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established the Royal Infirmary of that city, in which
he gave clinical lectures on surgery. He published in
1726 his "Osteology, or Treatise on the Anatomy of the
Bones," which passed through numerous editions and
was translated into French and German. Among his
other works are an " Essay on Comparative Anatomy,"
(1744,) and "Account of the Inoculation of Small-Pox
in Scotland," (1765.) Dr. Monro was a Fellow of the
Royal Society of London, and a member of the Academy
of Surgery in Paris. Died in 1767.

Monro, (ALEXANDER Secundus, or the "second,")
son of the preceding, was born at Edinburgh in 1732.
He succeeded his father in the chair of anatomy and
surgery in the University of Edinburgh in 1759- He
died in 1817, leaving a number of medical treatises of
great merit. Among these we may name " Observations
on the Structure, etc. of the Nervous System," (1783,)
and " Structure and Physiology of Fishes," (1785.)

SeeCHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Monro, (ALEXANDER Ttrtius, or the " third,") a
physician, a son of the preceding, was born in Edin-
burgh about 1774. He was professor of anatomy at
Edinburgh, and published several works on anatomy
and medicine. Died in 1859.

Monro, (DONALD,) brother of Alexander, (1732-1817,)
was born at Edinburgh in 1729. He was appointed chief
physician to the army, which he accompanied to Ger-
many in 1761. He published, among other works, a
treatise " On the Means of Preserving the Health of
Soldiers." Died in 1802.

Monroe, (HARRIET,) an American poet, born at
Chicago in 1860. She was the author of the "Co-
lumbian Ode," sung at the opening of the World's
Columbian Exposition in 1893, an d published " Valeria
and Other Poems," etc.

Monroe, mun-r5', (JAMES,) an American statesman,
and the fifth President of the United States, was born
in Westmoreland county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. He
was a son of Spence Monroe, a planter, was educated at
William and Mary College, and entered the army as a
cadet in 1776. He soon became a lieutenant in the army
of Washington, and served at the battles of Harlem
Heights and White Plains. He was wounded in the
battle of Trenton, December, 1776, and for his conduct
there was promoted to the rank of captain. As aide-
de-camp to Lord Stirling, he served with distinction at
the battle of Brandy wine, September, 1777, and at that
of Monmouth, June, 1778. Having lost his rank in the
regular army by becoming an aide to Lord Stirling, he
retired from the service in 1778, and studied law under
Thomas Jefferson. He was elected a member of the
Assembly of Virginia in 1782, and a delegate to the
General Congress in 1783 for three years. He married,
about 1785, a Miss Kortright, of New York.

As a member of the Convention of Virginia, in 1788,
he opposed the adoption of the Constitution of the
United States, which, in his opinion, gave too much
power to the Federal government. He accordingly
united himself with the Anti-Federalists, or Republican
party, and was elected a Senator of the United States
for four years by the legislature of Virginia in 1790. In
1794 he was sent to France as minister-plenipotentiary.
He offended the heads of the home government by the
open expression of sympathy with the French repub-
licans, or by a departure from a neutral policy, and
was recalled about the end of 1796. He was Governor
of Virginia three years, (1799-1802.) In 1802 he was
sent to France as envoy-extraordinary, to unite with



Edward Livingston, then the resident minister at Paris,
in a negotiation for the purchase of Louisiana, i.e. the
whole valley of the Mississippi. They purchased that
vast territory from Bonaparte for $15,000,000. In 1803
Mr. Monroe was sent as minister-plenipotentiary to
England, and in 1805 performed a diplomatic mission to
Spain in relation to the boundary of Louisiana. He
returned to London in 1806, and, aided by Mr. Pinck-
ney, negotiated a treaty for the protection of maritime
interests and neutral rights ; but the government of
the United States refused to ratify this treaty, because
it did not provide against the impressment of seamen.
He returned home in 1808, and passed about two years
in a private station.

In 1811 he was elected Governor of Virginia. He
was appointed secretary of state by President Madison
in November, 1811. He acted as secretary of war during
the disastrous and gloomy period that followed the cap-
ture of Washington, September, i8i4-March, 1815, and
rendered important services by his energetic measures
to restore the public credit and reinforce the army. He
did not cease to be secretary of state until March, 1817.
He was the Democratic candidate for the Presidency in
1816, and was elected by a large majority, receiving one
hundred and eighty-three electoral votes. His competi-
tor was Rufus King, who received thirty-four votes. Ho
appointed John Q. Adams secretary of state, William
H. Crawford secretary of the treasury, John C. Calhoun
secretary of war, and Smith Thompson secretary of the
navy. The violence of party spirit abated during his
administration, which encountered no strong opposition.
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida to the United States. He
was re-elected President in 1820 without opposition,
receiving every electoral vote except one. During his
second term the independence of the South American
colonies of Spain was recognized by the United States.
In his message of December, 1823, he asserted the im-
portant principle of foreign policy which forms the cele-
brated " Monroe Doctrine," in these terms : " We owe
it, therefore, to candour and to the amicable relation!
existing between the United States and those powers,
[i.e. the European powers,] to declare that we should
consider any attempt on their part to extend their sys-
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to
our peace and safety." He retired from office in March,
1825, after which he resided at Oak Hill, Loudon county,
Virginia. He was elected president of the convention
which met in 1829 to revise the Constitution of Virginia.
A speech which he made in that Convention contains
this incidental remark on slavery : " No imputation can
be cast on Virginia in this matter. She did all that was
in her power to do, to prevent the extension of slavery
and to mitigate its evils so far as she could."* He died
in the city of New York, at the residence of his son-in-
law, Samuel L. Gouverneur, on the 4th of July, 1831,
leaving the reputation of a discreet and successful states-
man, more distinguished for administrative talents than
for oratorical powers.

See J. Q. ADAMS, "Eulogy on James Monroe;" HILDRHTH,
" History of the United States," vols. v. and yi. ; "National Por-
trait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," vol. iii,

Monroae, moN'roz', the assumed name of CLAUDE
Louis BARRIZAIN, (bt're'zaN',) a French comic actor,
born at Besanjon in 1783 ; died in 1843.

Mons, van, vtn mons or mANss, (JEAN BAPTISTS,) an
eminent Belgian chemist and pomologist, was born at
Brussels in 1765. Having learned the art of pharmacy,
he was chosen in 1797 professor of chemistry, etc. in
Brussels. He founded the "Journal de Chimie et Phy-
sique," which for many years was a central depot of the
progress of science in Europe. Having a ruling passion
for the culture of fruit, he began at an early age to theo-
rize and experiment on the production of new varieties.
About the age of twenty he adopted the theory that
seedlings of new varieties have more tendency to im-
prove than those of old varieties, or, in other worda
while good old varieties mostly produce inferior sorts,
those which are recent and bad tend to change for the

This remark, doubtless, has reference to the efforts of the English
government to introduce slaves into Virginia against the wishes of
many of the colonists.



eas *; r as s ; g hard g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (



Explanations, p. 21.'.



MONS



MONTAGU



better. Having planted a large nursery and devoted
his life chiefly to experiments on the pear, he was suc-
cessful in producing many fine varieties, among which
was the Beurre Diel. Soon after 1815 he was appointed

" -



istry, ,

(1835,) and other works. He was an associate of the
Institute of France. Died in 1842. "The constant
springing up of fine new sorts of fruit in the United
States," says Downing, "is given with much apparent
force as a proof of the accuracy of the Van Mons
theory."

See QUETHLET, " Notice hislorique sur J. B. van Mons," 1843 ;
J. S. STAS, " Notice sur J. B. van Mons," 1843.

Mons, van, (THEODORE,) a jurist, a son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Brussels in 1801. He published
several legal works.

Mon'sell, (JoHN SAMUEL BEWI.EY,) D.D., LL.D., a
poet and clergyman, born at Londonderry, Ireland, March
2, iSn. He graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in
1832, and became a presbyter of the Church of England.
Died at Guildford, Surrey, April 9, 1875. He published
various works, but is chiefly known for his hymns.

Monselet, m6N'seh-!i', (CHARLES,) a French litttra-
teur, born at Nantes in 1825. He wrote, besides various
other works, " Statues et Statuettes," (1851,) and " Figu-
rines Parisiennes," (1854.) Died May 19, 1888.

Mon'sell, (WILLIAM,) M.P., was born in Limerick
county, Ireland, in 1812. He was appointed a privy
councillor in 1855, president of the board of health in
1857, was vice-president of the board of trade a few
months in 1866, and became under-secretary for the
colonies in 1868. He was postmaster-general, (1871-73,!
and received the title of Baron Emly. Died in 1894.

Monsiau, m6N'se-5', (NICOLAS ANDR*,) a French
historical painter, born in Paris in 1754, worked with
remarkable facility. Died in 1837.

Monaignori, mon-sen-yo'ree, (FRANCESCO,) some-
times called BONSIONORI, a skilful Italian painter, born
at Verona in 1455. He was a pupil of Andrea Man-
tegna, and worked mostly at Mantua. Died in 1519.

Monsigny, mAN'sen'ye', (PIERRE ALEXANDRA) a
French composer, born at Artois in 1729. He produced,
besides other operas, " Le Maitre en Droit," and " Le
Cadi dupe," (1760,) the comic operas of "The King and
the Farmer" and " Rose and Colas," and was elected a
member of the Institute, (1813.) Died in 1817.

Mon'son, (Sir 1 DMUND JOHN,) an English diplo-
matist, born at Chart Lodge, Kent, in 1834. He entered
the public sen-ice in 1856, was attache and secretary
t<> many foreign l>;;.itions, and minister at several
South American courts 1879-84. He was made
minister to Denmark in 1884, to Greece 1888, to
Belgium 1892, ambassador to Austria 1893, and to
France 1898.

Mon'son, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English naval com-
mander, born in Lincolnshire about 1569, served with
distinction against the Spaniards, Dutch, and French,
and attained the rank of vice-admiral. He was the
author of " Naval Tracts," which were published in
Churchill's "Collection of Voyages." Died in 1643.

Monstrelet, de. deh m6N'streh-l|', (ENGUERRAND,;
a French chronicler, born about 1390, wrote an account
of the wars of his time between the factions of Armagnac
and Burgundy. His " Chronicles," beginning in 1400
and brought down to 1444, fill the space between the
histories of Froissart and Comines, and are highl;
esteemed for their accuracy and the perspicuity am
simplicity of their style. Died in 1453.
See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."
Montagna, mon-tan'ya, (BARTOLOMMEO,) an Italiai
painter, born at Vicenza, lived about 1460-1500, anc
studied under Andrea Mantegna. Among his master

ieces we may name the "Madonna on a Throne will
aint Andrew and other Saints," at the Museum
Milan.

Montagna, (BENEDETTO,) an Italian engraver, a
relative of the preceding, was born at Vicenza about 1458
died in 1530.



Montague, m6N'tSn', (JEAN FRANC.OIS CAMILLE,) a
r rench botanist, born at Vaudoy in 1784. Having
tudied medicine, he was appointed in 1815 surgeon-in-
:hief of the army of Murat. He was chosen a member
if the Academy of Sciences in 1852, and in 1858 was
made an officer of the legion of honour. He con-
ributed to the " Archives de Botanique" and to other
cientific journals a number of valuable treatises on
he Cryptogamia, among which we may name " Notice
of the Cryptogamous Plants recently discovered in
r rance." Died in 1866.

See " Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale."

Montagny, mdN'tSn'ye', (fiTiENNE,) a French sculp-
:or, born at Saint-fitienne in 1816. He obtained a medal
of the first class for a statue of Saint Louis, in 1859.

M5n'ta-gu, (BASIL,) an eminent English lawyer and
writer, born in London in 1770, was a natural son of
fohn Montagu, Earl of Sandwich. Having graduated
at Cambridge, he was called to the bar in 1798. He
practised with ability and success, and extended his
eputation by numerous legal publications, the most im-
portant of which is a " Digest of the Bankrupt Laws,
with a Collection of the Statutes and of the Cases de-
termined upon that Subject," (1805.) He was associated
with Romilly and Wilberforce in successful effort to
abolish hanging for forgery and for certain other crimes.
In 1825 he produced a valuable edition of Lord Bacon's
works, on which he expended the labour of many years ;
also a " Life of Bacon," in reference to which Macaulay
says, " About his merit as a collector of materials there
can be no dispute ; and we are indebted to his minute
and accurate researches for the means of refuting what
we cannot but consider his errors." He published
"Essays and Selections," and various other works.
Died in 1851.

Montagu, (CHARLES.) See HALIFAX, EARL OF.

Montagu, (EDWARD.) See MANCHESTER, EARL OF.

Montagu, (EDWARD WORTLF.Y,) son of Lady Mary
Montagu, noticed below, was born in Yorkshire in 1713.
At an early age he manifested a propensity to low vices,
and great eccentricity of character. When placed at
school he repeatedly ran away, and at length hired him-
self as a cabin-boy in a ship bound for Spain. Being
discovered and sent back to his family, he travelled soon
after on the continent. After his return he was member
of two successive Parliaments. He next went to Italy,
where he was converted to Catholicism, and not long
after visited Egypt, and there professed Mohammedanism.
He was the author of " Reflections on the Rise and Fall
of Ancient Republics." Died in 1776.

See "Memoirs of E. Wortlev Montagu," 2 vols., 1778: "Auto
biography of Edward Wortley Montagu," London, 1869: NICHOLS
"Literary Anecdotes."

Montagu, (HENRY.) See MANCHESTER, EARL OF.

Montagu, (Lady MARY \VORTLEY.) a celebrated
English writer, born in Nottinghamshire about 1690.
She was the daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, Duke of
Kingston, and Lady Mary Fielding, and cousin to the
novelist Henry Fielding. She was early distinguished
for the brilliancy of her intellect and her rapid acquisition
of knowledge. In 1712 she was married to Edward
Wortley Montagu, Esq., and a few years after, on his
appointment to a place in the treasury, accompanied
him to London. Here she attracted general admiration
by her wit and remarkable beauty, and became intimate
with Addison, Pope, and other celebrated writers of
the time. In 1716 she accompanied her husband, on his
being appointed ambassador, to Constantinople. During
her residence of two years at the Porte, she wrote to
her friends in England a series of Letters containing
shrewd and lively descriptions of Oriental life and man-
ners. On her return to England she became the means
of introducing the Turkish practice of inoculation, having
had the courage to have the experiment first tried on
her own son. The next remarkable event in Lady Mary's
life is her quarrel with Pope, the cause of which is not
with certainty known. In 1739 she left England for
Italy, where she resided upwards of twenty years. She
returned in 1761, and died the following year. Besides
the son mentioned above, she left a daughter Mary, who
was married to the Earl of Bute, minister of George IIL



a, >, i, 5, u, y, fang; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far,' till, fat; met; not; good; moon:



MONTAGU



I75 1



MONTALEMBER T



Lady Mary wrote a number of poems, of which the
"Town Eclogues" only are entitled to much notice.
Her literary reputation is owing chiefly to her " Let-
ters," which are ranked among the finest specimens of
epistolary composition.

See " Memoirs of Eminent Englishwomen," by L. S. COSTBU.O;
MRS ELWOOD, " Memoirs of the Literary Ladies of England ;
" Edinburgh Review" for July. 1803, and April, 1804, (by JEFFREY :)
" Quarterly Review" for February, 1837 ; " Blackwood's Magazine



,

for July, 1868, (" Historical Sketches of the Reign of George II. ; )
stminster Review" for April, 1837 ; " Monthly Re



.
eview' for May



" West

and June, 1763 et sty.

Montagu, (Lord ROBERT,) an English economist,
was born in 1825, son of the Duke of Manchester.
He was a member of Parliament 1859-80, and the
author of numerous works on economical, political,
and other subjects.

Montague, mon'ta-gu, (Sir EDWARD,) an English
statesman, born in Northamptonshire. He was ap-
pointed chief justice of the court of king's bench in
1539, and chief justice of the common pleas in 1546.
He was one of the counsellors designated in the will of
Henry VIII. to administer the government during the
minority of Edward VI. Died in 1556.

Montague, (EDWARD,) Earl of Sandwich, an English
naval commander, born in 1625. He served for a time
on the side of the Parliament, but subsequently went
over to the royalists, and assisted General Monk in the
restoration of Charles II. For this service he was suc-
cessively created an earl, a knight of the Garter, mem-
ber of the privy council, and admiral of the Narrow
Seas. On the renewal of the war with Holland, in 1672,
Lord Sandwich commanded the squadron under the
Duke of York against De Ruyter, and perished in the
burning of the Royal James.

Montague, (ELIZABETH,) a celebrated English lady,
born in Yorkshire in 1720. Her early studies were
directed by Dr. Conyers Middleton, who was connected
with her femily. In 1742 she was married to Edward
Montague, Esq. After the death of her husband, in
1775, she resided in Portman Square, London, where
she numbered among her visitors the most eminent men
of the day, including Burke, Johnson, Goldsmith, and
Reynolds. She was also intimate with Mrs. Elizabeth
Carter and Hannah More. Mrs. Montague contributed
several " Dialogues of the Dead" to those published by
Lord Lyttelton ; but her principal work is an "Essay on
the Genius and Writings of Shakespeare," which ob-
tained for her a high reputation. In this production
she has ably refuted the false charges of Voltaire against
the great English poet. She is said to have been the
founder of the literary society called the "Blue-Stocking
Club." Her correspondence was published after her
death. Died in 1800.

See MRS. ELWOOD, " Memoirs of the Literary Ladies of England,"
etc. : " Edinburgh Review" for October, r8oo ; " Quarterly Review"
for October, 1813; " Mrs. Montague and her Friends," in " Eraser's
Magazine" for January, 1848 ; " Monthly Review" for October, 1814.

Montague, (GEORGE,) an English naturalist, born in
Wiltshire. In 1802 he published an "Ornithological
Dictionary, or Synopsis of British Birds," and soon after
his "Testacea Britannica," or "Natural History of
British Shells," illustrated. Both of these works are
highly esteemed. Montague was a member of the Lin-
naean Society of London. Died in 1815.

Montague, (JoHN,) Earl of Sandwich, an English
statesman, born in London in 1718. He was first lord
of the admiralty in 1749 and 1750, and obtained the
same office in 1763. lie supported the administration
of Lord North, under whom he served as first lord of
the admiralty from 1771 to 1782. He was more deficient
in principle than in capacity. Died in 1792.

See J. COOKH. " Memoir of the Earl of Sandwich."

Mon'ta-gue, (WILLIAM LEWIS,) an American edu-
catur, born at Belchertown, Massachusetts, April 6, 1831.
He graduated at Amherst College in 1855, and after
1862 held the professorship of modern languages in that
institution. His publications include Spanish and Italian
grammars, " Introduction to Italian Literature," and other
works.



Montaigne, mon-tan', de. [Fr. pron. deh
(MiCHEL Eyquem aTcoN',) a celebrated French phi-
losopher and essayist, born at the chateau de Mon-
taigne, in Pe'rigord, on the 28th of February, 1533. His
father, who was one of the noblesse, placed him, while
very young, under the tuition of masters who were
ignorant of French, and who conversed with him only in
Latin, which thus became his natural language. At the
age of thirteen he had finished his studies at a college
of Bordeaux. Having studied law, he became a judge
at Bordeaux about 1554. In 1565 or 1566 he married,
par comienanct, Fran9oise de la Chassaigne. In 1580 he
produced his celebrated "Essays," which have enjoyed
an almost unparalleled popularity. Soon after that date
he made a tour in Germany, Italy, etc., of which he
wrote a Journal. He often visited Paris, in order to
perform his duties as gentleman of the king's chamber.
From 1581 to 1585 he was mayor of Bordeaux. During
the civil war of the League his impartial moderation did
not exempt him from danger and persecution. He died
in September, 1592. "The Essays of Montaigne," say*
Hallam, "make in several respects an epoch in litera-
ture, less on account of their real importance than of
their influence on the taste and opinions of Europe. . . .
No prose writer of the sixteenth century has been so
generally read, nor, probably, given so much delight
Whatever may be our estimate of Montaigne as a phi-
losopher, a name which he was far from arrogating,
there will be but one opinion of the felicity and bright-
ness of his genius." ("Introduction to the Literature
of Europe.") " The author of these ' Essais,' " says Leo
Joubert, "is certainly the most independent spirit that
ever existed, independent without revolt, and detached
from the systems of others without having any system
of his own. . . . We recognize in his ' Essays' a nature
well endowed, not heroic, perhaps, but generous, exqui-
sitely sensible, not aspiring to the sublime, capable of
devotion, and incapable of a base act, in fine, a model
of what we may call average virtue," (la vertu moyenne.)
(" Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale.") Sprightly humour,
independence, na'ivetl, and originality are the character-
istics of his mind ; and his style is admired for its graceful
simplicity. His works are highly seasoned with his own
individuality, and afford much insight into his character.

" The Essays," says Emerson, " are an entertaining
soliloquy on every random topic that comes into his
head, treating everything without ceremony, yet with
masculine sense. There have been men with deeper
insight, but, one would say, never a man with such
abundance of thoughts : he is never dull, never insin
cere, and has the genius to make the reader care for all
that he cares for. . . . This book of Montaigne the
world has endorsed by translating it into all tongues
and printing seventy-five editions of it in Europe, and
that, too, a circulation somewhat chosen, namely, among
courtiers, soldiers, princes, men of the world, and men
of wit and generosity." (See article " Montaigne," in
" Representative Men.")

See J. BOUHIER, " Me"moires sur la Vie de Montaigne;" VILLB-
MAIN, " E*loge de Montaigne," 1812; PAYHN, "Notice sur Mon-
taigne," 1837 ; GR()N, " La Vie publique de M. Montaigne," 1855
BAYLH SAINT JOHN, " Montaigne the Essayist," 1858; DE THOI'.
"Historiasui Temporis ;" SAINTE-BEUVE. "Causeries du Lundij"
VICTORIN FABRH, "filoge de Montaigne," 1813: " NouveHe Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale :" MRS. SHELLEY. " Lives of the
French Writers;" " Retrospectivi
terly Review" for October, 1856;
1838.

Montalbani, mon-tal-ba'nee, (OviDio,) an Italian
naturalist, born at Bolog_na about 1602, became succes-
sively professor of physical science, mathematics, and
medicine in the university of his native city. He pub-
lished a number of scientific works under the pseudonym
of BUMALDI. Thunberg gave the name of Bumaldia to
a genus of Japanese plants. Died in 1671.

See GHILINI, "Teatro d'Uomini letterati;" NICE'RON, " Me-
moires. "

Montalembert, (ANDR.) See ESSE.

Montalembert, de, deh mAN'tS'loN'baiR', (CHARLES
FORBES,) COMTE, a distinguished statesman, orator, and
political writer, of French extraction, born in London
in 1810, was a son of Marc Rene Anne Marie, noticed
below. His mother was Miss Forbes, a Scottish lady.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 159 of 425)