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asked he, " can you expect from the man whom you have
so deeply wronged ?" " We trust to the generosity of
our kinsman." " And you shall not trust in vain : go ;
you are safe, you are free." He who seven years before
had left his native city as a hunted fugitive was now
received and honoured as prophet and king. But in an
attempt made soon after to reduce the Arabian tribes
who still adhered to idolatry, the army of Mohammed
was surprised in a mountain-pass, and for a time his
own life was in imminent peril. Several of his devoted
followers who endeavoured to shield him with their
bodies fell dead at his feet In his distress he cried,
"O my brethren, I am the apostle of truth ! O man,
stand fast in the faith ! O God, send down thine aid 1"
His uncle Abbas, who was distinguished for the strength
of his voice, called on the flying Moslems, repeating the
promises of God to the faithful. The battle was soon
restored, and what threatened to be a disastrous defeat
was changed into a complete victory. About the yea:
630 Mohammed sent an army, under the command of
Zeid, who had formerly been his slave, to invade Pales-
tine, then belonging to the Greek empire. At the battle
of Muta, where for the first time the Moslems encoun-
tered a foreign foe, Zeid and two other of the leaders
were slain. It is related of Jaafar, who succeeded Zeid
in the command of the army, that when his right hand
was struck off he seized the banner with his left ; this
also being severed from his body, he embraced the stan-
dard with his bleeding stumps, until at length he fell,
pierced with no fewer than fifty wounds. The day was
saved by the valour of KMled, in whose hand it is said
that nine swords were broken before the hosts of the
enemy were turned backward. Mohammed had to be-
wail, on this occasion, not only the death of his faithful
servant Zeid, but also that of many of his bravest fol-
lowers. We are told that when, after the battle, he first
saw the young orphaned daughter of Zeid, he wept over
her in speechless sorrow. " What do I see ?" said one
of his astonished followers. " You see," said he, " a friend
weeping the loss of his most faithful friend."

The recent successes of the prophet, by inflaming the
zeal of the faithful, confirming the wavering, and con-
vincing the doubtful, for, as it has been well observed,
there is no argument like success, contributed greatly
to the rapid diffusion and final triumph of the new faith.
But in the early part of 632, while he was engaged in
organizing a formidable expedition against Syria, he was
seized with a violent malady, (supposed by some writers
to have been a fever,) which, before many days, terminated
fatally. It is related that near the beginning of this ill-
ness Mohammed said to one of his attendants, " The
choice is given me either to remain on earth until the
end of time, or soon to depart to the presence of God :
I have chosen the latter." When he perceived that his
end was near, supported by the arms of Alee and another
relative, he went into the mosque and asked publicly if
he had injured any one, if so, he was ready to make
full amends, or to suffer himself what he had inflicted on
others. As no one answered, he asked again if he owed
any man anything. A voice replied, " Yes, to me, three



drachms of silver." The prophet ordered the money to
X paid, and thanked his creditor that he made his com-
jlaint now instead of deferring it till the day of judgment.
His last words were the utterance of a broken prayer,
" O God, pardon my sins yes I come !" He died,
according to the Arabian historians, on his birthday, the
eleventh year of the Hejrah, (632 A.D.,) aged 63, or, ac-
cording to some authorities, 65 years. He had ceased
to breathe, but his followers refused to believe that he
was dead. Omar, in his fierce zeal, threatened to strike
off the heads of the infidels who should dare to assert
that the great prophet and intercessor with God was no
more. The authority of Aboo-Bekr was required to
appease the tumult " Is it Mohammed, or the God of
Mohammed, whom you worship ? God liveth for ever
and ever ; but Mohammed, though his prophet and
apostle, was mortal like ourselves, and, in dying, has
but fulfilled his own prediction."

In person Mohammed was of middle stature, with
broad shoulders and chest, square-built and strong, with
large hands and feet. The unusual size of his head was
partly concealed by long and slightly-curling locks of
hair. His forehead was broad and fair for an Arab, and
his fine eyebrows were separated by a vein which swelled
up and became very conspicuous when he was angry.
His eyelashes were long, and his eyes dark and glowing.
His nose was large, prominent, and slightly hooked ;
his mouth was wide, but adorned with a fine set of
teeth. According to some accounts, he stooped, and was
slightly round-shouldered. His natural disposition ap-
pears to have been in a high degree kindly and humane.
"He was naturally irritable," says Irving, "but had
brought his temper under great control." One of his
servants said, " I served him from the time I was eight
years old, and he never scolded me, tnough things were
sometimes spoiled by me." " He was," says a wrker*
who will scarcely be accused of exaggerating his virtues,
" kind to women, never beat one, and entertained more
respect for them than is usual with nations addicted to
polygamy. He frequently protected women who came
to him for refuge. . . . He forbade the believers to beat
their wives ; but on the remonstrance of Omar, who said
that the wives would have the upper hand over their
husbands, he allowed it." Nevertheless, he insisted that
women should be fairly and justly treated, and not beaten
unless the occasion absolutely demanded it His own
wives, having once become rebellious, were brought to
submission by a revelation from Heaven and the blows
of their relatives,! the prophet himself being disinclined
to such severity, either from kindness of heart or from
a regard to his apostolic dignity.

" He was," says Sprenger, "'affectionate towards his
relations ; and, notwithstanding the gravity of his office,
he was playful with his wives. Ayeshah, being only nine
years of age when she married him, brought her toys
into his house, and he occasionally played with her. She
also used to race with him. ... He would sometimes
tell stories to his wives, such as the adventures of the
man who had been carried away by the jinn (genii) and,
after a long stay with them, returned to his family."

The intellectual powers of Mohammed were of a very
high order, and as a poet he ranks far above all others
who have ever written in the Arabic tongue. It was
usual for his followers to point to the beauty and sub-
limity of the Koran as an irrefutable proof of his divine
inspiration ; and he himself, in one of the chapters of
that sacred poem, boldly challenges men and angels to
produce anything to equal it, and confidently affirms
that God alone could have dictated so incomparable a
work. Probably no poet that ever lived more fully
realized the state of mind known as pnetir furor than
Mohammed. It is said that while he was composing
certain portions of the Koran he was in a state of such
intense excitement as amounted almost to frenzy ; and,
if we may believe those accounts of his life which seem
best authenticated, some at least of the revelations of
the Koran were actually communicated (or were believed
by him to have been communicated) during his epileptic
paroxysms, while wholly unconscious of things around



See SPRKNCEI, " Life of Mohammad," p. 93. t Idem., lot cit.



o, u, y, long: 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; nflt; good; moon-



a, e, T



MOHAMMED



1741



MOHAMMED



him. With this view, there may have been no arrogance
or vanity in his claiming that to rival the Koran was
beyond the power of men or angels. Referring to the
prophet's tendency to poetic and elevated thought,
Sprenger says, " His mind dwelt constantly on the con-
templation of God : he saw his finger in the rising sun,
in the falling rain, in the growing crop ; he heard his
voice in the thunder, in the murmuring of the waters,
and in the hymns which the birds sing to his praise ;
and in the lonely deserts and ruins of ancient cities he
saw the traces of his anger." But combined with all his
poetic and religious enthusiasm was a vein of strong
common sense. He was free from all ostentation and
parade : that he pretended to work miracles, is a cal-
umny of his enemies. He considered it miracle enough
that he was inspired with the Spirit of God: this he
doubtless believed in all sincerity. One whom Heaven
had so highly honoured had no need of earthly dignity
or worldly splendour. He set a praiseworthy example
of indifference to earthly riches, of patriarchal simplicity
of manners, and of frugality in his diet and dress. With
his own hands he milked his goats, and afterwards at-
tended to his person. The costly presents which he
received he gave to his friends. The riches which he
obtained from the spoils of war and from tribute were
spent in promoting the interests of religion and in re-
lieving the wants of the poor. " His military triumphs,"
says Irving, "awakened no pride nor vain-glory. . . .
In the time of his greatest power he maintained the
same simplicity of manners and appearance as in the
days of his adversity. So far from affecting regal state,
he was displeased if on entering a room any unusual
testimonial of respect were shown him."

The most glaring moral defect of Mohammed's char-
acter was his passion for women, to justify which he pre-
tended that he had received a special revelation from
heaven ;J and, while only four lawful wives were allowed
to his followers, he himself had eleven wives, besides
several concubines. Mohammed's conduct in this re-
spect, viewed in connection with his pretended revela-
tions, would seem to go very far towards justifying those
who consider him to have been simply an artful and self-
ish impostor. " But, however he betrayed the alloy of
earth," observes Irving, "after he had worldly power at
his command, the early aspirations of his spirit con-
tinually returned and bore him above all earthly things.
. . . On the mercy of God he reposed all his hopes of
heaven." His wife Ayeshah once asked him if it were
indeed true that none could enter paradise except
through God's mercy. "None none !" he replied, with
emphatic earnestness. And when she again asked if an
exception would not be made in his case, he answered,
with great solemnity, "Neither can I enter paradise
unless God clothe me with his mercy."

Until recently, the belief has universally prevailed in
Christendom that Mohammed was not merely the teacher
of a false religion, but a conscious impostor, an artful,
self-seeking charlatan. But such a theory of his life and
character will not bear examination. Not to mention
the thousand incidental proofs of his sincerity which are
scattered through the history of his early life, it is wholly
incredible that a mere self-seeking charlatan would have
exposed himself to universal obloquy and certain per-
secution, in the wild hope that he might at last triumph
over those religious prejudices which had been for so
many ages gaining strength among his countrymen.
When Aboo-Talib, weary of defending his nephew
against the implacable hostility of the Koreishites, be-
sought him to abandon a course attended with so much
?eril to himself and his kinsmen, he replied, "O uncle,
swear by God that if they put the sun on my right
hand and the moon on my left, I will not renounce the
career I have entered upon until God gives me success,
or until I perish." Aboo-Talib, touched with his heroic
spirit, solemnly promised that he would not give him up,
whatever he might preach.

In considering the question of Mohammed's sincerity,
it must not be forgotten that he possessed not only a



I "This is a peculiar privilege granted unto thee above tb^ rest of
the true believers." (See SALB s " Koran," chap, xxxiii.)



vivid and powerful imagination, but a very peculiar phys-
ical and mental constitution. It seems not unreasonable
o believe, as traditions relate, that in those nervous
paroxysms to which he was subject he had visions not
unlike those which his mother saw between sleeping and
waking. Such visions would be almost certain to par-
take of the character of those earnest thoughts and
convictions with which his waking soul was filled ; and
nothing could be more natural than for such a mind not
merely to regard those visions as a divine confirmation
of his peculiar views, but to employ them, modified as
they would necessarily be by his powerful imagination,
to give force and authority to his public teachings. Nor
will it appear at all unreasonable to those conversant
with human nature that one who was perfectly sincere
at the beginning of his career should afterwards under
the stimulus of fear, lust, hatred, or ambition pretend
to visions which he never had, for the purpose of giving
a divine sanction to his cherished opinions, or, it may be,
to his arbitrary caprices or selfish desires. How often,
indeed, have the professors of a far purer and higher
laith resorted to stratagem and deceit to promote what
they sincerely believed to be a good cause, which they
had not faith enough to trust to the care of Heaven or
to the legitimate operation of purely moral influences!

While we must admit, with one of the prophet's ablest
and most successful defenders, (Carlyle,) that in the
Moslem heaven and hell " there is enough that shocks all
spiritual feeling in us," we must also admit, on a candid
examination, that his religion, on the whole, made him
and his followers better, and not worse. In estimating
the influence of the Islam upon the nations which em-
braced it, it would be obviously unjust to take as a
standard of comparison the highest forms of Christian
civilization. We should rather compare the condition of
those nations under the sway of Mohammedanism with
their condition as it was before the advent of the prophet.
If the religion of Mohammed was immeasurably inferior
to the religion of Christ, it was in most respects greatly
superior to every form of paganism of which we have
any knowledge, and probably also to much of that
spurious or half-spurious Christianity which it displaced
in Western Asia and Northern Africa.

"The general tenor of Mahomet's conduct," says
Irving, " up to the time of his flight from Mecca, is that
of an enthusiast acting under a species of mental de-
lusion, deeply imbued with a conviction of his being a
divine agent for religious reform ; and there is something
striking and sublime in the luminous path which his
enthusiastic spirit struck out for itself through the be-
wildering maze of adverse faiths and wild traditions,
the pure and spiritual worship of the one true God,
which he sought to substitute for the blind idolatry of
his childhood. ... All the parts of the Koran supposed
to have been promulgated by him at this time inco-
herently as they have come down to us, and marred as
their pristine beauty must be in passing through various
hands are of a pure and elevated character, and breathe
poetical, if not religious, inspiration. They show that
he had drunk deep of the living waters of Christianity ;
and if he had failed to imbibe them in their crystal
purity, it might be because he had to drink from broken
cisterns and streams troubled and perverted by those
who should have been their guardians."

See SPRKNGHR, " Life of Mohammad, from Original Sources,"
Allahabad, 1851, London, 1852, (a work of decided merit ;) WEIL,
" Mohammed der Prophet, sein Leben und sein Lehre," Stuttgart,
1843; IRVING, "Mahomet and his Successors," New York, 2 vols.,
1850; GAGNIER, "Vie de Mahomet;" BOULAINVILLIERS, "Vie de
Mahomet ;" "Preliminary Discourse" prefixed to SALE'S translation
of the Koran: PRIDEAUX, "Life of Mahomet;" MARACCI'S trans-
lation of the Koran, (in Latin,) with notes ; RELAND, " De Religione
Mohammedica ;" ABULFEDA, "Moslem Annals," ("Annates Mos-
lemici,") and translated into Latin by REISKB; ABULFEDA, "Life of
Mohammed," rendered into Latin by GAGNIER, with the title "De
Vita et Rebus gestis Mohamedis," Oxford, 1732 : GIBBON, " Decline
and Fall of the Roman Empire," chap. 1. ; CARLYLE, " Hero and
Hero- Worship," etc., article " Mahomet," (one of the best productions
of its author;) RAMPOLDI, "Vita di Maometto," 1822; NOEL DBS
VERGERS, " Vie de Mahomet," 1833 : GEORGE BUSH, " J.ife of Mo-
hammed," New York, 1830 : SAMUEL GREEN, " Life of Mahomet,"
1840; CHARLES MILLS, " History of Mohammedanism," etc., Lon-
don, 1812; K. R. TUKPIN, " Histoirede la Vie de Mahomet," 2 vols.,
1773; DE BREQUIGNY, " Vie de Mahomet," 1754; L. ADDION, " Life
of Mahomet," 1678.



vast; cas s; %kard; gas/;G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: sasz; thasinMii.



xplanations.fi. 23.)



MOHAMMED



1742



MOLA



Mo-ham'med IL, (commonly pronounced in India I Earth," 1866, etc.,) and a noted paper "Ueber die Natur
io-Hum'mSd,) Emperor of India, born about 1 150, was [ der Warme," (" On the Nature of Heat," i



, ' 1837,) in which

one of the founders of the Gaurian dynasty. He became he announced the doctrine of the correlation of forces,
master of part of Hindostan in 1171, after which he ex- Died in October, 1879.

Mobs, mos, (FRIEDRICH,) a German mineralogist,
born at Gernrode in 1774. He



1774. He succeeded Werner as
professor of mineralogy at Freiberg in 1817, and after-



tended his dominions by conquest. He took Lahore
and Delhi between 1184 and 1192, and Benares in 1193.
He was assassinated in 1206.

Mohammed IV, Emperor of India, born at Delhi wards filled the same chair at Vienna. He became
in 1360, succeeded his father, Fyroz (or Feroze) III., in j counsellor of mines in 1838. He published, among
1386. Died in 1394. other works, "Elements of the Natural History of the

Mohammed V, born at Delhi in 1406, succeeded Mineral Kingdom," (1832.) Died in 1839.
Moobarek II. as Emperor of India in 1434. Died in I Mohsen or Moehsen, QOHANN KARL WILHELM,)



1443.

Mohammed VL OF INDIA. See BASER.
Mohammed VH. OF INDIA. See HOOMAYOON.
Mohammed IX. OF INDIA. See AKBAR.
Mohammed XI. See SHAH JEHAN.



,

a German medical writer and numismatist, born in Ber-
lin in 1722. He was physician to the King of Prussia.
Died in 1795.

Mohsin-Fanee or Mohsin-Fani, moH'sin fa'nee,
' or Muhsiii-Faui, mooH'sin fa'nee, (MOHAMMED,) a

Mohammed XTTT, Emperor of India, of the dynasty Persian poet, bom on the coast of the Persian Gulf in
of Grand Moguls, was born at Agra about 1685. He '615. His principal work is the " Dabistan," which gives
began to reign at Delhi in 1713. He granted the East an account of ancient religious sects. Died in 1670.
India Company the privilege of exemption from the pay- Moigno, mwan'yo', (FRANQOIS NAPOLEON MARIE,)
ment of duties. He was deposed in 1718, and died the a French mathematician, born at Gue'me'ne' in 1804, pub-
same year. lished "Lessons in Differential and Integral Calculus,"

Mohammed XTV., often called Mohammed Shah, (1840,) a " Treatise on the Electric Telegraph," (1849,)
Emperor of India, born at Delhi about 1700, was a cousin and other works. Died July 15, 1884.
of the preceding. He began to reign in 1720. In 1739 Molne, Le. See LEMOINB.

Nadir Shah invaded India, captured Delhi, massacred Moine, Le, leh mwan, (ABRAHAM,) a French Protest-

an immense number of the people, and robbed Moham- ant divine, born in the seventeenth century, became

med of the celebrated diamond Kohinoor. Died in 1748. pastor of a French church in London. He translated

Mohammed, (Sultans of Turkey.) See MAHOMET. Bishop Gibson's " Pastoral Letters" into French, and

Mohammed OF GAZNA. See MAHMOOD. published a " Sermon in Defence of the Sacred History,

Mohedano, mo-i-da'no, (ANTONIO,) a Spanish j ln Answer to Lord Bolingbroke." Died in 1760.

painter, born at Antequera in 1561, excelled in fresco- [ Moir, (DAVID MACBETH,) a distinguished Scottish

painting. Died in 1625. writer and physician, born near Edinburgh in 1798. He

Mobl, von, fon m51, (HUGO,) a German botanist, bro- became at an early age a contributor to Constable's

ther of Julius, was born at Stuttgart in 1805. He pub- and Blackwood's Magazines, and published a number

lished " Contributions to the Anatomy and Physiology f poems in the latter, under the signature of the Greek

of Plants," (1834,) etc. Died April i, 1872. Delta, (A.) Among his other works may be named his



Stuttg

and

the

he was appointed secretary ot the Asiatic bociety, having

previously been chosen a member of the Academy of

Inscriptions. He made a number of valuable contribu



.,.'

. ,,, m ' ,5'v,
ou ' ->*ORGE,) a Scottish lawyer, born in Aberdeen



. mae a numer o vauae conru . -

tions to the "Journal Asiatique," and published editions ln , ' u became a successful advocate at Edinburgh,

of several Oriental works. Died January 3, 1876. w c h , ere he , was "V? 35 made professor ol rhetoric, and in

Mohl, von, (MORITZ,) brother of the preceding, was l8( ? Pfessor of Scuts law. He was an accomplished

rn at Stuttgart in 1802. He published "Results of cr '.!L c - ( but * rote vcr y '' ttle -



bo

a Journey in France for the Purpose of studying Arts

and Trades," (1845.) Died February 18, 1888.

Mohl, von, (ROBERT,) a German jurist, brother of
the preceding, was born at Stuttgart in 1799. He be-
came professor of law at Heidelberg in 1847, and after-



mplished

Dled '" ^'
EARL OF. See HASTINGS, MARQUIS OF.

Moirae, moi're, [Gr. Moqxu,] a name applied to the

z ^. s '~ c 5."*"
Moise. See MOSES.

Moitte, mwat, QF.AN GUILLAUME,) a French sculp-



, -

wards filled several important civil offices. He published l r ' born , '" f ans '" '747- He executed the large
a number of le v bas-relief of the front of the Pantneon, and statues of



a number of legal works. Died November 4/1875.

Mohler or Moehler, mo'ler, (JoHANN ADAM,) a Cassm. and General Uustme He was a member of
German Catholic theologian, born at Igersheim in 1796, , *= Academy of fine Arts, and a chevalier of the legion
published in 1825 a work entitled " Unity in the Church ; | of honour,
or. The Principle of Catholicism." Died in 1838.

Mohn, mon, (GoTTLOB SAMUEL,) a German glass-
painter, born at Weissenfels in 1789. His most admired



Died in 1810.

See Qi'ATRRMBRB Da QUINCY,

; niteur," 1810.



' filoge de Moitte," in the " Mo



productions are the painted windows of the Imperial
Chapel at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Died in 1825.

Mohn, (HENRIK.) a Norwegian meteorologist,
born at Bergen in 1845. He studied the meteorol
Norway, and wrote "The North Ocean, its Depths.
Temperature, and Circulation," ( 1887.)

Mohnike, mo'ne-keh, (GOTTLIEB CHRISTIAN FRIED-
RICH,) a German writer and theologian, born in Pome-
rania in 1781, published a "History of the Literature of
the Greeks and Romans," (1813.) Died in 1841.

Mohr, mor, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) a German philoso-
pher, born at Coblentz, November 4, 1806. He studied
at Heidelberg, Berlin, and Bonn. When fifty-seven
years old he was made extraordinary professor of phar-
macy at Bonn. Among his books are " Lehrbuch der
/-hemisch-analytischen Titrirmethode," ("Text-Book of
Chemical Analysis by Titration," 1855, a work of high
excellence.) " Geschichte der Erde," (" History of the



Moivre, de. See DEMOIVRE.

Mojon, mo'zhoN', (BIANCA Miles! me-la'see.) an
Italian lady, distinguished for her talents, accomplish-
ments, and elevated character, was born at Milan in
1790. She was married in 1825 to Dr. Mojon, physician
to the court in Paris. An interesting account of her was
written by her friend fimile de Souvestre. Died in 1849.

See, also, BESSIK R. PAKKK, "Twelve Biographical Sketches."
London, 1866.

Mokanna. See AL-HAKKM-IBN-ATTA.

Moke, mo'k?h, (HENRI GUILLAUME), a Belgian
writer, born at Havre in 1803. He produced, besides
other works, a " History of Belgium." Died in 1862.

Moktader-Billah, mok'ta-der bil'lah, orMuktader-
(mook'ta-der) Blllah, (Abool-Fadhl-Jaafar, a'bool
fad'l ja'far,) an Abbasside caliph of Bagdad, was born in
894 A.D., and began to reign in 909. He was defeated
and killed in 932 by Monnes or Mounes.

Mola, mo'la, (GiAMBATTiSTA,) a painter, of Italian
extraction, called MOLA DI FRANCIA, born at Besancon



a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; mft; not; good; moon;


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 156 of 425)