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After much deliberation, "long choosing and beginning
late," he preferred the subject of " Paradise Lost," which
at first he proposed to dramatize. At the restoration,
(1660,) his prosecution was ordered, and he concealed
himself in the house of a friend until the Act of Oblivion
released him from danger. He married his third wife,
Elizabeth Minshul, in 1664; and when the great plague
raged in London, (1665,) he retired to Chalfont, Bucks,
where his friend Ellwood had engaged a cottage for him.
(See ELLWOOD, THOMAS.) In the course of the same
year Milton showed to Ellwood the finished manuscript
of " Paradise Lost," which the latter took home and
perused. On returning it to the author, he remarked,
Thou hast said much here of Paradise Lost ; but what
hast thou to say of Paradise found?" Milton sold his

copy in April, 1667, to Samuel Simmons, for an imme
diate payment of five pounds and the promise of an
equal sum after the sale of thirteen hundred copies. It
was rather coldly received, only three thousand having
been sold in the first eleven years. " Its admirers," says
Johnson, "did not dare to publish their opinion."

He published in 1671 "Samson Agonistes," a tra-
gedy, and " Paradise Regained," which he is said to
have esteemed his most perfect production ; but the
public and the critics have not sanctioned this preference.
Milton died in London, by " a silent expiration," on the
8th of November, 1674.

A manuscript of Milton's "On Christian Doctrine,"
" De Doctrina Christiana,") found in the State-Paper
Office, London, in 1823, was translated and published
in 1825. The genuineness of this work, though some-
times called in question, is considered by the great
majority of critics to be established beyond reasonable

Milton was not connected with any church, but ap-
pears to have favoured the Independents, a politico-
religious party. "He grew old without any visible
worship," says Johnson ; who adds, " His studies and
meditations were an habitual prayer." His favourite
authors among the Greeks were Homer and Euripides,
and Shakspeare and Spenser among the English. His
stature was rather below the middle height. In his youth
he was so eminently and delicately beautiful as to be
called "the Lady" of his college, though his habits were
far from effeminate. He had a fair complexion and
auburn hair. Portraits of him were taken at the ages
of ten, twenty-one, and about sixty.

" Considered with respect to design," says Johnson,
" ' Paradise Lost' may claim the first place, and, with
respect to performance, the second, among the produc-
tions of the human mind. . . . His [Milton's] great works
were performed under discountenance and in blindness ;
but difficulties vanished at his touch : he was bom for
whatever is arduous ; and his work is not the greatest
of heroic poems, only because it is not the first." " Was
there ever anything so delightful," says Cowper, "as
the music of 'Paradise Lost'? It is like that of a fine
organ, has the fullest and the deepest tones of majesty,
with all the softness and elegance of the Dorian flute ;
variety without end, and never equalled, unless, perhaps,
by Virgil." Of Milton's prose writings, Macaulay ob-
serves, " They are a perfect field of cloth of gold. The
style is stiff with gorgeous embroidery."

" It is certain," says Hume, " that this author, when
in a happy mood and employed on a noble subject, is
the most wonderfully sublime of any poet in any lan-
guage, Homer and Lucretius and Tasso not excepted.
More concise than Homer, more simple than Tasso,
more nervous than Lucretius, had he lived in a later
age and learned to polish some rudeness in his verses,
had he enjoyed better fortune and possessed leisure to
watch the returns of genius in himself, he had attained
the pinnacle of perfection and borne away the palm of
epic poetry."

"It may be doubted," says Walter S. Landoi,
"whether the Creator ever created one altogether so
great as Milton, taking into one view at once his manly
virtues, his superhuman genius, his zeal for truth, for
true piety, true freedom, his eloquence in displaying it,
his contempt of personal power, his glory and exultation
in his country's."

" Milton," says Macaulay, " did not strictly belong
to any of the classes which we have described. He
was not a Puritan. He was not a Freethinker. Ht
was not a Cavalier. In his character the noblest quali-
ties of every party were combined in harmonious union.
. . . We are not much in the habit of idolizing either
the living or the dead. But there are a few characters
which have stood the closest scrutiny and the severest
tests, which have been tried in the furnace and have
proved pure, which have been declared sterling by the
general consent of mankind, and which are visibly
stamped with the image and superscription of the Most
High. These great men we trust we know how to prize ;
and of these was Milton. . . . His thoughts are power-
ful not only to delight, but to elevate and purify. Nor

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, till, fat; mit; not; good; moon.-




do we envy the man who can study either the life or the
writings of the great poet and patriot without aspiring to
emulate, not indeed the sublime works with which his
genius has enriched our literature, but the zeal with
which he laboured for the public good, the fortitude with
which he endured every private calamity, the lofty dis-
dain with which he looked down on temptation and dan-
gers, the deadly hatred which he bore to bigots and
tyrants, and the faith which he so sternly kept with his
country and with his fame." ("Essay on Milton.")

Those who desire to know how this great poet is
regarded by a nation whose taste and habits of thought
differ most widely from those of the English, may con-
sult the article "Milton" in the "Biographic Univer-
elle," from the pen of the justly-celebrated French
critic Villemain. He admits that Milton's picture of
our first parents in Eden surpasses, in graceful and
touching simplicity, anything to be found in the creations
of any other poet, ancient or modern, and that the
human imagination has produced nothing more grand
or more sublime than some portions of " Paradise Lost."

See the article "Milton," in JOHNSON'S "Lives of the Poets;"
TODD, " Life of Milton," 1801 ; KEIGHTLEY, " Life, Opinions, and
Wriiings of John Milton," 1855 ; MASSON, " Life and Times of
Milton," vol. i., 1859; TOLAND, " Life of Milton," 1608; SYMMONS,
" Life of Milton;" HAYLBY, " Life of Milton," 1794; DR. CHANNING,
"Remarks on the Character and Writings of Milton," 1828; MAC-
AULAY, "Essays;" HUME, "History of England," chap. ikii. ; J.
MOSNBRON, "Vie de Milton," 1804; EDWIN P. HOOD, "J. Milton,
Jie Patriot and Poet," 1851 ; JOSEPH IVIMEY, " J. Milton, his Life
and Times," 1832; C. R. EDMONDS, "J. Milton: a Biography,"
1851; EDWARD PHILIPS, "Life of J. Milton," 1694; notice in the
" North American Review" for July, 1838, by R, W. EMERSON ; and
the excellent article in ALLIBONE'S "Dictionary of Authors."

Mil'tpn, (JOHN,) an English musician and composer,
the father of the poet. He was of an ancient Catholic
family, and was disinherited for embracing Protestantism.
Some of his tunes are contained in Ravenscroft's " Whole
Book of Psalms," " The Triumphs of Oriana," and other
contemporary publications. Died at an advanced age
in March, 1647.


MilutinoviCB or Milutinowitsch, pronounced
alike me-loo-tee'no-vitch, (SlMON,) a Servian poet, born
in 1791. He was the author of "Popular Songs of the
Montenegrins," etc., "History of Servia from 1813 to
1815, ' and other works. Died at Belgrade, Jan. 11,1848.

Mi'mas, [Gr. Mi/wic,] a giant said to have been de-
stroyed by Jupiter. The island of Prochyte, near Sicily,
was believed to rest upon his body.

Mim-ner'mus, [Gr. Mi'^vcp/iof , Fr. MIMNERME, mem'-
niRm',] a Greek elegiac and lyric poet, born at Colo-
phon about 630 B.C., was contemporary with Solon.
The fragments of his poems have been published in the
collections of Estienne, Brunck, and Boissonade ; and, in
a separate edition by Bach, Mimnermus is said to have
invented the pentameter verse.

See K. O. MOLLHR, " Geschichle der Griechen Literatur," etc.;
CHRISTIAN MARX. " Disserutio de Mimnermo," 1831.

Mina,mee'nl, (Don FRANCISCO Espozy es-p6th'e,)
a celebrated Spanish general, sometimes called EL REY
DE NAVARRA, ("the King of Navarre,") born near Pam-
peluna in 1782. As a guerilla chieftain, he successfully
defended Navarre against the French in 1808 and the
succeeding campaigns. Having been created martchal
del campo in 1813, he endeavoured to excite an insur
rection against the government of Ferdinand VII., but,
failing in the attempt, took refuge in France. After his
return to Spain, in 1820, he became captain-general of
the armies of Navarre, Galicia, and Catalonia. He held
several high offices under Queen Christina, for whom
he fought against Don Carlos. Died in 1836.

See MINANO, " Examen crilico de las Revoluciones de Eepafa,"
1837; MOLJNE DE SAINT-YON, "Les deux Mina: Chronique Es-
papiole du XIXe Siede," 3 vols., 1840; BURCKHARDT. "Riego nnd
Mina," etc., 1835.

Mina, (XAVIER,) a Spanish officer, born in Navarre
in 1789, was a nephew of the preceding. He undertook
to liberate Mexico, which he entered in April, 1817, with
a few hundred men. He gained several victories, but
was captured and shot at Mexico in November, 1817.

Minano y Bedoya, de, da men-ya'no e ba-Do'e-1,
(SEBASTIAN,) a Spanish writer, born in the province of
Valencia in 1779. He wrote " Letters from a Resident

of Madrid," and a " History of the Spanish Revolution
from 1820 to 1823," (in French.)

Mind, mfnt, (GOTTFRIED,) a celebrated Swiss painter,
born at Berne in 1768, was surnamed THE RAPHAEL
OF CATS. He was the child of indigent parents, and
a cretin, and was educated at Pestalozzi's institution for
Door boys. His favourite subjects were cats and bean
which he delineated with unequalled skill and fidelity.
He died in 1814, leaving numerous designs, which were
sold at a high price.

Minderer, min'deh-rer, (RAIMOND,) a German phy-
sician, born at Augsburg about 1570, was the discoverer
of a new chemical compound, (acetate of ammonia,)
since called Spiritus Mindereri. He published several
medical works in Latin, and became physician to the
emperor Matthias. Died in 1621.

Miuderhout, min'der-howt', a Flemish painter, born
at Antwerp in 1577, excelled in marine views, seaports,
etc. Died in 1663.

Minelli, me-ne-1'lee, [Lat. MINEL'LIUS,] (jAN.)aDutch
scholar, born at Rotterdam about 1625. He translated
Terence into Dutch, and published numerous editions
of the Latin classics, with notes, which had a high repu-
tation at the time. Died in 1683.

Miiiellius. See MINELLI.

Mi'ner, (ALONZO AMES,) D.D., LL.D., an American
clergyman, born at Lempster, New Hampshire, August
17, 1814, became pastor of a Universalist church in
Massachusetts in 1839, and in 1842 accepted a pastorate
in Boston. He was president of Tufts College, 1862-75,
and was conspicuous in educational, temperance, and
other reforms. Among his works are " Bible Exercises"
and "Old Forts Taken," (1878.) Died June 14, 1895.

MTner, (THOMAS,) an American physician, born at
Middletown, Connecticut, in 1777. He wrote, conjointly
with Dr. Tully, " Essays on Fevers and other Subjects,"
(1823.) Died in 1841.

Ml-ner'va or A-the'na, [ Fr. MINERVE, me'njRv',1
one of the greater divinities of the Roman mythology,
corresponding nearly to the Greek Athena or Athene,
[Gr. 'A0^v)7 or 'AfrTvd.] She was regarded as the goddess
of wisdom, arts, and sciences, or a personification of the
tanking, inventive faculty. According to a popular tra-
diti jn, she was the offspring of the brain of Jupiter, from
which she issued in full armour. She was always repre-
sented as a virgin. In war she was contradistinguished
from Mars (the god of brute force) as the patroness of
scientific warfare, and hence, according to the ancient
poets, was always superior to him. The favourite plant
of Minerva was the olive, and the animals consecrated
to her were the owl and the serpent. Athena was the
grp't national divinity of Attica and Athens, to which
she is said to have given her name. Pope, in his
"Temple of Fame," alludes to her twofold character as
the patroness of arts and arms, where he says,

"There Casar, graced with both Minervas, shone."
In the Trojan war she fought for the Greeks. She
was sometimes called Pallas, Parthenos, (i.e. "virgin,")
Tritonia or Tritogeneia, and other names. The poets
feigned that Neptune and Minerva disputed for the pos-
session of Attica, which the gods promised to him or
her who should produce the most useful gift to mankind.
Neptune, striking the earth with his trident, produced a
war-horse, and Minerva produced the olive, (the symbol
of peace,) by which she gained the victory. She was
usually represented with a helmet on her head, holding
in one hand a spear and in the other an aegis, or shield,
in the centre of which was the head of Medusa. There
was a celebrated statue of Minerva, called Palladium,
hich was said to have fallen from the sky, and on
which the safety of Troy depended.

See G. HERMANN, " Dissertatio de Gneca Minerva," 1837;
GUIGIIIAUT, "Religions de I'Antiquiti* ;" SMITH, "Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology :" " Biographic Uni-
verselle," (Partie mythologique.)

Minga, del, del men'ga, (ANDREA,) an Italian painter,
of the Florentine school, lived about 1550-70.

Mingarelli, men-ga-rel'lee, ( GIOVANNI LUIGI,) an
Italian ecclesiastic and writer, born near Bologna in
1723, was a friend of Tiraboschi. Died in -793.

See CAVALIBRI, "Vita di Mingarelli," 1817.

e as k; 9 as j: g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.


Explanations, p. 23.)



Minghetti, men-get'tee, (MARCO,) an Italian states
man, born at Bologna, September 8, 1818. He had
already obtained famt as a journalist and political econo-
mist, when in 1848 he was called to Rome, and became
for a time minister of public instruction, but soon went
north and joined the Sardinian army. He held various
cabinet positions in the new kingdom of Italy, acting
for several terms as prime minister, and wielding a great
influence as an orator and writer. His principal work is
" Delia Economia pubblica," (1859.) Other works of his
are " Opusculi letterari ed economic!, " (1872,) " Le Donne
italiane nelle belle Arti," (1877,) and " La Chiesa e lo
Stato," (1878.) Died December 10, 1886.

Mingotti, men-got'tee, (REGINA,) an Italian singer,
born at Naples, of German parents, in 1728. Her family
name was VALENTINI. When a mere child she married
an impresario named Mingotti, who recognized her vocal
abilities and had her educated for the operatic stage.
She made her first appearance in Dresden, and soon won
a great reputation, which was extended by her tours in
Spain, Italy, and England. Died in 1807.

Miniana, me-ne-3'ni, (Jos* MANUEL,) a Spanish
historian, born at Valencia in 1671. He wrote a continua-
tion of Mariana's " History of Spain," (1733.) Died in

Minii, me'ne-i', (CLAUDE ETIENNE,) a French of-
ficer, born in Pans in 1810, was the inventor of the rifle
called by his name. He was appointed by Napoleon
III. superintendent of the school of ordnance at Vin-
cennes, and received from him the sum of 20,000 francs.
The Minie^ rifle was an immense improvement on any-
thing of the kind that had previously been invented, both
as regards precision and the extent of its range. Died
December 14, 1879.

Minion and Minjon. See MIGNON.

Mino da Fiesole, mee'no da fe-es'o-li, an eminent
Italian sculptor, born at Fiesole about 1430. Among his
works is a tomb of Paul II. at Rome. Died in 1486.

See VASARI, "Lives of the Pointers and Sculptors."

Miiioochihr, Minoutchihr, or Muitichihr, min-
oo'chlh'r, written also Manucheher, an ancient Persian
king, the grandson (or, according to some authorities,
the great-grandson) of Fereedoon, (Feridun,) is said to
have been the first of his nation who fortified cities with
ramparts and ditches. With Minoochihr ended the glory
and power of the Peshdadian dynasty.

Mi'nos. [Gr. Mivuc,] a celebrated king and lawgiver
of Crete, whose history is much obscured or embellished
with fable. According to Homer, he was a son of Jupiter
and Europa, a brother of Rhadamanthus, and the father
of Ariadne and Deucalion. He was renowned for his
justice and moderation, and it was fabled that after his
death he became a judge of the souls which entered the
infernal regions. He has by some writers been identified
with Manu, (or Menu,) the great Hindoo lawgiver.

Minos, a king and lawgiver of Crete, supposed to
have been a grandson of the preceding, with whom, how-
ever, he has been confounded by some writers. He was
the husband of Pasiphae', and had many children. He
is said to have been the first Greek prince that had an
important naval power. The Cretans ascribed to Minos
their laws and political institutions, which served as a
model for the legislation of Lycurgus. According to one
tradition, he was cruel and tyrannical, and compelled the
Athenians, whom he vanquished, to pay him an annual
tribute in the form of boys and virgins, who were devoured
by the Minotaur.

Mi'not, (CHARLES SEDGWICK,) an American bi-
ologist, was born at Boston in 1852. He became
assistant in histology and embryology at Harvard in
1887, and professor of these branches in 1892. He
published " Human Embryology," (1892,) and many
biological papers.

Mi'not (GEORGE RICHARDS,) an American jurist and
historian, born at Boston in 1758. His principal works
are a "Eulogy on Washington," "History of Shays's
Rebellion," and " History of Massachusetts Bay." Died
in Boston, January 2, 1802.

Min'pt,? (LAURENCE,) an English poet, whose works

were discovered by Tyrwhitt while he was preparing an
edition of Chaucer. He lived about 1300-1352.

Min'o-taur, [Gr. tinuravpof; Lat. MINOTAU'RUS ;
Fr. MINOTAURE, me'no'toR',] a monster of classic my-
thology, represented as half man and half bull. Accord-
ing to the legend, he was the offspring of Pasiphae and a
bull which was sent to Minos by Neptune ; he was kept
in the great labyrinth of Crete, was fed with youths and
maidens whom the Athenians sent to Minos as tribute,
and was finally killed by Theseus.

Min'tha or Men'tha, [Gr. MivDii,\ a nymph, fabled
to have been beloved by Pluto and changed by Cere*
into the plant known as mint.

Minto, LORD. See ELLIOT.

Min'to, (WALTER,) a Scottish mathematician, born
in Edinburgh, emigrated to America in 1786. He was
the author of several scientific works, and became pro-
fessor of mathematics at Princeton College, New Jersey.
Died in 1796.

Mintrop, mJn'trop, (THEODOR,) a distinguished
German painter and designer, born at Heithausen, in
Bavaria, in 1814. He produced designs in crayon, and
several oil-paintings of religious subjects. Among his
works are " The Riches of the Year," and " The Apo-
theosis of Bacchus." Died July 4, 1870.

Minturni, men-tooR'nee, (ANTONIO SEBASTIANO,) an
Italian poet and canonist, born in Terra di Lavoro, was
noted for his learning. Died in 1574.

Minut, de, deh me'nu', (GABRIEL,) a French littl-
ratfur, born at Toulouse about 1520. He was patronized
by Catherine de Medicis, and was a friend of J. C.
Scaliger. He published treatises on medicine, theology,
and other subjects. Died in 1587.

Minutianus, me-nu-she-a'nus, [It. MINUZIANO, me
noot-se-1'no,} (ALESSANDRO.) a learned Italian printer,
born at San Severe about 1450. He published the first
complete edition of Cicero, and issued from his press
numerous classics of great beauty and accuracy. Died
about 1525.

Minuttus or Minuclus (ml-nu'she-u,s) Fella; an
early Christian writer, supposed to have been a native
of Africa, lived in the third century. He was the author
of a work entitled "Octavius," written in defence of
Christianity. A good edition of it was published by
Gronovius in 1707.

See BOUCHAUD, " Disserutio de Minutio Felice," 168;, : HEIK-
RICH MBIKR, " Commentatio de Minucio Felice," 1825.

Minutoli, me-noo' to-lee, (HEINRICH MENU,) BARON,
a distinguished writer, of Italian extraction, born at
Geneva in 1772. He served in the Prussian army, and
attained the rank of lieutenant-general. In 1820 he
accompanied the scientific expedition sent by the Prus-
sian government to Egypt, and published, (in German,)
after his return, a "Journey to the Temple of Jupiter
Ammon and Upper Egypt," (2 vols., 1824.) Among his
other works is " Recollections of a Soldier." He was
a member of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin, and
was appointed by the king, Frederick William, tutor to
Prince Charles. Died in 1846.

Minutoli, (JULIUS,) a lawyer, son of the preceding,
was born at Berlin in 1805. He was appointed in 1851
consul-general for Spain and Portugal. He published
a work entitled " Spain and its Progressive Develop-
ment." Died November 5, 1860.

in'y-as, [Gr. Mivioc,] a fabulous personage, said
to be a son of Neptune, a king of Boeotia, and the an-
cestor of the MiNYjB, (MivOoi,) a race of heroes cele-
brated in the most ancient epic poetry of Greece. The
Argonauts were mostly descendants of Minyas, and were
called Minyae.

Minzocchi, men-zok'kee, or Menzocchi, m?n-zok'-
kee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian painter, born at Forll about
1500, was a pupil of Genga. Among his master-pieces
we may name "The Sacrifice of Melchisedec," "The
Fall of Manna," and a " Holy Family." Died in 1574.

Minzoni, men-zo'nee, (ONOFRio,) an Italian poet and
Jesuit, born at Ferrara in 1734, became professor of phi-
losophy at Venice. He was the author of a collection
of sonnets of great beauty. Died in 1817.

See TIPALDO, " Riografia degli Italian! illustri."

Miolan-Carvalho. me'o'l&N' kaVvt'lo', (CAROLINE

f. i, o. u, y. long: 4, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, ?, short: a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, lit; met; not; good; moon;



FiLix,) a French vocalist, born at Chateau-Roux in 1829.
She performed with success in Paris and London as an
operatic singer. Died July 10, 1895.

Miollis, me'o'less', (SEXTIUS ALEXANDRE FRAN-
COIS,) COUNT, a French general, born at Aix in 1759. He
was wounded at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781. He became
a general of division in 1799, and obtained command of
all the French forces in Northern Italy in 1805. In 1809
he entered Rome, where, having expelled the pope, he
remained, with the title of governor, until 1814. Died
in 1828.

Mlonnet me'o'nj', (THEODORE EDME,) a French
tntiquary, born in Paris in 1770. He wrote a "Descrip-
tive Catalogue of Greek and Roman Medals," (7 vols.,
1806-35,) a standard work, which still ranks among
the best of its kind, a treatise "On the Rarity and
Value of Roman Medals," etc., (2 vols., 1847,) and other
similar works. Died in 1842.

Miot me'o', (ANDRft FRANC.OIS,) Comte de Melito, a
French statesman, born at Versailles in 1762. He was
minister of the interior at Naples under Joseph Bona-
parte. He died in 1841, leaving "Memoirs of the Con-
sulate, the Empire, and King Joseph," (3 vols., 1858.)

Mirabaud, me'rt'bo', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French
littfratfur, born in Paris in 1675. He made a transla-
tion of Tasso's " Jerusalem Delivered," which had great
popularity at the time. He also translated the "Orlando
Furioso," and published several treatises on various
subjects. The atheistical work entitled "Systeme de
la Nature" was for a time attributed to Mirabaud, but is
now known to have been written by Baron d'Holbach.
Mirabaud was elected to the French Academy in 1726.
Died in 1760.

See D'ALEMBERT, " Histoire des Membres de 1'Acade'mie Fran-

Mirabeau, de, deh me'rl^bo', (BONIFACE RIQUETTI,)
VICOMTE, a brother of Gabriel, noticed below, was born
at Bignon in 1754. He served in the army of the United
States about 1780. In 1789 he became a royalist mem-
ber of the States-General, and was opposed to his brother
in politics. He was so bloated by drinking that he was
nicknamed "Barrel Mirabeau," ("Mirabeau Tonneau.")
He was noted for his sarcastic wit. "In any other
family," said he, " I should pass for a reprobate (mauvais
fujet) and wit ; but in mine I am regarded as a fool,
but a sedate man." When his famous brother reproved
him for his intemperance, he wittily replied, "Of all
the vices of our family, that is the only one which you
have left for me." He emigrated in 1790, and joined the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 152 of 425)