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royalist army on the Rhine. Died in 1792.

Mirabeau, de, deh me'rfbo' or m5r'a-bo', ( HONORS
GABRIEL de Riquetti, (deh re'ka'te',) originally Arri-
ghetti,) COMTE, a famous French orator and states-
man, was born at Bignon, near Nemours, March 9, 1749.
His family was of Italian extraction. He was the oldest
surviving son of the Marquis de Mirabeau and Marie
Genevieve de Vassan. The last representative of that
stormy and highly-gifted race, he inherited a passionate
nature, a frank and open temper, and a mind of great
amplitude of grasp and prodigious activity. The edu-
cation which he received under the strict discipline of
his father was far from judicious. In his fifteenth year
he was sent to a boarding-school in Paris, where he
made rapid progress in ancient and modern languages
and mathematics, also in music and the fine arts. In
compliance with his father's will, he entered the army
in 1767. The next year, by an amorous intrigue, he pro-
voked the ire of the marquis, who caused him to be
imprisoned in the Isle of Rh& In 1769 he obtained
liberty to serve in Corsica against Paoli, where he won
golden opinions, and returned in 1770 with the brevet
of captain. It puzzled his father to find a proper sphere
for one whom he called a windmill, a whirlwind, one
who " had swallowed all formulas." On one occasion
he writes, " I pass my life in cramming him with prin-
ciples. "

In 1772 young Mirabeau married Marie Emilie de
Covet, a daughter of the Marquis de Marignan, and
became a resident of Aix. For running into debt, he was
banished to Manosque, near the Alps, where he wrote
in "Essay on Despotism." Having again displeased

:d by a
ro Beau-

the grim marquis by some venial error, he was confined,
by a Icttre de cachet, in the castle of If, in 1774, and was
finally separated from his wife, who was not inconsolable
on that account He was removed in 1775 to the castle
of Joux ; and, having liberty to walk out on parole, he
formed an ardent attachment for Sophie Monnier, un-
happily married to a man four times older than herself.
With her he eloped in 1776, and went to Amsterdam,
where he earned fair wages by translating Watson's
"Philip II." and doing other literary jobs. The parlia-
ment of Besan9on indicted him for abduction, and sen-
tenced him to death. In May, 1777, the police-officers
arrested him in Holland and consigned him to the prison
of Vincennes, where he was kept forty-two months, ap-
parently ruined, but still indomitable in spirit Presenting
himself before the court which had condemned him as
contumacious, he pleaded his cause with such power
that the sentence was annulled. He again met his father
on amicable terms ; for it is recorded among his few
conventional virtues that he loved his father to the end.
The marquis, however, left him to his own resources
for a supply of money.

From about 1783 to 1788 he led a wandering life
in England, France, and Germany, supporting himself
by his wits, teeming with grand projects, and often en-
gaging in questionable intrigues. Under the auspices
of Franklin, he published an eloquent essav^On the
Order of Cincinnatus," (1784,) which was fqf
tract " On the Opening of the Scheldt."
tract on the water-company of Paris, in re
marchais, produced a prodigious effect InJ
(partly from a desire to remove him out oWhe way) sent
him on a secret mission to Berlin, where he met the
Great Frederick, and collected materials for an important
work, " The Prussian Monarchy," which appeared in
1788. The States-General, which were convoked for
May, 1789, offered to him a congenial arena for the
exertion of his gigantic energies against the system of
organized injustice and oppression which for ages had
afflicted France. After he had been rejected with con-
tempt by the noblesse of Provence, he was chosen tri
umphantly by the Tiers-tat of Aix and Marseilles. He
preferred to represent Aix. Aiming at reform by mod-
erate means, he made overtures for co-operation with the
ministry, but was coldly received by Necker, and went
away in ill humour. On the 23d of June, 1789, he gave
a decisive direction to the Revolution by his famous
speech in reply to the king's usher, De Br^ze, who re-
minded the Assembly that the king had ordered them
to disperse : " The Commons of France have resolved
to deliberate. We have heard what the king has been
advised to say ; and you, who cannot act as his organ in
the States-General, -you, who have here neither seat
nor vote nor right of speech, you are not the person
to remind us of it. Go and tell your master that we
are here by the will of the nation, and that nothing but
the power of bayonets can drive us hence !" The usher
quickly vanished, and Mirabeau became the master-spirit
of the National Assembly. " Mirabeau's spiritual gift,"
says Carlyle, " will be found to be verily an honest and
great one ; far the strongest, best practical intellect of
that time." His brief and pithy sentences became the
watchwords of the Revolution ; " his gestures were com-
mands, his motions were coups fe'tat." Exchanging the
role of tribune for that of a statesman, he soared above
the intrigues of party and the ideal abstractions that
were in vogue. " Where others grope darkly," says
Lamartine, " he aims surely, he advances directly. . . .
The philosophy of the eighteenth century, modified by
prudence and policy, flows out all formulized from his
lips. His eloquence, imperative as law, is only the gift
of impassioned reasoning."

He advocated the abolition of the double aristocracy
of lords and bishops, the spoliation of the Church, and
the formation of the national guard, but he demanded for
the king an absolute veto and the initiative in making
war and peace. One of his greatest triumphs as an orator
was won over Barnave, on the latter question, in 1790.
Loud explosions of popular fury greeted him when it
was known that he favoured the royal veto. As he en-
tered the Assembly to speak on the question, he said to

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/.- r,, H. K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as c; th as in this. (

nations, p. 23.)




a friend, " I will either leave the House in triumph, or
be torn to fragments." He gained his point, and re-
stored his popularity. In the last part of his career he
became more conservative, and formed a secret alliance
with the court, from which he received large sums of
money. He doubtless cherished an ambition to be prime
minister of France.

In January, 1791, he was chosen president of the Na-
tional Assembly. " Never had this office been so well
filled," says Dumont. On parting with Dumont, who
left Paris at the date just named, Mirabeau said, " I shall
die at the stake, and we shall never, perhaps, meet again.
That base faction whom I now overawe [the Jacobins]
will again be let loose upon the country. I have none
but direful anticipations." He died April 2, 1791.
Among his last words were, " Envelop me with perfumes
and crown me with flowers, that I may pass away into
everlasting sleep." His strong constitution had been
ruined by inordinate passions and immoral pleasures
carried to the greatest excess, but veiled under a decorous
exterior after he had attained eminence as a legislator.
He had the art of enlisting men of talents in his service
and appropriating their productions, on which he im-
pressed the seal of his originality. Dumont, Claviere,
and Duroverai were, perhaps, the chief persons who thus
assisted him. Mirabeau had given development and
outward form to the French Revolution ; but to control
it was beyond his power. His indomitable will might
for a time direct or overawe the fury of the populace ;
but he possessed no virtues which could inspire the
better portion of the people with that trust and confi-
dence without which there can be no stability for any

Alluding to the resemblance between Mirabeau and
Chatham, Macaulay observes, "Sudden bursts which
seemed to be the effect of inspiration, short sentences
which came like lightning, dazzling, burning, striking
down everything before them, ... in these chiefly lay
the oratorical power both of Chatham and Mirabeau. . . .
In true dignity of character, in private and public virtue,
it may seem absurd to institute any comparison between
them ; but they had the same haughtiness and vehemence
of temper. In their language and manner there was a
disdainful self-confidence, an imperiousness before which
all common minds quailed. . . . There have been far
greater speakers and far greater statesmen than either
of them ; but we doubt whether any men have, in modern
times, exercised such vast personal influence over stormy
and divided assemblies." (Article on " Dumont's Recol-
lections of Mirabeau," in Macaulay's " Essays.")

See MIRARBAU, "A Lite-History," London, 2 vols., 1848 ; LAMAR-
TINB, " History of the Girondists," book i. ; CARLYLB, "Essays,"
ToL i. ; BROUGHAM, "Statesmen of the Time of George III.," ad
aeries; CHAUSSARD, "Esprit de Mirabeau," 2 vols., 1707: VICTOR
HUGO, "Etude sur Mirabeau," 1834: F. LEWITZ, "Mirabeau, Bild

" Memoires biographiques, litteraires et politiques de Mirabeau," 8
vols., 1833-41 ; DUMONT, "Souvenirs sur Mirabeau," 1832; PITHOU,
" Abrese dela Viede Mirabeau," 1791 ; "Memoires sur Mirabeau et
ton E"poque," (anonymous.) Paris, 4 vols., 1824; SCHNBIDHWIND,
" Mirabeau und seine Zeit," 1831.

QUIS, surnamed SlLVERSTOCK, a brave French officer,
born in Provence in 1666, was the grandfather of the
great orator Mirabeau. His ancestors, the Arrighettis,
were exiled from Florence in 1267. He was called " Ven-
dfime's right arm." At the battle of Cassano, in 1706,
where he commanded a regiment, he received twenty-
seven wounds, one of which was in the neck. In conse-
quence of this, he wore a silver stock to support his head.
He married, and lived many years after that action.

See " Memoires de Mirabeau ;" CARLYLB, " Essays," vol. i.

Mirabeau, de, (VICTOR RIQUETTI,) MARQUIS, the
self-styled " Friend of Men," born at Perthuis in 1715,
was the son of the preceding, and father of the great
orator. A proud, eccentric person, of violent passions
and powerful intellect, he was regarded as the reverse of
a " friend" by most men who had intercourse with him.
His hobby was Political Economy, in which he was a
disciple of Du Quesnay. He published on that science
able and voluminous works, some of which were re-

ceived with favour. His " Friend of Men," (" Ami des
Hommes,") which appeared about 1755, made a great
sensation, though its style was extremely rugged, quaint,
and tortuous. He lived mostly in Paris, and was am-
bitious to direct affairs of state. It is reported that he
obtained from the ministry no less than fifty-four lettres
dt caekit, arbitrary warrants to imprison his children and
others. Died in 1789. "Out of all which circumstances,"
says Carlyle, " there has come forth this Marquis de
Mirabeau, shaped into one of the most singular, sublime
pedants that ever stepped the soil of France. There
never entered the brain of Hogarth or of rare old Ben
such a piece of humour as in this brave old Riqtietti
nature has presented us ready-made. For withal there
is such genius in him, rich depth of character, inde-
structible cheerfulness and health breaking out in spite
of these divorce-papers, like strong sunlight in thundery

Mirabella, me-ri-bel'li, (ViNCENZO,) an Italian anti-
quary, born at Syracuse in 1570. He wrote a " History
of Syracuse," and other works. Died in 1624.


Miraflorea, de, da me-ri-flo'R?s, (MANUEL de
Faudo,) MARQUIS, a Spanish historian, born at Madrid,
December 24, 1792. He was several times sent on im-
portant embassies, and was in later life prominent as one
of the principal ministers of the government. His chief
works relate to the history and politics of his own times.
Died in Madrid, March 17, 1872.

Miramon, me-ri-mon', (MIGUEL,) a Mexican general,
born about 1832. He became the leader of the clerical
party which began to wage war against Juarez in 1858.
He was defeated in a decisive battle in December, 1860,
and went into exile. He afterwards returned, and
fought for Maximilian, and was executed with him in
June, 1867.

Miranda, me-rln'di, (FRANCISCO,) a South American
patriot, born at Caraccas about 1750. Having entered
the French army, he served in the American campaigns
of 1779 and 1781, and in 1792 became general of division
under Dumouriez. In the campaign of 1793 he was
defeated by the allies at Neerwinden, and was brought to
trial for mismanagement on this occasion, but he was
acquitted. Being condemned by the Directory in 1707,
he took refuge in England, and on his return to Paris,
in 1803, was a second time banished. He sailed in 1806
to Venezuela, where he made an unsuccessful attempt
to found a republic. He was arrested in 1812 by the
Spanish government, and imprisoned at Cadiz, where
he died in 1816.

See J. BIGGS, " History of Miranda's Attempt to effect a Revo
lution in South America ;" DUMOURIEZ, " Memoires."

Miranda, de, da me-rin'di, (Don JUAN GARCIA,) a
Spanish artist, born at Madrid in 1677, became painter
to the king, Philip V. Died in 1749. There were
several other painters of the same family.

See CEAN-BBRMUDEZ, " Diccionario Historico," etc.

Miranda, de, da me-ran'di, (SA,) one of the earliest
Portuguese poets, born at Coimbra about 1495. He was
one of the founders of Portuguese literature, and is said
to have been the first to employ the metres of Dante and
Petrarch. He was the author of sonnets and dramas,
but his reputation rests chiefly on his poetical epistles
and eclogues. Died in 1558.

See BARBOSA MACHADO, " Bibliotheca Lusitana:" BOUTERWEK,

Histoire litte'raire;" A. DB VARNHAGEN, "O Panorama."

Mirandola. See Pico DELLA MIRANDOLA.

MirbeL, de, deh meR'b?!', (CHARLES FRANCOIS BRIS-
SEAU,) an eminent French botanist, born in Paris in
1776. He was appointed by the empress Josephine
superintendent of the gardens of Malmaison in 1803, and
in 1808 became a member of the Academy of Sciences,
and adjunct professor of botany and vegetable physiology
to the Faculty of Sciences. He afterwards held several
public offices, and in 1828 was appointed professor of
culture in the Jardin des Plantes. Among his principal
works are "Elements of Botany and Vegetable Physi-
ology," (3 vols., 1815,) and "Natural History of Vege-
tables," etc., (15 vols., 1826,) written in conjunction with
Lamarck, also " Researches on the Marchantia Poly-
morpha," and other treatises of great value, contributed

a, e, i

o, u, y. long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fitjmJt; not; good; moon;




to the "Journal de Physique" and various other scien-
tific periodicals. He likewise assisted Sonnini in his
"Natural History of Plants." Mirbel gave great atten-
tion to structural botany, in which branch of the science
he was really eminent, although his views have been to
a great extent superseded. Died in 1854.

See PA YEN, "Eloee historique de M. de Mirbel," 1858; " Nou-
relle Biographic Ge'nerale."

Mirbel, de, (LIZINSKA AIMEE ZOE RUE,) the wife of
the preceding, was born at Cherbourg in 1796. She ac-
quired a high reputation as a miniature-painter. Among
her best works may be named the portraits of Louis
Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, the Count of Paris,
Madame Guizot, and Smile de Girardin. She obtained
several medals, and was appointed after the restoration
miniature-painter to the king. Madame Mirbel ranks as
one of the best of modern miniaturists. Her portraits
are remarkable for correctness and finish, as well as
for vigour and spirited expression and for harmony of
colour. Died August 31, 1849.

See "Journal des Beaux-Arts." 1849.

Mirecourt, de, deh mer'kooR', (EUGENE JACQUOT,)
a French litterateur, born November 19, 1812. The
latter part of his name was assumed from the name of
his native village, Mirecourt, in the Vosges. He early
adopted literature as a profession, and in 1845 attracted
attention by an attack on Alexandre Dumas, entitled
"The House cf Alexandre Dumas & Co., Manufacturers
of Novels." In 1854 he commenced the publication of
a series of volumes under the general title of " Les Con-
temporains," which consisted of gossipy and semi-scan-
dalous articles upon the literary celebrities of the hour.
Many of these involved him in lawsuits. After one
hundred volumes had been published, Mirecourt founded
a weekly paper under the same title and with a similar
aim. He also wrote a number of inferior romances.
Died February 13, 1880.

Mirepoix, de, deh meR'pwl', (CHARLES PIERRE
GASTON FRANCOIS de Levis deh li've',) Due, a
French general, born in 1699. He became a marshal of
France in 1757. Died in 1758.

Mirevelt. See MIEREVELT.

Mir Hasan, meer ha'san, a poet of India, who lived
at Fyzabad and Lucknow and died in 1786. He wrote
(in the Urdu language) "The Magic of Eloquence," (a
romance,) " The Rose-Garden of Iran," etc.

Mirl-am, [Heb. D'"n.j a prophetess, a sister of
Moses, the Hebrew lawgiver. She sang a song of tri-
umph after the children of Israel had passed through
the Red Sea.

See Exodus xv. 20 ; Numbers xii.

Mirkhond, mir'Kond', a celebrated Persian histo-
rian, born in 1433, was the author of a work entitled
" Garden of Purity, or History of Prophets, Kings, and
Caliphs." There are manuscripts of this history in the
libraries of Paris, London, Berlin, and Vienna, and por-
tions of it have been translated into French and several
other languages. Died in 1498.

Mir Muhammadi Soz, meer muh-ham'ma-dee sfiz,
a Hindostanee poet, who lived at Lucknow, but became
a dervish, and died in 1800. He wrote much elegant
but licentious verse.

Miromesnil, de, deh me'ro'mi'nel', (ARMAND THO-
MAS HUE,) a French minister of state, born in the Or-
leannais in 1723. He was keeper of the seals from 1774
to 1787. Died in 1796.

Mir Taki, (or Taqi,) meer ti'kee, a Hindostanee
(Urdu) poet, born at Agra. He lived mostly at Luck-
now, and died in 1810. Many critics give him the first
place in Urdu poetry, but others consider him inferior to
Sauda. He left a great number of poems.

Mirza. See MEERZA.

Mi-se'nus, [Gr. Mioyvoc: Fr. MISENE, me'zjn'.l a
Trojan warrior, distinguished for his valour and his skill
as a trumpeter, was called jEoi/iDES by Virgil. After
the capture of Troy, he went to Italy with VEneas, whom
he served as a trumpeter. He is said to have been
drowned by a Triton who was envious of his musical skill.

See VIRGIL'S "jEneid," book vi. 162-174.

Misri-Effendi, mis'ree ef-fen'dee, a Turkish poet

and enthusiast, born in Egypt about 1660. He cele-
brated in verse the incarnation of Jesus Christ. Died
in 1710.

Missiessy, me'se'A'se', (DOUARD THOMAS BUR-
GUES,) a French admiral, born in Provence in 1754. He
commanded a squadron which, in May, 1805, was sent
to the Antilles, and in 1809 commanded the naval forces
at Antwerp. Died in 1832.

Misson, me's&N', (FRANCOIS MAXIMILIEN,) a French
writer, born at Lyons, was of a Protestant family, and
settled in England after the revocation of the edict
of Nantes. Having visited Italy in 1687, he published,
after his return, an account of his travels, which was
commended by Addison for its lively and faithful de-
scriptions. Died in London, January 22, 1722.

Mistral, mes'tral', (FREDERI, or FREDERIC,) a French
(Provencal) poet, born at Maillane, September 8, 1830.
His most noted work is the pastoral epic "Mireio,"
(1859; in English by H. Crichton, 1868, and by H. W.
Preston, 1872,) which was the basis of Gounod's opera
" Mireille," (1864.) He also wrote "Calendau, Pouemo
nouveau," (1867,) and "Lis Isclo d'Or," ("The Golden
Shoes," 1875.) Mistral is one of the principal members
of the group of writers called ftlibres, (who aim at a
restoration of Provencal literature,) and prepared a Pro-
vencal Dictionary.

Mitch'el, (JOHN,) an Irish adventurer, born in the
county of Deny in 1815. He was for a rime associate
editor of the Dublin " Nation," and subsequently of
" The United Irishman," which, however, was soon sup-
pressed by the British government, and Mitchel was sen-
tenced to fourteen years' banishment to Australia in 1848.
In 1854 he escaped to the United States, and became an
editor successively of " The Southern Citizen" and " The
Richmond Examiner," violent pro-slavery and secession
journals. In 1874 he returned to Ireland and was elected
to Parliament, but before taking his seat he died, March
20. 1875.

Mitchel, (ORMSBY MACKNIGHT,) an eminent Ameri-
can astronomer, born in Union county, Kentucky, in
1810. Having graduated at West Point in 1829, he
became in 1834 professor of mathematics, philosophy,
and astronomy at Cincinnati College, Ohio. He first
suggested the erection of an observatory at Cincinnati,
and the successful accomplishment of the enterprise was
chiefly due to his efforts ; and the institution, of which he
became director, was provided through his exertions with
one of the finest telescopes to be found in the United
States. He delivered popular lectures on astronomy
at various places, and published, besides other works,
" Planetary and Stellar Worlds," which was very favour-
ably received. In 1859 he became director of the Dud-
ley Observatory at Albany. He was appointed a briga-
dier-general in the Union army in August, 1861. He
moved with a small army from Tennessee to Alabama
in April, 1862, surprised Huntsvillc, and distinguished
himself by his energy. Having been promoted to the
rank of major-general, he was appointed commander of
the department of the South, about August, 1862. He
died of yellow fever at Beaufort, South Carolina, in
October of that year.

Mitch'ell, (Sir ANDREW,) a distinguished diplomatist,
born in Edinburgh about 1695, was elected to Parlia-
ment in 1747, and in 1751 was appointed resident min-
ister at Brussels. He was ambassador-extraordinary to
Berlin in 1753, and acquired considerable influence over
Frederick the Great, whom he succeeded in detaching
from the interests of France. Died in 1771.

See " Memoirs and Papers of Sir Andrew Mitchell," by A. Bis-
SETT, 1850: TmiBAUl/r, " Souvenira de vingt Ans de Sejonr 4

Mitchell, (ANDREW,) a Scottish naval omcer, born
about 1757, attained the rank of vice-admiral of the
white in 1799, and in 1802 was appointed commander-
in-chief on the coast of America. Died in 1806.

Mitchell, (Sir DAVID,) a naval conjmander under the
reign of William III., rose to be rear-admiral of the
blue in 1693. He was afterwards employed in importap'
missions to Russia and Holland. Died in 1710.

Mitch'ell, (DoNALD GRANT,) a distinguished Ameri-
can writer, born at Norwich, Connecticut, in 1822.

eas/6: 933^; gAard; gas/; G, H, Yi,guttural; N, nasal: R, trilled; sasz; th as in Mis. (jjy^See Explanations, p.




Having graduated at Yale College in 1841, he made the i
tour of Europe, and published after his return, under
ihe pseudonym of IK MARVEL, " Fresh Gleanings ; or, A
New Sheaf from the Old Fields of Continental Europe,"
(1847.) His principal works are " Reveries of a Bach-
elor," (1850,) "Dream Life," (1851,) "The Judge's Do-,
ings," (1854,) " My Farm of Edgewood," (1863,) " Wet
Days at Edgewood," (1864,) " Seven Stories, with Base- :
ment and Attic," (1864,) " Dr. Johns," (1866,) " Rural
Studies," (1867,) " AboutOld Story-Tellers, " (1878,)
and " English Lands, Letters, and Kings," (1889-95.)

Mitchell, (ELISHA,) D.D., an American chemist and
divine, born in Litchfield county, Connecticut, in 1793,
became professor of mathematics in the University of
North Carolina in 1817, and subsequently of chemistry
in the same institution. Being appointed State surveyor,
he first discovered the fact that the mountains of North
Carolina are the highest in the United States east of
the Rocky Mountains. While exploring one of these
heights, in 1857, he was killed by a fall from a precipice.
His name has been given to one of the highest summits.

Mitchell, (JOHN AMES,) editor, was born at New \
York in 1845. He studied architecture, drawing, and t
painting, became an artist and illustrator, and in 1883
founded " Life," in New York, and became its editor.
He published "The Romance of the Moon," "The !
Last American," " Life's Fairy-Tales," and other '

Mitchell, (JOHN KEARSLEY,) M.D., an American
physician, born in Jefferson county, Virginia, in 1796.
He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, and

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 153 of 425)