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cated his crown in 813 and retired to a convent. Died
bout 845.

See LH BEAU, " Histoire du Bas- Empire."



Michael IX, THE STAMMERER, also called MICHAEL
THE PHRYGIAN, succeeded Leo the Armenian, whom he
had caused to be assassinated, as Emperor of Constanti-
nople, in 820 A.D. He died after a reign of nine years,
leaving the empire to his son Theophilus.

Michael TTT Emperor of the East, a son of The-
ophilus, ascended the throne in 842 A.D., when he was
about three years old. He was assassinated by Basil
the Macedonian in 867. His character was very de-
praved.

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Michael IV., surnamed THE PAPHLAGONIAN, [Gr.
Mi^a^X 6 na0Xayn>,] became emperor in 1034, having
previously married Zoe, widow of Romanus III., whom
she had put to death. He died in 1041, and was suc-
ceeded by his nephew, Michael Calaphates.

Michael V, surnamed CALAPHATES, [Gr. 6 Koto-
fdrrjt,] was made Emperor of the East in 1041, but he
was deposed by his subjects in 1042.

Michael VI., Emperor of the Eas* surnamed STRA
TIOT'ICUS, began to reign in 1056. He was deposed in
1057, and was succeeded by Isaac Comnenus.

Michael VTJ., surnamed PARAPINA'CES, a son of
Constantine XI., succeeded Romanus III. in 1071. He
was feeble and incompetent to reign, and he abdicated
in 1078.

Michael Vin. Palaeol'ogua, [Gr. Mi^a^/l 6 IloXai-
oXo)oc; Fr. MICHEL PALEOLOGUE, me'sheY pt'li'o'log',]
Emperor of the East, and a son of Androni'cus Palseol-
ogus, was born in 1224. He usurped in 1260 the throne
of John Lascaris, the infant heir of the late Emperor
of Nicza. In 1261 his army took Constantinople from
the Latin ruler, Baldwin II. He was excommunicated
by the Patriarch Arsenius for his cruel treatment of John
Lascaris, whom he deprived of sight. Under his auspices
the Eastern and Western Churches made a treaty of
union in 1274; but this attempt to restore the union
proved abortive. In 1281 he defeated the army which
Charles of Anjou and the pope sent to invade the Eastern
empire. He died in 1282, and was succeeded by his son,
Androni'cus II.

See GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" GKORGB
PACHYMKRBS, " Historia Rerum a Michaele Palseologo gestarum,"
1666 : LK BEAU, " Histoire du Bas- Empire ;" " Nouvelle Biographic
General e."

MI'ha-el An'ge-lo [Fr. MICHEL-ANGE, me'shel'
6Nzh ; It MICHELANGELO, me-kl-an'ja-lo ; Lat. MI-
CHAEL AN'GELUS] Buonarotti (boo-o-ni-rot'tee) or
Buonarroti, a celebrated Italian painter, sculptor,
and architect, was born in the castle of Caprese, in Tus-
cany, on the 6th of March, 1474. He was descended
from the noble family of Canossa. At the time of his
birth, his father, Lodovico Buonarotti Simone, was
podesta or governor of Chiusi and Caprese. His
mother's name was Francesca del Sera. He attended a
grammar-school in Florence, and became in 1488 a pupil
of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Soon after that date he
began to study sculpture in an academy, or garden, which
Lorenzo the Magnificent had furnished with antique
statues and bas-reliefs, in Florence. He gained the
favour of Lorenzo, who about 1490 invited him to be-
come an inmate of his palace and treated him with much
respect and kindness. Here he enjoyed the society of
eminent literary men, one of whom, Angelo Poliziano,
(Politian,) became his intimate friend. Among his ear-
liest works was a marble bas-relief, the subject of
which was " The Battle of Hercules with the Centaurs."
This work, which was approved by his own mature judg-
ment, is preserved in Florence. His patron, Lorenzo
de' Medici, died in 1492, and was succeeded by his de-
generate son Piero, by whose order Michael Angelo
made a colossal statue of snow. In 1494 he went to
Bologna, where he worked about a year. Having re-
turned to Florence, he executed a statue of a " Sleeping
Cupid," which some person passed off as an antique
and sold for a high price to Cardinal San Giorgio. About
1497 he produced an admirable marble group, called a
" Pieta," representing "The Virgin weeping over the
Dead Body of her Son." " In none of his works," says
Ernest Breton, "has he displayed more perfect know-
ledge of design and anatomy, or more profound truth of
expression." (" Nouvelle Biographic Generale.") This



a, e, i, 6, u, y, long;^., e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, j?, short; a, e, j, p, obscure; far, fall, tat; met; not; good: moon;



MICHAEL



1717



M1CHAELIS



(TT'mp now adorns a chapel in the church of Saint Peter
at Rome. He found another patron in Pietro Soderini,
thegonfaloniere (chief ruler) of Florence, who employed
him in sculpture and painting. He executed a gigantic
marble statue of the psalmist David, which stands in
front of the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence. He received
four hundred ducats for this work, on which he spent
about eighteen months and which he finished in 1504.
Having been commissioned by Soderini to paint in
fresco a historical picture in the hall of the ducal palace,
he chose for his subject an event in the war between the
Florentines and the people of Pisa. He displayed in the
cartoon of this composition a grandeur of style and a
knowledge of anatomy which had not been equalled by
any modern painter. " Such was the excellence of this
work," says Vasari, " that some thought it absolute per
fection." This cartoon has perished, and the painting
itself was never begun. Among his early paintings is
an oil-picture of the "Holy Family," (about 1504.) He
was invited to Rome by Julius II. soon after the acces-
sion of that pontiff, who employed him to build his
monument or mausoleum. He formed a magnificent
design for this work, which design was approved by
the pope and has been described by Vasari, but was
never completely executed. While they were consulting
about a suitable place for the monument, the architect,
San Gallo, suggested that a new chapel ought to be
built expressly for so superb a mausoleum. The pope
concurred in his opinion, and determined to rebuild the
church of Saint Peter. Thus Michael Angelo's design
is said to have been the cause of the erection of the
most magnificent church in the world. In 1506 he was
offended at the pope because he was not admitted to
his presence when he went to the palace on business.
He therefore abruptly quitted his service, and retired to
Florence. Julius II. sent messengers to bring him back,
out he refused to return, until the pope had urged him
by several letters and mandates. Michael Angelo wished
to finish the monument which he had begun, but Julius
had changed his mind, and ordered the great artist to
decorate with frescos the ceiling and walls of the Sistine
Chapel in the Vatican. He painted in the Sistine Chapel
numerous scenes from the book of Genesis, and colossal
figures of prophets and sibyls. " From the commence-
ment," says Duppa, " to the conclusion of this stupen-
dous monument of human genius, twenty months only
were employed. So short a time for the completion of
so vast a work could hardly be credited, if it were not
more difficult to refuse the testimony on which it is
supported." It was finished in 1512. Michael Angelo
and Raphael worked in the Vatican at the same time.

Julius II. died in 1513, and was succeeded by Leo X.,
who is censured for his illiberal conduct towards Michael
Angelo. Leo ordered him to build the fa9ade of the
church of San Lorenzo at Florence, and compelled him
against his will to spend several years in procuring
marble for that purpose. " It is a mortifying reflection,"
says Duppa, "that the talents of this great man should
have been buried and his time consumed, during the
whole reign of Leo X., in little else than in raising stone
out of a quarry and making a road to convey it to the
sea." (" Life of M. Angelo.") Under the patronage
of Clement VII., who was elected pope in 1523, he
began to build the library and chapel of San Lorenzo, at
Florence. He erected fortifications at Florence in 1528
or 1529, and aided in the defence of that city against the
papaltroops. After the accession of Pope Paul III., in
1534, Michael Angelo was permitted to resume the
monument of Julius II., which he completed on a smaller
scale than that which he first designed. It consists of
seven statues, one of which represents Moses, and was
placed in the church of San Pietro in Vinculo. This
statue of Moses is called one of his master-pieces.

Among his greatest productions is a picture, in fresco,
of " The Last Judgment," in the Sistine Chapel, Rome.
This work, which occupied him about eight years and
comprises nearly three hundred figures, was finished in
1541. It presents a confused mass of naked bodies in
the most violent attitudes and most admired disorder,
and excels chiefly in energy of expression. " In the
' Last Judgment,' " says E. Breton, " one will seek in vain



for that celestial light and divine inspiration which ap-
pear in the ' Transfiguration,' " (of Raphael.)

In 1546 he was appointed architect of Saint Peter's
Church, which Julius II. began to build about 1506.
Michael Angelo accepted this appointment on the con-
ditions that he should receive no salary, and that he
should deviate from the design of San Gallo, the former
architect of the church. He adopted a more simple
design, formed a model for the dome, and devoted the
remainder of his life chiefly to that grand fabric, but did
not live to see it completed. He finished the Farnese
palace, which is greatly admired, and is one of the most
imposing edifices of modern Rome. In his latter years
he adorned the Capitoline Hill with several fine buildings,
among which is the senatorial palace. He was the au-
thor of numerous sonnets and other poems, which are
distinguished for elegance and purity of style. These
were published in 1538, and often reprinted. He never
married. He died in Rome in February, 1563, or, ac-
cording to some authorities, in 1564. His moral character
is represented as good.

" He was the bright luminary," says Sir Joshua Rey-
nolds, " from whom painting has borrowed a new lustre,
under whose hands it assumed a new appearance and
became another and superior art, and from whom all
his contemporaries and successors have derived what-
ever they have possessed of the dignified and majestic."
(" Discourses on Painting," vol. ii.) Comparing him
with Raphael, Quatremere de Quincy remarks, "If
Michael Angelo is the greatest of draughtsmen, Raffaello
is the first of painters." ("Life of Raffaello.") "In
painting," says Duppa, " the great work on which Michael
Angelo's fame depends, and, taking it for all in all, the
greatest work of his whole life, is the ceiling of the Sis-
tine Chapel. . . . His Sibyls and prophets exhibit with
variety and energy the colossal powers of his mind. . . .
In his great works, his superior abilities are shown in
the sublimity of his conceptions and the power and
facility with which they are executed." It is doubtful
whether any oil-painting by this artist is now extant

See VASARI, " Lives of Painters and Sculptors ;" CONDIV;, " Viu
di Michelangelo Buonarroti," 1553 ; LANZI, " Storia della Pittura;"
RICHARD DUPPA, " Life ofMichael Angelo," London, 1806 : VIGNAU,
"Vila di Michelangelo," 1753; HAUCHECORNE, "Vie de Michel-
Ange ;" QUATRBMBRB DE QUINCY, "Vie de Michel- Ange," 1835;
WINCKELMANN, " Neues Mahler- Lexikon ;" NAGLER, " Kiinstler-
Lexikon ;" CICOGNARA, " Storia delta Scultura ;" B. CELLINI, " Me-
morie ;" LANNAU-ROLLAND, "Michel-Ange Poete ;" J. S. HAR-
FORD, " Life of Michael Angelo," 1856; MARIE HENRI BEYLE,
"Histoirede la Peinture en Italic," 2 vpls., 1817, (said to contain
an ample and well-written account of Michael Angelo:) HERMANN
GRIMM, " Michael Angelo's Leben," and English version of thft
same, London, 2 vois., 1865.

Michael Angelo delle Battaglie. See CERQUOZZI.

Mi'chael Feodo'rovitch, (fi-o-do'ro-vitch,) Czar
of Russia, born in 1596, was a son of Feodor RomanoC
He began to reign in 1613. His rule is said to have
been beneficial to Russia. He had two sons and three
daughters. Died in 1645.

See BERCH, " Rei^n of Michael Feodorovitch," (in Russian,)
1832; LEVESQUE, " Histoire de Russie."

Michaeler, me-Ka'eh-ler, (KARL JOSEPH,) a German
historian and scholar, born at Innspruck in 1735 ; died
in 1804.

Michaelis, me-Ka-a'lis, (JOHANN BENJAMIN,) a Ger
man poet, born at Zittau in 1746. He was the author
of lyric poems, fables, and satires : the last-named are
particularly esteemed. He was intimate with Jacob! and
Gleim, and resided with the latter at the time of hi
death, (1772.)

See SCHMID, " Leben J. B. Michaelis," 1775.

Michaelis, (JOHANN DAVID,) an eminent German
theologian and Orientalist, born at Halle in 1717. He
studied in the university of his native city, and acquired
a profound knowledge of the Hebrew, Syriac, and Chal-
dee languages and biblical exegesis. He subsequently
visited Holland and England, and was appointed after
bis return professor of philosophy at Gottingen, (1745.)
In conjunction with Haller, he founded the Society of
Sciences in that city, of which he afterwards became
director. He was editor of the " Gelehrte Anzeigen,"
at Gottingen, from 1753 to 1770, and about the same time
tield the office of librarian at the university. He was th



as; 5 as s; ghjrd; g a&j; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in //to.



Explanations, p. 23.)



MICHAEL IS 1718 MICHELET

author of "Introduction to the New Testament," ("Ein- Americana," 2 vols., 1803,) which for many years



which entitle him to rank among the most learned men Review" for October, 1805; "Monthly Review" for Novembar, 1806:
of his time. He also published grammars of the Hebrew, " N" rlh Ameritan Review" for April, 1858.
Syriac, and Chaldee languages, and several valuable Michaux, (FRANCOIS ANDR,) a noted French bot-
treatises on chronology and geography. Michaelis was anist, a son of Andre^ Michaux, already noticed. He
a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, member of was born at Versailles in 1770. Like his father, he
the Academy of Inscriptions, Paris, and privy councillor travelled extensively in North America, collecting trees
of Hanover. Died in 1791. and seeds for the French government. His principal

See J. D. MICKAELIS, " Lebensbeschreibung von ihm selbst abge- work is " Histoire des Arbres forestiers de 1'Amerique
fast," 1793; C. G HBYNE. " Elogiura J. D. Michaeiis," i 7 gi; septentrionale," (4 vols., iSlo-iJ.) Died at Vaureal,
" Nouvelle b.ograph.e Generate." October 2 3 , 1 8 55

Michaelis, ( JOHANN HEINRICH ,) a German Oriental - ^^ the French for MICAH, which see.
ist and theologian, born at Klettenberg, Saxony, in 1668 Michel, the French for MICHAEL, which see.
He taught Hebrew Greek, and Chaldee at Halle, and Mid^ me ' s h e l', (CLAUDE ETIENNE,) a Frencu
became professor of theology at that place about 1709. a , of divisioni born at Pointre in 1772. He was

He wrote works on philology etc. Died in I 738 i]Ied at Waterloo, Tune, 1 8 1 5 .

Michailovic, Mihailowitz, or Mihailoyitz, me- Michel , ( FRANC J ISQUE>) a 3 Frenc h antiquarian, born
h.'lo-v.ts, (JOSEPH) a Croanan cardinal born at Thorda, L arid a pro f e ssor at Bordeaux after 1839.

January 16, 1814, became in 1860 Archbishop of Aeram, , . .

and in 1877 was created a cardinal-priest. He , mad * aC ," V " e r arches lnt mediaeval antiqmUes

Michailowski. See MIKHAILOFSKI. * nd published " Histoire des Races Maudites,"

Michallon, me'shrioN', (ACHILLE ETNA,) a French ( l8 47,) "Histoire des Hotellenes, (1854,) "A
painter, born in Paris in 1796. He gained the first prize Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language, (1882,)
in 1817, and went to Rome with a pension. Died in 1822. etc -

Michallon, (CLAUDE,) a French sculptor, the fathe. Michel. (FRANCISQUE XAVIER,) a French archaeolo-
of the preceding, was born at Lyons about 1751 He gist, born at Lyons in 1809. He published editions of
studied at Rome. Died in 1799. the " Romance of the Violet," (1834,) " Song of Roland,"

Michaud, me'sho', (CLAUDE IGNACE FRANCOIS,) an (1837,) "Anglo-Norman Chronicle," and other works
able French general, born near the Jura Mountains in of the middle ages. Died May 21, 1887.
1753. He became general of division in 1793, and in Michel, (JEAN,) a French physician and dramatic
1794 succeeded Pichegru as commander-in-chief of the poet. He enjoyed a high reputation in his time, and
army of the Rhine. In the same year he gained victories was appointed first physician to the king, Charles VIII.
at Kaiserslautern, Mannheim, and other places. From Died about 1493.

1806 to 1813 he was Governor of the Hanse towns. Michel, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French engraver, born
Died in 1835. lin Paris in 1748, resided many years in London, where

Michaud, (JOSEPH FRANC.OIS,) a distinguished French he enjoyed a high reputation. Died in 1804.
writer and journalist born in Savoy in 1767 Soon after Michel (LooISE ^ a fema i e communist, born at
the breakmg out of the French Revolution he repaired Chateau-Broncourt, France, in 1830. She very early
to Pans, where he was associate editor for many years b , o b]ish yerses fu ,, of for ^ Durj ( e *
of the royalist journals the "Gazette Francatse and br ak of g^ Comrnune of Paris she was a very active
La Quot.dienne." In l8n he began, in conjunction worker |n the radica , cause In lg she was sente nced
with h,s brother, the publication of the celebrated "Bio- to deportat i on for lif e, and was transported to Noumea,
graphic Umverselle," (completed in 1840, 85 vols. 8vo,) in N( l w Cale donia, but returned to Paris in 1880, at the
which numbered among its contributors the most emi- time of , he eneral amnes ty, and became editor of " La
nent literary and scientific men of France. Michaud Re ' TO i ut i on sociale." She was imprisoned in 1883
was the author of an excellent " History of the Crisades, and in in ,g g6 for her anarchical publications, and
(6 yols, 1841) a poem entitled" The Spnng-Time of an subsequentlv resided in London. She published
Exile," wh.ch had great popularity, and other works in .. Men \ oi - and a novel ,. The Microb es of So-
prose and verse, besides a number of contributions to

the " Biographic Universelle." He was for many years cl

a prominent bookseller and publisher in Paris. Died Michel, (ROBERT,) a French sculptor, born at Puy
in 1839. i" 1720, worked mostly in Spain. Died at Madrid in

Michaud, (Louis GABRIEL,) a French liit/raleur, born ' 7^5-

at Bourg-en-Bresse in 1772. He was a brother of the Michel-Ange. See MICHAEL ANGELO.
preceding, in conjunction with whom he established a Michelangelo or Michelagnolo. See MICHAEL
printing-house in Paris, from which issued the principal ANGELO.

royalist publications of the time. He was the author Michelet, mesh'IJ', (JULES,) an eminent French his-
of a "Historical Picture of the First Wars of Napoleon torian, born in Paris in 1798. He was chosen chief of
Bonaparte," " History of Saint-Simonism," etc., and the historical department of the archives of France in
made numerous contributions to the "Biographic Uni- 1830, before which he had published several historical
verselle." Died in 1858. works for schools. About 1832 he was appointed the

Michault, me'sho', (JEAN BERNARD,) a French phi- substitute or successor of Guizot as professor of history
lologist and bibliographer, born at Dijon in 1707; died at the Sorbonne. He published in 1831 a "Roman
In 1770. History: the Republic," and in 1833 the first volume

Michaux, me'sho', (ANDRE,) a distinguished French of his "History of France." In 1838 he obtained the
botanist and traveller, born at Versailles in 1746. After chair of history and moral science in the College of
having traversed Persia and other countries, he was sent France, and was elected a member of the Academy of
by the government to North America in 1785 for the Moral and Political Sciences. He distinguished himself
purpose of collecting trees and plants. For about eleven as an adversary of the Jesuits and of Romanism. After the
years he thoroughly explored the botanical productions coup-d'ttat of December, 1851, refusing to take the oath,
of the United States, Canada, etc., with a courage and he lost his place in the archives, and his chair in the
energy which no danger or difficulty could overcome. College of France. His principal works are a " His-
In 1796 he returned to France with his collections, and tory of the French Revolution," (7 vols., 1847-53,) a
prepared his " Description of the Oaks of North Amer- "History of France," (14 vols., 1833-62,) "Love."
tea," (1801.) He a:companied Baudin's scientific ex- ("L'Amour," 1858,) and "Woman," ("La Femme,"
pedition to Australia in 1800, and, while pursuing bis 1859.) These have been translated into English and
researches in Madagascar, he died of fever in 1802, often reprinted. His histories present a profusion of
He left a "Flora of 'North America," (" Flora Boreali- ; poetical images, with a brilliant style and ingenious

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon;



MICH E LET



1719



MICON



generalizations. He also wrote " A Sketch (Prleis} of
Modern History," (1833,) " The Sea," (" La Mer," 1861.)
"The Bible of Humanity," ("La Bible de rHumaniteV'
1864,) and two posthumous works, " The Soldiers of the
Revolution," (1878,) and "The Banquet," (1879.) Died
at the lies d'Hyeres, February 10, 1874.

Michelet, mesh'eh-14', (KARL LUDWIG,) a distin-
guished German philosopher of the school of Hegei, was
born at Berlin in 1801. He was appointed in 1825 pro-
fessor of philosophy and philology in the French gym-
nasium at Berlin, and in 1829 obtained the chair of
philosophy in the university. He published " The Ethics
of Aristotle in their Relation to the System of Morality,"
(1827,) "Critical Examination of Aristotle's Metaphys-
ics," (in French, 1836,) which was crowned by the Acad-
emy of Moral Sciences of Paris, " History of the Last
Systems of Philosophy in Germany, from Kant to Hegel,"
(1837,) and other works of high repute. Died in 1893.

Micheli, me-ka'lee, (ANDREA,) an Italian painter,
called ANDREA VICENTINO, born at Vicenza in 1539. He
was a good colorist, but lacked invention. Died in 1614.

Micheli. (DoMENico,) a Venetian statesman, became
Doge of Venice in 1 1 1 7. He conducted a fleet in a cru-
sade to Palestine in 1123, and took Tyre in 1124. Died
in 1 130.

Micheli, me-ka'lee, or Mlchieli, me-ke-a'lee, [Lat.
MICHE'LIUS,] (PiERO ANTONIO,) an eminent Italian
botanist, born at Florence in 1679, was appointed by
Cosimo de' Medici superintendent of his botanical garden.
He gave particular attention to the classification of the
mosses, fungi, and lichens. His principal work, pub-
lished in 1729, is entitled " Nova Plantarum Genera," in
folio, with plates, and is praised in high terms by Haller.
Linnaeus has named the genus Michelia in honour of
this botanist. Died in 1737.

See COCCHI, "Elogio di P. A. Micheli," 1737; CUVIER, "His-
toire des Sciences naturelles ;" G. MARSILI, " Di P. A. Micheli
botanico insigne," 1845; FABRONI, "Viue Italorum," etc

Micheli, (VlTALE,) a Venetian commander, elected
Doge of Venice in 1096, sent a large fleet to co-operate
with the leaders of the first crusade. Died in 1 102.

See DARU, "Histoire de Venise."

Micheli du Crest, mesh'le' dii kRj, (JACQUES BAR-
THELEMY,) a Swiss mathematician and astronomer, born
at Geneva in 1690, published, among other works, a
" Description of a Universal Thermometer," of which
he was the inventor. Died in 1766.

Michelis, me-Ka'lis, (FRIEDRICH,) a German Old-
Catholic theologian, born at Miinster, July 27, 1815.
He became a priest, was professor of history and phi-
lology in the seminary of Paderborn from 1849 to 1854,
and later was professor of philosophy in the Lyceum at
Brunswick. He supported Dollinger and followed him
in the Old-Catholic movement. He published a " His-
tory of Philosophy," (1867,) "Nature and Revelation,"
and many other works, philosophical, theological, and
controversial. Died in 1886.

MicheliuB. See MICHELI.

Mich'ell, JOHN,) an English scientist, born about
1725. He was educated at Queen's College, Cambridge,
where he became professor of geology. He was after-
wards rector of Thornhill, Yorkshire. He is remem-
bered as the inventor of the Torsion Balance, and the
author of a "Treatise of Artificial Magnets," (1750,) and
other works of value. Died in 1793.

Michelot. mesh'lo', (PIERRE MARIE JOSEPH,) a
French actor, born in Paris in 1785 ; died in 1856.

Michelozzi, me-ki-lot'see, or Michelozzo, me-ki-
lot'so, a Florentine sculptor and architect, was a pupil


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 148 of 425)