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of Brunelleschi. He furnished the design for the Ric-
cardi palace and for the chapel of the Annunciation at
Florence. Died in 1470.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters, Architects," etc : QUATRE-
M&RE DE QUINCY, "Vies des Architectes illustres."

Michelsen, me'Kel-sen, (ANDREAS LUDWIG JAKOB,)
a German jurist and historian, born in Sleswick in 1801,
became professor of law at Jena in 1842. Died in 1881.

Michelaon, mee'Kel-son, (IVAN,) a famous Russian
general, born in Livonia in 1735 ; died in 1807.

Michiel, me-ke-fl', (GlusriNA RENIER,) a learned

Italian lady, born at Venice in 1755. She translated
"Macbeth" and "Othello" into Italian, and published
" Feste Veneziane," (5 vols., 1817-27.) Died in 1832.

Michieli. See MlCHEH.

Michiels, me'she-81', (JOSEPH ALFRED XAVIER,) a
French litterateur, born at Rome in 1813. He published
a " History of Flemish and Dutch Painting," " History
of the Franco-Prussian War," etc. Died in 1892.

Ml-^ip'sa, [Gr. Mout/<a{,] King of Numidia, was a
eon i if Masinissa, at whose death, in 148 B.C., the king-
dom was divided between Micipsa and his brothers,
Gulussa and Mastanabal. After the death of these two,
who survived their father but a short time, he was king
of all Numidia. He was an ally of the Romans. Dierl
in nSs.c.

Mickiewicz, mlts-ke-a'vitch, (ADAM,) a celebratec
Polish poet, born in Lithuania in 1798. He studied at
the University of Wilna, where he became intimate with
several distinguished patriots and joined the secret
societies opposed to the Russian government. He pub-
lished in 1822 a collection of poems, which at once es-
tablished his reputation as the greatest poet his country
had produced. He was banished in 1824 to the interior
of Russia, on a charge of conspiring against the govern-
ment, and while residing at Odessa wrote his " Crimean
Sonnets." Having been permitted to leave Russia, in
1828 he visited Germany and Rome, and in 1834 took
up his residence in Paris. He was appointed in 1840
professor of the Slavonic language and literature in
the College of France, where he lectured for a time
with great success. His subsequent connection with the
Polish fanatic Towianski, who inculcated the worship of
Napoleon Bonaparte, deprived him of his popularity
and he was ordered to quit Paris by the government.
He was sent by Louis Napoleon on a mission to
Constantinople in 1855, and died soon after his arrival.
His principal works are his " Grajina," a historic pic-
ture of Lithuania in early times, " Konrad Wallenrod,"
(1830,) the "Ancestors," ("Dziady," 1832,) in the first
part of which he gives the story of his unfortunate at-
tachment to the sister of a fellow-student, and in the
latter describes his imprisonment at Wilna, and " Pan
Tadeusz," (1833.)

See L. DE LOMBNIE, " Galerie des Contemporains ;" GEOKGE
SAND, "Essai sur le Drame (antastique :" "Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale ;" "A. Mickiewicz; eine biographische Skizze," 1857:
" Foreign Quarterly Review" for October, 1838.

Mickle or Meikle, mlk'el, (WILLIAM JULIUS,) a
Scottish poet and translator, born in Dumfriess-shire in
1734. Having visited London in 1763, he published
several poems, which obtained for him the patronage of
Lord Lyttleton, and in 1775 brought out his translation
of the " Lusiad" of Camoens. It had great popularity
in England, and procured for him the honour of ad-
mission to the Royal Academy of Lisbon. This work,
however, is far from being a faithful version of the origi-
nal ; and Hallam observes that Mickle's " infidelities lu
translation exceed all liberties ever taken in this way.'
He also published several popular ballads, one of which,
entitled " Cumnor Hall," suggested to Sir Walter Scott
his romance of 1'Kenilworth." Died in 1788.

See CARY, " Lives of English Poets from Johnson to Kirke
White :" CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scots-
men ;" "Monthly Review" for September, 1771, and April, May,
and July, 1776.

Micklucho - Maclay, mik-loo'Ko-ma-kll', (NIK-
OLAS,) a Russian traveller, born in 1846, was the son of a
nobleman. He studied at the University of Saint Peters-
burg. In 1866 he went with Haeckel to Madeira, in 1867
to the Canaries, and in 1869 to Morocco. After visiting
South America, Tahiti, and Samoa, he in 1871-72 made
the first of his celebrated journeys in Papua. He also
travelled in Indo-China and in other little-known regions,
making important geographical discoveries. Died 1888.

Mi'cou, [Gr. M/KUV,] an eminent Athenian painter
and sculptor, flourished about the middle of the fifth
century B.C. He was chosen by his countrymen to paint
the walls of the temple of Theseus at Athens. His
pictures representing the battles of the Amazons and
Centaurs were especially admired for the skill displayed
in the delineation of the horses. There were several
other Greek artists named Micon.

as k; 5 as s; g hard, g as/'; G, H, Y., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J[^ = See Explanations, p.




Micrelius or Micraelius, me-kRa'le-as, (JOHANN,
a German historical writer, bom at Coslin in 1597. He
taught philosophy at Stettin, and published, besides
other works, " Lexicon Philosophicum," (1653,) and
"Royal Political Science," ("Regia Politica Scientia."
1654.) Died in 1658.

Mi'das, [Gr.

a Phrygian king, who, according

to tradition, requested of Bacchus that all he touched
might turn to gold, and was gratified by the grant of that
wish. Being thus in danger of starvation, he could
only escape the curse he had brought upon himself by
bathing in the Pactolus, which ever after flowed with
sands of gold. It is also related of him that, having
decided in favour of Pan in his musical contest with
Apollo, Midas's ears were changed to those of an ass,
which he endeavoured to conceal. They were at length
discovered by a servant, who, unable to retain the secret,
whispered it in a pit in the ground, and the reeds which
grew around the spot revealed his disgrace, murmuring
in the winds the words, " King Midas has asses' ears."
This fable was a favourite theme with the Athenian

Middelburg, de, d?h mid'del-buRH', (PAUL,) a
Dutch mathematician and writer, born at Middelburg in
1445, became professor of mathematics at Padua. He
was made Bishop of Fossombrone in 1494. Died in

Mid'dendorf, von, (ALEXANDER THEODOR,) a
Russian explorer, born at St. Petersburg in 1815. He
was educated in Russia and Germany, became a pro-
fessor in Kiev University, and later a geographical
explorer in Siberia. He was many years in working
out the scientific results of his explorations, and pub-
lished a number of scientific works. He studied also
the agriculture of Turkestan. Died in 1894.

Middendorp, van, vin mid'den-doRp', (JAKOB,) a
Dutch historian, born in Overyssel in 1537. His his-
tories are not reliable. Died in 1611.

Mid'dl-man, (SAMUEL,) an English engraver, born

in 1746.
in 1818.

He engraved landscapes with success. Died

Mid'dle-tpn, (ARTHUR,) an American statesman,
born in South Carolina, succeeded Nicholson as governc
of that colony in 1725.

Middleton, (EDWARD,) an Englisn gentleman, born
at Twickenham, settled in South Carolina, and was the
founder of a family which produced several distinguished


Middleton, (ERASMUS,) an English writer, published
a " Dictionary of Arts and Sciences," and a collection
of lives of eminent Protestant theologians, entitled

" Biographia Evangelica."
Middleton, (HENRY,)

Died in 1805.
son of Arthur


Governor of South Carolina, was president of Congress
in 1775.

Middleton, (Sir HENRY,) an English navigator, born
about 1570, entered the service of the East India Com-
pany. In 1610 he conducted an expedition to Mocha,
Surat, and Bantam. Died in 1615.

Middleton, (HENRY,) an American statesman under
the administration of President Monroe, was elected
Governor of South Carolina, and in 1820 was minister
to Russia. Died in 1846. His son HENRY, born in Paris
in 1797, has published several political treatises.

Middleton, (Sir HUGH,) a wealthy citizen of London,
born about 1565, is chiefly known from the important
service he rendered to London by uniting two streams in
Hertfordshire and Middlesex, for supplying the city with
water. The stream formed by this junction, called the
New River, was conveyed a distance of about thirty-eight
miles. He was made a baronet in 1622. Died in 1631.

See LYSONS, " Environs of London."

Middleton, (JOHN IZARD,) son of Arthur, noticed
above, (1743-87,) was born in 1785. He wrote a work
entitled "The Cyclopean Walls." Died in 1849.

Middleton, (THOMAS,) an English dramatist, flou-
rished during the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and
Charles I. Nothing is known of his life, except that he
was chronologer to the city of London in 1620. Two
of his principal plays are entitled "A Mad World, my
Masters," and " The Roaring Girl." The latter is said
to be a true picture of London life at that time. Mid-
dleton also assisted Rowley, Fletcher, and Jonson in
the composition of several of their plays. One of his
dramas, entitled " The Witch," is supposed to have fur-
nished Shakspeare with the witch-scenes in " Macbeth."
Died about 1626.

See CAMPBELL, "Specimens of the British Poets;" BAKER,
" Biographia Dramatica. "

Middleton, (ARTHUR.) an American patriot of the 1 Middleton, (THOMAS FANSHAWE,) D.D., an English

Revolution, born in South Carolina in 1743, was one '"'- ' : ~ T ~ 1 - 1 L: - - - '- TT - ' t! '

of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He
took the degree of A.B. at Cambridge, England, anc
after his return was a delegate from his native State to
the United States Congress in 1776. He was subse-

quently re-elected in 1782. Died in 1787.

became a Fellow in 1706. He was created D.D. in 1717,
on which occasion he opposed the claims of Bentley (then
regius professor of divinity) to an exorbitant fee. A law-
euit followed, in which Bentley was defeated. Middleton
published, soon after, "A Full and Impartial Account
of the Proceedings in the University of Cambridge against
Dr. Bentley," which, though highly vindictive in its
: - esteemed a master-piece of English style. He
>ointed chief librarian of the university about

tone, is
was appo:

1720. Having visited Italy in 1724, he published, aftei
his return, his "Letter from Rome," (1729,) in which he
maintains that " the religion of the present Romans is
derived from their heathen ancestors." Having brought
upon himself the charge of infidelity by this work and
succeeding publications, he wrote a pamphlet in defence
of his orthodoxy, which, however, failed to remove the
unfavourable impression he had made. He brought
out in 1741 his " History of the Life of M. T. Cicero,"
which, though marred with some grave defects, was
received with extraordinary favour. In 1 749 he pub-
lished " A Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers
of the Christian Church," in which he insists that the
Protestant clergy should deny the authority of the
Fathers entirely, or admit the truth of the leading
Catholic doctrines. Died in 1750.

prelate, born in Derbyshire in 1769. He took his degree
in 1808, and was appointed Archdeacon of Huntingdon
in 1812. Soon after this the government having decided
to constitute a bishopric in India, Dr. Middleton was
consecrated first Bishop of Calcutta, in 1814. Having
previously been made a Fellow of the Royal Society, he
set sail for India. He laid the foundation of the Bishops'
College at Calcutta, in 1820, and established a consistory
court in that city. While zealously engaged in his duties,
he was attacked with a fever, of which he died in 1822.
His principal work is entitled "The Doctrine of the
Greek Article applied to the Criticism and Illustration
of the New Testament."

See the " Life of Thomas Fanshawe Middleton," by C. W. LE
HAS ; " Monthly Review" for May, 1810 tt scq.

Mid'gard's* Serpent, (or MiSgarSsormr, mith'-
garthz-oRtnr',) called also the World-Serpent, and
Jbrmungand, in the Norse mythology, the great serpent
which surrounds the world, the offspring of Loki and
the female Jotun Angurboda, (AngrboCa.) The gods,
having learned that the children of Loki and An
gurboda were destined at some future day to be fatal to
them, determined to get possession of those children
while they were still young. They were accordingly
brought, and Midgard's Serpent was cast into the
ocean, where it grew till it encircled the world, biting
its own tail. At the end of the world (Ragnarock) the
world-serpent will fight among the enemies of the gods
and be slain by Thor, who, however, will die in mediately
afterwards from the effect of its venom. The myth of
the world-serpent is supposed to signify the deep or main
ocean, which, excited by Loki, (subterranean fire or earth-

Midgard (" middle-ward") was originally applied to man'i
dwelling-place in the middle of the universe, and hence signifies the
' world."

a, e, f, 5, u, y, long; 4, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, fi, y, short; a, e, j, 9, ob scure ; far, fill, fat; met; not;




quake,) is thrown upon the land, thus proving scarcely
less fatal to the works of man than the direct action of
volcanic fire, represented under the form of FENRIR,
(which see.)

For further particulars, the reader may consult THORPE'S " North-
ern Mythology," vol. i. ; MALLET'S " Northern Antiquities," vol.
ii.. Fables XVI., XXV., XXVI., XXVII.: KEYSKR'S "Religion
of the Northmen ;" and PETERSEN'S " Nordisk Mythologi."

Midhat Pasha, mid'hat pa'sha, a Turkish statesman,
born in Constantinople in 1822. In 1845 he entered the
civil service as a clerk, and he was afterwards employed
in various positions of high trust. In 1857 he crushed
out brigandage in Roumelia, and soon after he became
acting governor of Bulgaria. In 1860 he was made a
pasha, and was appointed governor of Southern Albania.
In 1864 he was commissioned as governor-general of
Bulgaria. He was then successively president of the
council of state, grand vizier, governor of Bagdad, and
minister of justice. He was concerned in the deposition
of Abdool Azeez and of Moorad V., and in 1876 again
became grand vizier, but was soon banished. In 1878
he was appointed governor-general of Syria. In 1881
he was condemned to death on the charge of having mur-
dered the Sultan Abdool Azeez, but was finally banished
to Southern Arabia. Died May n, 1884.

Mieczyslaw, me-e'tch'is-lav, [Lat. MICCISLA'US or
MICISLA'US,] I., surnamed THE GLORIOUS, called also
Miesko, (me-eVko,) Duke of Poland, was born at Posen
in 931. Having become converted to Christianity, he
showed great zeal in its promulgation and the extirpa-
tion of paganism. He died in 992. A monument, by
Rauch, was erected to his memory at Posen.

See KADLUBECK, "Annales;" SEIDEL, "Vondem ersten christ-
lichen Pomischen Fiirsten Miecislas," 1752.

Mieczyslaw or Miesko H., King of Poland, born
in 990, succeeded to the throne in 1025. He was de-
ficient in talent and energy, and lost a considerable por-
tion of his territory to the Germans and Hungarians.
He died in 1034, and was succeeded by his son, Casimir I.

Miel, meel, or Meel, mal, (JAN,) or GIOVANNI DELLO
VITE, (jo-van'nee dgl'lo vee'ti,) a celebrated Flemish
painter, born near Antwerp in 1599. He was a pupil
of Andrea Sacchi, but he afterwards adopted the style
of Bamboccio. His favourite subjects were pastoral and
hunting scenes, gypsies, beggars, and carnivals, in which
he has never been surpassed. He was patronized by
Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy, who made him his
painter and presented him with a diamond cross of
great value. Many of the best works of this artist are
in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna. Died in 1664.

See DESCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands," etc. : C. BLANC,
" Histoire des Peintres ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Mielle, me'el', (JEAN FRANC.OIS,) a French litterateur,
born at Dole in 1757. Among his works is a " History
of Portugal," (10 vols., 1828,) in which he was associated
with Fortia d'Urban. Died in 1839.

Mierevelt or Miereveld, mee'reh-velf, (MiCHiEL
JANSEN,) a Dutch portrait-painter, born at Delft in 1567,
was a pupil of Blocklandt. His works are esteemed
master-pieces of the kind, and, though very numerous,
are finished with exceeding delicacy and precision. His
portraits are stated by Sandrart to have amounted to
more than ten thousand. Mierevelt belonged to the
sect of Mennonites, but, in consideration of his genius,
was allowed the free exercise of his religion. Among
his best portraits we may name those of Grotius, Gus-
tavus Adolphus, William the Silent, Prince of Orange,
Ambrose Spinola, Constantine Huyghens, the grand
pensionary Barneveldt, Admiral de Coligny, Maurice of
Nassau, the Dutch poet Jacob Cats, and the Duke of
Buckingham. Died in 1641.

See PILKINGTON, " Dictionary of Painters:" DESCAMPS, "Vies
des Peintres Hollandais ;" CHARLES BLANC, " Histoire des Peintres."

Mieris, mee'ris, (FRANS,) called THE ELDER, a cele-
brated Dutch painter, born at Leyden in 1635, was a
pupil of Gerard Douw, who called him the prince of his
disciples. His works are principally domestic scenes,
conversation-pieces, and interiors of palaces, and are
distinguished by great brilliancy of colouring and skilful
imitation of velvet, satin, and other rich materials.
Among his master-pieces we may name "The Silk-Mer-
chant," which was purchased by the archduke Leopold

William of Austria for one thousand florins, a " Young
Girl Painting," an " Assembly of Ladies," bought by the
Grand Duke of Tuscany for one thousand dollars, a
" Lady at her Toilet," " The Pearl-Stringer," "The Silk-
Store," "Lady playing with a Parrot," and "The Sick
Woman." Died in 1681.

See SMITH, " Catalogue of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish,
and French Painters:" CHARLES BLANC, "Histoire des Peintres;"
DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc. : " Nou-
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Mieris, (FRANS,) THE YOUNGER, son of Willem,
noticed below, was born at Leyden in 1689. He was a
skilful artist, but is better known as a scholar and writer.
Among his works is his " History and Ecclesiastical
Antiquities ol the Seven United Provinces," (1726.)
Died in 1763.

See CHARLES BLANC, " Histoire des Peintres."

Mieris, (JAN,) son of Frans the Elder, was born at
Leyden in 1660. He painted portraits and historical
pieces of great merit. Died in 1690.

Mieris, van, vtn mee'ris, (WiLLEM,) son of Frans
the Elder, was born at Leyden in 1662. He studied
under his father, whose style he adopted. Among his
best pictures are a "Dutch Kitchen," a "Game-Mer-
chant," and "Armida and Rinaldo." Died in 1747. His
works are far inferior to those of his father.

See DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc.

Mieroslawski, me-a-ro-sliv'skee, (Louis,) the son
of a Polish officer and a French ladv, was born in France
in 1813. He wrote, in French, a " History of the Polish
Revolution," (1837,) and a number of historical and
political works in Polish. Died November 23, 1878.

Mierre, Le. See LEMIERRE,

Mif' flin, (THOMAS,) an American patriot and officei
of the Revolution, was born at Philadelphia in 1744.
He was a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1774,
became first aide-de-camp to Washington in 1775, served
with distinction at Long Island and Trenton, and rose
to the rank of major-general in 1777. He succeeded
Franklin in 1788 as president of the supreme executive
council of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the
Convention which framed the Constitution of the United
States in 1787. He was Governor of Pennsylvania from
1790 to 1799. Died at Lancaster in 1800.

See the " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
vol. iv.

Miger, me'zha', (PIERRE AUGUSTE MARIE,) a French
litterateur, born at Lyons in 1771 ; died in 1837.

Migliara, mel-ya'ra, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian painter,
born in Piedmont in 1785. He excelled in landscapes,
perspective, and architectural views. Among his best
works are the "Cathedral of Milan," "Charles V. in a
Convent," and " Interior of the Church of Saint Am-
brose." Died in 1837.

See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiani illustri ;" "Westminstei
Review" for April, 1841.

MiglioratL See INNOCENT VII.

Mignard, men'jiR', (NICOLAS,) a French painter,
engraver, and architect, born at Troyes in 1608. He was
patronized by the Cardinal Archbishop of Lyons, brother
of Richelieu, whom he accompanied to Rome in 1644.
He painted portraits of Louis XIV. and his queen, and
adorned the Tuileries with several historical pictures ot
great merit. His engravings are also highly esteemed.
In 1663 he was appointed professor in the Academy of
Painting. He died in 1668, leaving two sons, PIERRE
and PAUL, who were artists of considerable merit

See R. DUMESNIL, " Le Peintre-Graveur Francais :" RBNOUVIBI*
" Des Types et Manieres des Maitres-Graveurs."

Mignard, (PIERRE,) surnamed THE ROMAN, one of
the most eminent painters of the French school, was
a brother of the preceding, and was born at Troyes in
1610. He studied in Paris under Simon Vouet, and in
1635 visited Rome, where he met with Poussin, Claude
Lorrain, Dufresnoy, and other celebrated artists residing
in that city. On his return to Paris, in 1658, he was pa-
tronized b'y Louis XIV., whose portrait he painted many
times. He was also employed to decorate the palaces
of Versailles and Saint-Cloud. On the death of Le Brun
he was appointed painter to the king, and director of the
Gobelin Manufactory. Mignard was ennobled by Louis

easi; casj; gAanf; g asy; G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; susz; th as in this. l l ^ = See Explanations, p. 23.)


XIV., and became successively rector, chancellor, and) a prince loves only his own state, and does not love the
director of the Academy of Painting. Died in 1695. neighbouring state. Therefore he makes war against it.

Mignault, men'yo', (CLAUDE,) better known by tht " If princes," he asked, " regarded other states as their
name of Minos,* a learned French writer, born neai own, who would begin a war ? If every one regarded
Dijon about 1536. He edited several Latin classic his neighbour's person as his own, who would be found
uthois, and published "Alciati Emblemata cum Notis to rob? If universal love prevailed, all enmities, usur-
Minois," (1574,) often reprinted. Died in 1606. pations, and miseries would disappear. Princes, loving

Migne, men, (JACQUES PAUL,) ABBE, a French priest, one another, would have no battle-fields; the chiefs
born at Saint-Flour, October 25, 1800. He was ordained of families, loving one another, would attempt no usur-
in 1824, and became an editor. He founded "L'Univers," pations; men, loving one another, would commit no
a newspaper, in 1833. He established an enormous robberies."

business as a publisher and editor of religious books, Mijatovich, (CHEDONILLE,) a Servian diploma-
employing a large staff of writers and collaborateurs. He tist, born at Belgrade in 1842. He became professor

of political economy at the College of Belgrade in
He afterwards held positions in the Servian

issued " Scripturae Sacrae Cursus Completus." (28 vols.,)
"Theologiae Cursus Completus," (28 vols.,) "Encyclo-

, ,. . P , . ... *, O \ J 1 J-O>JS. lit mict*iuo nviu ij\jjn.i.uuj t <, . ... ......

numbe?ofo t g h 1 er U w'orks 71 D^d\\ pl^'October 2^ Is^ i cabinet ' and was minister to Roumania in 1884 and

tinguished French historian, born at Aix, May 8, *796. other works - and h ' s ^ e (Eldie Lawton, an English
He was educated at the College of Avignon, and studied woman) wrote on Servian history, folk-lore, etc.
law in his native city, where M. Thiers was his fellow- Mikhailofski Danilefski or Michailowski Da-
student. Having removed to Paris in 1821, he became nilewski, me-Kl-lofskee da-ne-leT'skee, (ALEXANDER
editor of the " Courrier Francais." He brought out in IVANOVITCH,) a Russian general and historical writer,
1824 his "History of the French Revolution from 1789 born in 1790, served with distinction in the principal
to 1814," (2 vols. 8vo,) which had extraordinary success campaigns against the French from 1812 to 1815, and in
and was translated into the principal European Ian- the Turkish war of 1829. He published, among other
guages. In 1830 he was associated with Thiers and works, an "Account of the Campaign in France in 1814."
Armand Carrel as editor of the "National," and was Died in 1848.

one of the journalists who protested against the sub- Mlklosich, mik'lo-riK', (FRANZ,) a German linguist,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 149 of 425)