. Kings xv. 14.



^; 5 as*; %,hard; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz: th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23.)



MENANDER



1702



MENCIUS



Me-nan'der, [Gr. Mevavdpoc; Fr. M^NANDRE, mi'-
no.NdR'; Ger. MENANDROS, mi-nan'dRos, ] a Greek
dramatic poet, born at Athens in 341 B.C., is called the
originator of the new comedy, giving representations of
actual life and manners. He enjoyed the highest repu-
tation among his contemporaries, and is eulogized by
Julius Caesar, Plutarch, and other eminent men of anti-
quity. His dramas were very numerous, but they have
been lost, with the exception of the fragments preserved
in the works of several Greek writers.

See CLINTON, " Fasti Hellenic! ;" K. O. MULLER, " History
of Greek Literature ;" HAUPTMANN, " De Menandro atque illius
Comoediis," 1743; G. GUIZOT, "Menandre: Etude historique,"
etc., 1855; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge^rale."

Menander, a Macedonian general, was appointed
Governor of Lydia by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.
He became a partisan of Antigonus, for whom he fought
against Eumenes in 320 B.C.

Menander, a Roman jurist under the reigns ol
Severus and Caracalla.

Me-nan'der Pro-tec'tor, a Greek historian of the
sixth century, was one of the body-guard of the emperor
at Constantinople. He was the author of a " History
of the Eastern Empire from 559 to 582 A.D.," of which
only fragments are extant

See Vossius, " De Historicis Gnecis."

Menandre. See MENANDER.

Menandrino, ma-nan-dRee'no, (MARSILIO,) an Italian
jurist, sometimes called MARSILIUS OF PADUA. He was
counsellor to Louis of Bavaria, for whom he wrote a
treatise entitled " Defender of the Peace," in support of
the authority of the emperor over the pope. For this
he was excommunicated by John XXII. Died in 1328.

Menandros. See MENANDER.

Menard, ma'ntR', (CLAUDE,) a French writer, born
at Saumur about 1574, was the author of a "History of
Anjou," which is commended by Menage. He also edited
Joinville's " History of Saint Louis," and other works.
Died in 1652.

Menard, (JEAN,) a French ecclesiastic and writer, born
at Nimes in 1637, was an intimate friend of Flechier.
Died in 1710.

Menard, (LoN,) a French jurist and antiquary, born
tt Tarascon in 1706. He wrote a "History of the City
of Nimes," a treatise "On the Manners and Customs of
the Greeks," and other works. He was a member of the
Academy of Inscriptions. Died in 1767.

See LE BEAD, " Eloge de Menard," in the " Memoires" of the
Academy of Inscriptions.

Menard, (NICOLAS HUGUES,) a French theologian
and pulpit orator, born in Paris in 1585, wrote several
religious and ecclesiastical works. Died in 1644.

Me'iias, [Gr. MVTOC,] a freedman of Pompey the
Great and of his son, Sextus Pompey. He commanded
a fleet sent against Octavius, afterwards deserted Pom-
pey for the service of Octavius, and was slain (B.C. 35)
at the siege of Siscia.

Menasseh Ben Israel. See MANASSES BEN JOSEPH
BEN ISRAEL.

Mencius, men'she-us, the Latinized form of Meng-
Tee, mjng'tseh', or TSeng-Tseu, meng'tsuh', (named
also Meng-Kho, in his youth,) was, after Confucius, the
most celebrated of all the Chinese philosophers. He
was born in the little state of Tsow, (or Tsou,) which
was subsequently included in the kingdom of Loo, and
in the modern province of Shan-Toong, (or Shan-Tung,)
about 370 years before Christ : he was, therefore, a con-
temporary of Plato and Aristotle. He lost his father in
his early childhood. To his mother, who appears to have
been a woman of rare intelligence and worth, he was
indebted, in a great measure, not merely for his inclina-
tion towards learning and philosophy, but also for that
pure and lofty virtue for which he was so distinguished.
It is related that after the death of her husband she re-
sided for a short time near a butcher's shop, but, fearing
that the frequent sight of scenes of blood might harden
and deprave the heart of her son, she removed to another
abode. This happened to be near a cemetery, and young
Mencius amused himself with acting the various scenes
which he witnessed at the tombs. "This," said his
mother to herself, "is no place for my son." She again



changed her dwelling, and took a house in the market-
place. But here he soon began to play the part of a
salesman, vaunting his wares and chaffering with cus-
tomers. The watchful and anxious mother was not yet
satisfied. At last she found a house close by a school.
Her son's attention was attracted by the various studies
and exercises which he saw pursued in the school, and a
desire for learning was awakened in his mind. Soon
after she sent him to the school ; and he is said to have
distinguished himself by the quickness of his intellect,
and subsequently by his earnest application to study.
The following story may serve to show his mother's con-
scientious watchfulness in regard to the moral education
of her son. Seeing a butcher killing pigs, he asked her
what that was done for. She replied rather thoughtlessly,
(as it appears,) "It is to furnish you with food." Her
conscience at once reproved her for saying what was not
strictly true, and, anxious not to set him an example of
untruthfulness, she went and bought some pork in order
to make good her words. One day when he returned
home from school, she looked up from the web which
she happened to be weaving, and asked him how he was
getting on. He answered, carelessly, that he was doing
well enough, whereupon she took a knife and cut through
her web. Alarmed, he inquired what she meant She
then showed him that she had only done what he was
doing : she had lost her labour and thrown away the time
she had spent in weaving the web, he also was throwing
away his precious time through neglect of his studies.
The lesson was not lost upon him, and did not need to
be repeated.

Some writers represent Mencius as having studied
tinder Tseu-sse, (or Tsze-sze,) the grandson of Confucius.
But this is scarcely possible, since Tseu-sse, had he been
iiving, would have been more than a hundred years old
when Mencius was born. It is, however, certain that he
diligently studied the writings of Confucius, to the neglect
of whose precepts he attributed the miserable state of
things which he saw everywhere around him, faith and
justice being disregarded, the bonds of society breaking
asunder, and the whole empire hastening to decay. He
resolved to devote his life to correcting these evils and
restoring, so far as it lay in his power, the virtues of the
primitive ages.

Although Mencius considered himself a follower of
Confucius, yet in his mode of instruction, and especially
in his behaviour towards those rulers who sought his
counsel, he differed materially from his master. In his
reasoning, if less grave than Confucius, he displayed
more art and more acuteness. His method, indeed, was
not unlike the dialectic of Socrates ; he pushed his ad-
versary from one admission to another, until he obliged
him either to confess his defeat or else to maintain the
most obvious and palpable absurdities. In his inter-
course with kings he was more bold and severe than
Confucius, both in exposing folly and denouncing injus-
tice and oppression. Mencius appears to have been
held in great respect by most of the Chinese princes to
whom his fame had penetrated. It is not known at what
time in his life he first began to teach publicly ; but we are
told that when he felt that he was sufficiently conversant
with the doctrines and precepts of the great teachers
of Chinese philosophy, he commenced his travels for tha
purpose of offering his counsels to the different petty
sovereigns who ruled in the states adjacent or neighbour-
ing to Loo. But, although he seems to have enjoyed
more consideration than Confucius had done, he was
scarcely more successful in carrying into practice his
ideal plans of government. His theory of morals was
too high and difficult for human nature in its ordinary
condition. He appears not to have succeeded in a single
instance in prevailing on any of the princes to embrace
and consistently carry out his principles ; and accordingly
he had little inducement to continue at any of the courts
longer than was necessary in order to make a fair trial
of what his influence could effect He is said to have
passed the last twenty years of his life in the more con-
genial society of his disciples, and in writing those works
by which he has perhaps exerted a greater influence on
after-ages than he did upon that in which he lived. He
is supposed to have died at an advanced age about 2<JC



a, e, I, 6, u, y. long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; mSt; not; good; moot.



MENC1US



1703



MENDELSSOHN



B.C. According to Dr. Legge, he died 288 B.C. ; some
other authorities, however, place the date of his death
many years earlier. The descendants of Mencius, like
those of Confucius, constitute at the present day a class
of what may be termed hereditary nobles, the only
hereditary nobility in China.

One of the chief doctrines of Mencius was that man is
naturally good, although he admitted that by far the
greater part of mankind had, through unfavourable cir-
cumstances or influences, become perverted. He says
the way in which a man loses his natural goodness is
like the way in which trees are deprived by the wood-
man of their branches and foliage. And if they still
send forth some buds and sprouts, then come the cattle
and goats and browse upon them. As in the tree all
appearance of life and beauty is destroyed, so in man,
after a long exposure to evil influences, all traces of
native goodness seem to be obliterated. But he main-
tains that there is an original power of goodness in the
race, and that all men may, if they will, become like
Yao and Shun, two of the early sages and kings, who
were pre-eminent for their virtue. A distinguished
Chinese scholar says the great object of Mencius, in his
writings, is to rectify men's hearts. "If a man once
rectify his heart," says Mencius, " little else will remain
for him to do." In another place he says, " The great or
superior man is he who does not lose his child's heart,"
an expression which vividly recalls those beautiful lines
of the great German poet,

" Wohl dem der frei von Schuld und Fehle
Bf wahrt die kindlich reine Seele."*

It is livid :nt, however, that, owing to his sanguine and
ardent nature, or to some other cause, Mencius did not
very fully realize the exceeding difficulty of "rectifying
one's heart." Yet Confucius, who was regarded by
Mencius as the most perfect of human beings, recognized
this great but melancholy truth, when he said it was
only at the age of seventy that " he could follow what
his heart desired without transgressing what was right."
("Analects," book ii.)

Confucius had always inculcated the reciprocal obli-
gation between kings and subjects. Mencius, without
denying the general obligation of obedience on the part
of subjects, taught nevertheless that among the various
elements in a state " the people are the most important
element, and the sovereign the least important ;" and
he did not hesitate to draw the legitimate inference from
such a position that a bad sovereign ought to be de-
throned, and even slain, if his life should endanger or in
any way interfere with the public good.

The distinguished Orientalist Remusat, in drawing a
comparison between Confucius and Mencius, says the
former "is ajways grave, and even austere; he exalts
men of virtue of whom he presents an ideal portrait ;
he speaks of bad men only with a cool indignation.
Mencius, with the same love of virtue, seems to feel
for vice rather contempt than abhorrence. He assails
it with the force of argument ; he does not disdain to
even employ against it the weapons of ridicule." Men-
cius combined a certain modesty with a just and manly
appreciation of himself. He seemed greatly surprised
when one of his disciples was disposed to rank him as a
sage ; yet he said on another occasion, " When sages
shall rise up again, they will not change my words." He
believed that he was appointed by Heaven to uphold or
restore the doctrines of the ancient sages, such as Yao,
Shun, and Confucius. Han-Yu, a celebrated Chinese
critic, says, " If we wish to study the doctrines of the
sages, we must begin with Mencius. ... It is owing to
his words that learners nowadays still know to revere
Confucius, to honour benevolence and righteousness, to
esteem the true sovereign, and to despise the mere
pretender." We have already noticed some of the lead-
ing opinions of Mencius. The following are a few of his
most characteristic sayings : " I love life ; I also love
righteousness. If I cannot keep both, I will let lite go,
and choose righteousness." (The Works of Mencius,
book vi. chap, x.) "There is a nobility of Heaven, and

" Happy he who, free from sin and fault,
Preserves the pure childlike soul."

SCHILLER'S Kraniche des Ibicvs,



there is a nobility of man. Benevolence, righteousness,
self-consecration, and fidelity, with unwearied joyin these
virtues, these constitute the nobility of Heaven." (Book
vi. chap, xvi.) " Benevolence subdues its opposite, just
as water subdues fire. Those, however, who practise
benevolence nowadays do it as if with one cup of water
they could save a whole wagon-load of fuel on fire, and,
when the flames are not extinguished, should say that
water cannot subdue fire. This conduct, moreover, greatly
encourages those who are not benevolent." (Book vi.
chap, xviii.) "There is no greater delight than to be
conscious of sincerity on self-examination." (Book vii.
chap, iv.) Kung-Sun-Chow said to Mencius that his
principles were admirable, but they were too difficult
and lofty for ordinary minds, and asked him why he did
not adapt his teachings to the capacity of the learners.
He replied, "A great artificer does not, for the sake of a
stupid workman, alter or do away with the marking-line."
(Book vii. chap, xli.)

See the excellent notice of Mencius prefixed to the works of thai
philosopher, in the second volume of DR. LHGCE'S "Chinese Clas-



la Chine," translated by G. PAUTHIER, Paris, 1851 ; the Chinese
Classical Works, translated by the late REV. DAVID COLLIE, Malacca
Mission Press, 1828 ; STANISLAUS JULIEN'S translation (into Latin)
of the Works of Mencius, Paris. 1824: "Confucius and the Chinese
Classics," (book iv.,) by REV. A. W. LOOMIS, San Francisco, 1867.

Mencke, (JOHANN BURKHARD,) born at Leipsic in
1675, became in 1708 historiographer to Frederick
Augustus, King of Poland. He published, in Latin,
" Two Orations on the Charlatanry of the Learned,"
(1715,) and a work entitled " Writers of German His-
tory," (3 vols., 1728-30.) The former caused a great
sensation, and was translated into several foreign lan-
guages. Mencke also wrote a number of poems, and,
after the death of his father, conducted the "Acta Eru-
ditorum. Died in 1732. His son, FRIEDRICH OTTO
MENCKE, (1708-1754,) was professor of history at
Leipsic, and the author of various works.

Mencke, (OTTO,) a learned German, the father of
the preceding, born at Oldenburg in 1644. He bicame
professor of moral philosophy at Leipsic. In 1682 he
founded the first literary and scientific journal published
in Germany. It was entitled "Acta Eruditorum," and
numbered among its contributors Leibnitz and other
eminent savants. Died in 1707.

See SELIGMANN. " Leichenpredigt auf O. Mencken," 1707: Nici-
RON, "Me'moires."

Mendana de Neyra, mgn-daVyJ di na^e-rS, (At,-
VARO,) a Spanish navigator, born in 1541, sailed on a
voyage to the Pacific in 1567, and discovered between
7 and 12 south latitude the islands of Saint Chris-
topher, Isabella, and Guadalcanar. He discovered in
1595 the isles since called by Admiral Byron the Dan-
gerous Islands, and the large island of Santa Cruz, to
which Carteret gave the name of Egmont in 1767. He
also established a colony at Bahia Graciosa. The por-
tion of Polynesia which includes the Marquesas has been
named the Mendana Archipelago. Died in 1595.

Men'deleeff, (DMITRI IVANOVICH,) a distin-
guished Russian chemist, born at Tobolsk in 1834 and
made professor of chemistry in the University of St.
Petersburg in 1866. Of his many discoveries the most
notable is his periodic law of atomic weights, one of
the leading chemical theories of the century.

Mendelssohn, men'dels-son', (MosES,) an eminent
philosopher, born at Dessau, in Germany, in 1729, was
the son of a Jewish schoolmaster. In consequence of
the limited means of his family, he owed his early educa-
tion chiefly to his own exertions. In 1745 he repaired
to Berlin, where he applied himself to the study of
mathematics and the philosophy of Wolf and Leibnitz.
In 1754 he formed an intimate friendship with Lessing,
in conjunction with whom he afterwards wrote the treat-
ise entitled " Pope a Metaphysician." He next pub-
lished his " Letters on the Sensations," and in 1767 his
" Phaedo, a Dialogue on the Immortality of the Soul."
The latter work was received with great favour, and wai



as k; 9 as s; | hard: g as/; G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( Jgp'See Explanations, p. 23.}



MENDELSSOHN



1704



MENDOZA



translated into the principal languages of Europe. Men-
delssohn was one of the most profound thinkers of his
time, and was highly esteemed by his contemporaries for
the excellence of his character, as well as his intellectual
endowments. Died in 1786.

See MIRABHAU, " Sur M. Mendelssohn," etc., 1787; "Memoirs
of Moses Mendelssohn," by M. SAMUELS ; WINCKLER, " Notice sur
M. Mendelssohn," 1708; HEINEMANN, " M. Mendelssohn," 1819 ;
J. A. L. RICHTER, "M. Mendelssohn als Mensch," etc., 1829;
1 Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale. "

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, mSn'dels-son' baR-tol'-
dee, (FELIX,) an eminent German composer, born at
Hamburg in 1809, was a grandson of the preceding. At
an early age he manifested extraordinary musical talent,
which received the most elaborate culture under Zelter
and Ludwig Berger. He performed with brilliant suc-
cess in Berlin and Paris before he had completed his
tenth year, and in 1827 he brought out at Berlin his
"Overture to the Midsummer Night's Dream" and his
opera of " The Wedding of Camacho." He subsequently
visited London and Paris, where the " Overture" above
named was received with enthusiasm. After his return
to Germany, he was appointed, in 1835, director of the
Gewandhaus concerts at Leipsic. In 1836 he brought
out his oratorio of " Saint Paul," at Dusseldorf and
Leipsic, and the following year at Birmingham, Eng-
land. His " Elijah," an oratorio, performed at the Bir-
mingham Festival in 1846, caused a greater sensation
in the musical world than had been known in England
since the days of Handel. Subsequently, Mendelssohn's
health, which had been some time declining, failed
rapidly, and he died soon after his return to Germany,
in November, 1847. Among the more important of his
other compositions, we may name the overtures of
"Fingal's Cave," "A Calm Sea and Happy Voyage,"
(" Meeresstille und gliickliche Fahrt,") and " The Beau-
tiful Melusina," ("Die scheme Melusine,") besides a
great number of cantatas and instrumental pieces. His
" Songs without Words" are particularly admired. As a
musician and composer, he is esteemed second only to
Handel and Mozart.

Men'denhall, (THOMAS CORWIN,) an American
educator, born at Hanoverton, Ohio, in 1841. He
was professor of physics in the Imperial University of
Japan 1878-81, president Rose Polytechnic Institute
1886-89, superintendent United States Coast and Geo-
detic Survey 1889-94, ar| d became president of the
Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1894. In addition,
he served the government in several capacities.

Mendes, (CATULLE,) a French poet, born at Bor-
deaux in 1840. His lyrical drama " Le Roman d'une
Nuit" (1860) caused his imprisonment. Among his
best works are " Hesperus," (1869, a fine poem with
a Swedenborgian tone,) and " Le Soleil de Minuit,"
a dramatic poem. In 1866 he married JUDITH GAU-
TIER, (q.v.). He wrote several novels and plays, the
latter including " Le Capitaine Fracasse," (1870,)
" Le Chatiment,"(i887,) and " Fiammette," (1889.)

Mendes Leal, meVdes 14-al', (JosE da Silva,) a
Portuguese poet, born in Lisbon, October 22, 1820. He
held positions in the public service, and in 1874 was sent
to France as minister plenipotentiary. His very popular
" Poems" (1858) were followed by many plays and some
romances. Died in 1886.

Mendez Pinto. See PINTO.

Mendo9a or Mendoza, de, da mjn-do'sa, (ANDREA
HURTADO,) a Portuguese naval commander, who ren-
dered great services to his country by clearing the South
Seas of pirates and thus protecting the Portuguese es-
tablishments in the East Indies. Died about 1606.

Mendoza, de, da mfn-do'tha, (ANTONIO HURTAPO,)


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 143 of 425)