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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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taxes which were required to support his sumptuous style
of living. In 1519 his empire was invaded by Corter,
against whom he employed a temporizing policy. He
sent him a magnificent present, but forbade him to ap-
proach the capital. "This was to reveal," says Prescott,
" both his wealth and his weakness." Cortez entered the
city of Mexico, without resistance, in November, 1519,
and found a hospitable reception. To secure himself
against contingencies, the audacious Spaniard next seized
Montezuma and held him as a hostage. His captors
tried to convert him to the Roman Catholic religion,
but without success. In compliance with the demand

a, e, I, o, u, y, long, a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, j>, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure: tar, fall, fat; mStj not; good; moon-



of Cortez, he formally recognized the supremacy of the j Montgaillard, m6N'ga"yaV, (GuiLLAUME HONOKE
emperor Charles V., to whom he sent an immense quan- ROQUES,) a historian, born near Toulouse in 1772. He
tity of gold as tribute. In May, 1520, Cortez absented wrote a " Chronological Review of the History of France,
himself from the capital to fight his rival Narvaez, and etc., 1787-1818," (1820,) which was once popular. Died
during his absence the Mexicans revolted against the; in 1825.
Spaniards. Montezuma was persuaded or compelled by Montgaillard, (JEAN GABRIEL MAURICE ROQUES,)

a French adventurer and political writer, a brother of
the preceding, was born at Toulouse in 1761. He was
employed as a secret agent by the Bourbons and by
their enemies. He published a "Memoir concerning


Cortez to address his subjects and try to appease the
tumult He was assailed with missiles by the insur-
gents, was wounded, and died in June, 1520. "Stately

and decorous," says Prescott, "he was careful of his ( o

own dignity, and might be said to be as great an 'actor ' the Treason of Picheg'ru," etc., and several other works!
of majesty among the barbarian potentates of the New i Died in 1841.

World as Louis XIV. was among the polished princes i Montgelas, m6N'zheh-la', (MAXIMILIAN JOSEPH,';
of Europe. . . . Montezuma's amiable and inoffensive COUNT, a German statesman, of Savoyard extraction,
manners, together with his liberality, the most popular , born at Munich in 1759, was appointed minister of
of virtues with the vulgar, made him generally beloveu \ foreign affairs in 1799, minister of the interior in 1806,
by the Spaniards." [and minister of finance in 1809. Died in 1838.

Montfaucon, de, deh m6N'fo'kAN', [Lat. MONTEFAL- I Montglat, de, deh m6N'gl3', MARQUIS, a French
CO'NIUS,] (BERNARD,) an eminent French antiquary and I author, of whom little is known. He left memoirs of
philologist, born in Languedoc in 1655, was a member tne Thirty Years' War and of the campaigns before the
of the congregation of Benedictines of Saint-Maur. Treaty of the Pyrenees. These memoirs are of much
Having visited Italy in 1698, he published, after his re- 1 historical value.

turn, his " Diarium Italicum," an account of the libra- Montgolfier, mont-g6rfe-er, [Fr. pron. moN'goI'-
ries of Italy, " Palaeographia Graeca," a treatise on the fS^M (J_ACQUEsETiENNE,)an ingenious Frenchman, whn

origin and progress of Greek letters, " Antiquity Ex-
plained and Represented in Figures," (lovols. fol., 1719,

in French and Latin,) and "The
French Monarchy," (5 vols., 1729.)


invented the air-balloon, was born at or near Annonay
(Ardeche) in 1745. After studying mathematics with

tions. Died in 1741.

Montferrat, de, (CONRAD.)
of Ty

excellent editions of Saint Chrysostom and other Greek
writers. He was a member of the Academy of Inscrip

See CONRAD, Marquis

Montferrat, de, deh mAN'fl'rt", (BONIFACE,) MAR-
QUIS, was a brother of Conrad, King of Jerusalem. He
became King of Thessalonica in 1183, and was chosen
the chief of the fifth or fourth crusade in 1202. He
was an able commander, and contributed greatly to the
conquest of Constantinople in 1204. Died in 1207.

Montferrat, de, (GUILLAUME,) MARQUIS, called
THE GREAT, was born in 1243, and began to reign in
1254. He was a turbulent prince and continually en-
gaged in war with the neighbouring states. He married
Beatrix, a daughter of Alfonso X. of Castile, in 1271.

numents of the success at Paris, he became an architect. At the request
! also published ' f nis father, he quitted that profession in order to take

charge of the paper-manufactory at Annonay. He in-
vented new machines and more simple processes in this
art. On reading Priestley's treatise " On Different Kinds
of Air," he conceived the possibility of aerial navigation,
and imparted the idea to his brother Joseph, who was as
another self. Acting in concert and community, they
contrived the means of realizing this project. After
trying hydrogen gas and other fluids, they made the first
public experiment at Annonay in June, 1783, and sent
up a balloon about thirty-seven French feet in diameter,
inflated with air rarefied by heat. This successful ex-
periment made a great sensation, and was soon repeated
at Paris. The brothers were admitted into the Acad-
emy of Sciences. Their balloons were called Montgol-
fores. The first who successfully used hydrogen gas in
balloons was M. Charles. Montgolfier died in 1799. (See

Having been taken prisoner in 1290, he was confined in CHARLES, JACQUES ALEXANDRA)

an iron cage, and died in 1292.

Montferrier, de, deh m6N'f^'re-i', (ALEXANDRE
ANDRE VICTOR SARRAZIN,) a French mathematician,
born in Paris in 1792. He published, besides other
works, a " Dictionary of Mathematical Sciences, Pure

and Applied," (3 vols., 1834-40.) Died March 13, 1863.
Moutfleury, mAN'fluh Re', the literary name of AN-

Montgolfier, (JOSEPH MICHEL,) an ingenious French
mechanician, born at Annonay in 1740, was one of the
inventors of the air-balloon. In his youth he assisted
his father, who was a successful manufacturer of paper.
In partnership witii a brother, he carried on the same
business at Voiron and Beaujeu. He had made several
improvements in the fabrication of paper before his

TOINF. Jacob, a French actor and dramatist, born in aerostatic experiments blazoned his name throughout
1640. He was an active rival of Moliere, and left sixteen I Europe. (See the preceding article.) About 1792 he
rather coarse, but very effective, comedies. | made a valuable improvement in the hydraulic ram.

Montfleury, de, deh moN'fluh're', QEAN LE PETIT,) He also invented a hydraulic press and other mechanical
a French poet, born at Caen in 1698 ; died in 1777. instruments. He was a member of the Institute ot
Montfort, COUNT DE. See JOHN, Duke of Brittany. France. Died in 1810.

Montfort, mont'fort, de, [Fr. pron. deh mdN'fol/,] Montgomerie, (ARCHIBALD WILLIAM.) See EGLIN-
(SiMON,) COUNT, a French nobleman and military com- TON.

mander.born about 1150, was conspicuous for his courage Montgomery, mpnt-gum'e-re, (ALEXANDER,) a Scot-
and for his cruelty in the wars against the Albigenses, i tish poet under the reign of James VI., was the author
(1208.) He was killed while besieging Toulouse, in 1218. ! f an allegorical piece entitled "The Cherry and the

Montfort, de, (SiMON,) a son of the preceding, ob- !Slae." Died about 1610.

tained at an early age the patronage of Henry III. of Montgomery, (FLORENCE SOPHIA,) a novelist,
England, who made him Earl of Leicester and gave to born ln Donegal, Ireland, in 1847. Among her books
him in marriage his sister, the Countess of Perrrbroke. are "A Very Simple Story," (1867,) "The Blue
He was afterwards appointed lieutenant-general in | Veil," 0883,) "Colonel Norton," (1895,) etc
Gascony. In 1258, a rupture having occurred between ; Montgomery, mpnt-gum'e-re, (GEORGE WASHING-
Henry and his barons, the latter, headed by Montfort, j TON,) a native of Spain, settled in America, where he
compelled the king to consent to the regulations called j published "Bernardo del Carpio," a historical romance,
the Provisions of Oxford, which threw the legislative and I and translated into Spanish Irving's "Conquest of
executive power into the hands of twenty-four barons. Granada." Died in 1841.

In 1264 a battle took place at Lewes, in Sussex, in which Montgomery, (Sir JAMES,) a Scottish politician, and
the royalists were defeated and the king taken prisoner, a chief of the Covenanters. He was appointed lord
Montfort summoned a Parliament in 1265, in which, in justice clerk in 1689. "In parliamentary ability and
addition to the two knights returned from every shire, eloquence," says Macaulay, " he had no superior among
representatives were sent from the boroughs ; and in this .his countrymen except Sir John Dalrymple." He was
way was founded the English House of Commons. In : turbulent and perfidious. In 1690 he joined the Jacob-
the battle of Evesham, the same year, Montfort was de- ites in plotting against William III.
feated and slain by the royal troops under Prince Edward. | See MACAULAY, " History of England," vol. iii.

eas*/ 9 as*; ^.hard; gas/;G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sass; thasinM/j. (23f = See Explanations, p. 23.)




Montgomery, (JAMES,) a distinguished poet, born in
Ayrshire, Scotland, in 1771, was the son of a Moravian
preacher. He was sent at an early age to the Moravian
school at Fulneck, in Yorkshire, where his progress was
not very satisfactory to his teachers, as he spent the
greater part of his time in reading and writing poetry,
which was prohibited by the rules of the school. After
leaving Fulneck, he resided for a time, as shopman in a
book -store, in London, and in 1792 began to contribute
political articles to the "Sheffield Register," edited by
Mr. Joseph Gales. He founded in 17943 reform jour-
nal, called the " Sheffield Iris," of which he was editor
about thirty years. Several of his articles having been
denounced as revolutionary, he was twice fined and
imprisoned. He published in 1806 his "Wanderer of
Switzerland," which was followed by " The West Indies,"
(1809,) "The World before the Flood," (1812,) and "The
Pelican Island, "(1827.) These poems are distinguished
for depth and tenderness of feeling, elevated moral
sentiment, and graceful description. He also wrote a
number of hymns of great beauty, which enjoy exten-
sive popularity. One of Mr. Montgomery's last works
was a " History of Missionary Enterprise in the South
Seas," (1830.) Died in 1854.

See " Memoirs of the Life, etc. of James Montgomery," by J.
HOLLAND and JAMES EVBRETT ; " Lire of Montgomery," by MRS,
H. C. KNIGHT; CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent
Scotsmen," (Supplement ;) "Quarterly Review" for December, 1811 ;
" Blackwood's Magazine" for October, 1827; " Fraser's Magazine"
for July, 1833, and October, 185$.

Montgomery, (RICHARD,) a distinguished general,
born in Ireland in 1737, served in Canada under Wolfe,
and subsequently entered the American army. Being
appointed commander of the forces in the Northern
department, he took Fort Chambly and Montreal. He
was killed in December, 1775, in an assault upon Quebec.

See " Life of Richard Montgomery," by JOHN ARMSTRONG, in
SPARKS'S " American Biography," vol. i., first series ; " National
Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," vol. iv.

Montgomery, mpnt-gum'e-re, (ROBERT,) an English
divine and poet, born at Bath in 1807. He was the
author of a poem entitled "The Omnipresence of the
Deity," (1828,) which had great temporary success, eight
editions being sold in as many months. He became in
1843 pastor of Percy Street Chapel, London. The extra-
ordinary success of his poetry was chiefly to be ascribed
to the nature of his subject and the favour of a large
portion of the religious community. Died in 1855.

See MACAULAY, in the " Edinburgh Review" for April, 1830:
"Autobiography of William Jerdan," vol. iv. chap. xvii. :

Montgomery, (WILLIAM R.,) an American officer,
born in New Jersey, July 10, 1801, served in the Mexican
war, became brigadier-general of volunteers in the Union
army in 1861, and military commandant of Philadelphia
in 1862. Died at Bristol, Pennsylvania, May 31, 1871.

Montgomery, mont-gum'e-re, de, [ Fr. pron. den
m6N'gom're',] (GABRIEL,) a French nobleman, of Scot-
tish extraction, born about 1530. Being present at a
tournament given by Henry II. on the occasion of his
daughter's marriage with the King of Spain, Montgomery
was summoned by the French king to break a lance with
him. He complied reluctantly, and had the misfortune
to inflict a mortal wound on his antagonist. He subse-
quently went to England, where he became a Protestant,
and, after his return to France in 1562, distinguished
himself as a leader of the Huguenots in the civil war of
the time. Being made prisoner by Marshal Matignon
at the siege of Saint-Lo, in 1574, he was condemned to
death and executed, by order of Catherine de Medicis.
"The queen," says Sismondi, "had no great affection
for Henry II., or cause to regret him ; but she wished
that a man should not be considered innocent after
having, even by accident, caused the death of a king."

See SrsMONDr, " Histoire des Frangais ;" BRANT&ME, "Capi-
taines illustres. "

Montgon, de, deh m6N'g6.N', (CHARLES AI.EXANDRE,)
a French priest, born at Versailles in 1690. He entered
the service of Philip V. of Spain, who sent him on a
secret mission to the court of Paris. He published
"Diplomatic Memoirs," (5 vols., 1742.) Died in 1770.

Monthenault or Montenault d'figly, mdN'teh'no'
la'gle', (CHARLES PHILIPPE,) a French writer, born in

Paris in 1696. His chief work is a "History of the
French Kings of the Two Sicilies," (4 vols., 1741.) Died
in 1749.

Monthion, de, deh mdN'te'oN', (FRANCOIS GDON
BAILLY,) COMTE, a French general, born in the Isle of
Bourbon in 1776; died in 1850.

Montholon, de, deh m6N'to'16N', (CHARLES TRIS-
TAN,) MARQUIS, a French general, born in Paris in 1782.
He entered the army in 1798, and accompanied Napo-
leon in the subsequent campaigns in Italy, Austria, and
Prussia. He was sent in 1811 on an important embassy
to the archduke Ferdinand at Wiirzburg, and in 1814
was made general of brigade. He shared the emperor's
exile at Saint Helena, and served him with unwearied
fidelity till his death, being appointed by him executor
of his will and keeper of part of his manuscripts. After
his return to France, Montholon published, in conjunc-
tion with General Gourgaud, "Memoirs towards the
History of France under Napoleon, dictated by Himself
at Saint Helena," (1823.) He also wrote an "Account
of the Captivity of Napoleon at Saint Helena," (1847.)
Died in 1853.

Monti, mon'tee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian
poet, born at Bologna in 1688; died in 17615.

Monti, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian botanist, born at Bo-
logna in 1682. He published several botanical works.
Died at Bologna in 1760.

Monti, (Luici,) an Italian author, born at
Palermo, Sicily, in 1830. He was exiled in 1849 as a
revolutionist, and afterwards spent much of his time in
Boston. He was United States consul at Palermo
1861-73, and wrote " The Adventures of a Consul
Abroad," (1878; ) also wrote " Leone," a novel, and
translated several Italian works.

Monti, (RAFAELLE,) an Italian sculptor, born at
Milan in 1818. Among his master-pieces may be named
the " Veiled Vestal," the " Boy catching a Grasshopper,"
and the " Circassian Slave." He was an active sup-
porter of the popular cause in 1847-48, after which he
lived as an exile in London. Died October 16, 1881.

Monti, (ViNCENZO,) a celebrated Italian poet, born
near Ferrara in 1753. He studied in the university of
that city, and began at an early age to write Latin and
Italian poems. These compositions obtained for him
the notice and patronage of Cardinal Borghese, who took
Monti with him to Rome in 1778. He published in 1785
his tragedy of " Aristodemo," which was received with
great favour. His poem entitled " Bassvilliana," (1793,)
suggested by the murder of Hugo de Bassville, envoy of
the French republic at Rome, had also great popularity,
and passed through eighteen editions in six months.
Upon the French invasion in 1796, Monti repaired to
Milan, where, accommodating himself to the new order
of things, he wrote in favour of the Revolution. Some
of his writings, which originally contained bitter in-
vectives against Napoleon, were now altered so as
to transfer the abuse to the allied sovereigns. On the
Russian invasion in 1799 he took refuge for a time in
France, and, soon after his return, published his tragedy
of "Caio Gracco," "La Mascheroniana," a poem on
the death of his friend Mascheroni, and his beautiful
and popular hymn beginning " Bell' Italia," etc. Monti
became in 1803 professor of eloquence at Pavfa, and on
the coronation of Napoleon, in 1805, was appointed his
historiographer. He filled this office rather as court
poet than historian , and lavished a profusion of eulogistic
verses on the emperor and his family. He was created
by him a chevalier of the legion of honour and of the
; iron crown, and was chosen a member of the Institute
of the kingdom of Italy. Died in 1828.

Montiano y Luyando, de, da mon-te-i'no e loo-
yan'do, (AucusTlN,) a Spanish dramatist, born in 1697 ;
died in 1759.

Monticelli, mon-te-chel'lee, (ANDREA,) a skilful
Italian painter, born at Bologna in 1640, painted land-
scapes, flowers, fruits, etc. Died in 1716.

Montigny, m6N'ten've', (FLORENCE de Montmo-
rency deh moN'mo'roN'se',) LORD OF, a Flemish
nobleman, was ambassador to Spain in 1562. Being
sent on a second mission in 1566, he was arrested b

\. e, 1, o, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short;*, e, i. o, obscure: far, fill, fit;m?t; nftt;good: moon;




order of Philip II., accused of high treason, and exe-
cuted in 1570.

Montigny, moN'ten'ye', (RosE MARIE Cizos,) a
popular French actress of comedy, known as ROSE
CHERIE, was born at Etampes in 1824. Died in 1861.

Montigny, de, de.h mdN'ten'ye', (JEAN,) a French
poet, born in Bretagne in 1637, was a member of the
Fiench Academy, and Bishop of Le'on. Died in 1671.

Montjoie, mdN'zhwa', (CHRISTOPHE Fiux Louis
VENTRE DE LA TOULOUBRE,) a French political writer,
born at Aix in 1746. He was a royalist in the Revo-
lution of 1789-95. He wrote, besides other works, a
"History of the Conspiracy of Robespierre," (1796.)
Died in 1816.

Montjosieu, de, d?h moN'zho'zg-uh', (Louis,) a
French scholar and writer, born in Rouergue. He visited
Rome in 1583. Among his works is "The Frenchman
a Guest at Rome," ("Callus Romae Hospes," 1585.)

Montlosier, de, deh m6N'lo'ze-i', (FRANC.OIS DO-
MINIQUE Reyuaud rj'no',) COMTE, a French journal-
ist, born at Clermont-Ferrand in 1755. He was a deputy
to the States-General in 1789, and was a prominent ad-
vocate of the aristocratic party. He repaired to London,
where he edited an anti-revolutionary journal called the
"Courrier de Londres." On his return to France,
during the consulate, he modified or abandoned his roy-
alist views. He was also for a time one of the editors
of the "Constitutionnel." Having attached himself to
the new dynasty on the revolution of July, he was
made a peer in 1832. He wrote a work " On the French
Monarchy from its Establishment to the Present Time."
Died in 1838.

Montluc, de, deh mdN'liik', (BLAISE de Lasseran-
Maaaenoome deh las'rdN' mi'sftN'kom',) SEIGNEUR,
a French marshal, born in Gascony in 1501. He fought
against the Imperialists commanded by the emperor
Charles V., and assisted at the sieges of La Rochelle
and Calais. In 1573 he was made a marshal by Henry
III. He died in 1577, leaving "Memoirs of his Military
Life," (1592,) which were praised by Henry IV. and
often reprinted.

Montluc, de, (JEAN,) a bishop, the brother of the
preceding, was born about 1508, and was distinguished
by the favour of Francis I. and Henry II., who employed
him in various embassies. He became Bishop of Valence
in 1553 He is said to have been secretly attached to
the Reformed religion ; but he retained the favour of
Catherine de Medicis. Died in 1579.

Montluc, de, (JEAN,) Seigneur de Balagni, and mar-
shal of France, a natural son of the preceding, was
born about 1545. After he had fought for the League
against Henry IV., he entered the service of the latter,
who made him a marshal of France in 1594. Died
in 1603.

Montluca, niAN'lu'ka', (JEAN ETIENNE,) a French
mathematician, born at Lyons in 1725. He became a
lawyer of Paris, and a noted linguist, was the friend of
Lalande and D'Alembert, and filled important civil offices.
He wrote a very important " History of Mathematics,"
(1758 et seq.,} and died in December, 1799.

Montmaur, de, deh mdN'moR', (PIERRE,) a pedantic
and witty Frenchman, born in Limousin or Le Quercy
about 1564. He was professor of Greek in the College
de France, and was notorious as a parasite. Died in 1648.

Montmorency. See LUXEMBOURG.

Montmorency or Montmorenci, mflnt-mo-rSn'se,
[Fr. pron. m6N'mo'r6N'se',] the name of a noble French
family, whose celebrity dates as far back as the eleventh
century, and which has produced many famous princes,
peers, and generals. Among them were six constables
and eleven marshals of France.

Montmorency, de, deh moN'mo'r&N'se', (ANNE,)
Due, Constable of France, born at Chantilly in 1493,
was the first of his family that received the title of duke.
He was made a marshal in 1522, and was taken prisoner
at Pavia in 1525. In 1536, by skilful manoeuvres, he
defended Provence, which was invaded by Charles V. in
person. He was appointed constable in 1538, and was
chief minister of Francis I. from that date until 1541,
when he fell into disgrace. Henry II. restored him to

favour and power in 1547. Montmorency was defeated
and made prisoner at the battle of Saint-Quentin, in 1557.
The death of Henry II., in 1559, was fatal to his am-
bitious prospects, and opened the way for the accession
to power of his rival the Due de Guise. He fought for
the Catholic party in the civil war, and in 1562 com-
manded at Dreux, where he gained the victory, but
was made prisoner. He was mortally wounded at the
battle of Saint-Denis, in 1567. He has been censured
for austerity and excessive rigour, but had several great

See DB THOU, " Historia sui Temporis ;" BRANTQME, " Vies de*
Hommes illustres;" LESCONVEL, "Anne de Montmorency," 1696,
DAVILA, " History of the Civil Wars of France :" " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Generate ;" TAVANNES, "Me'moires;" ROBERTSON, " His-
tory of Charles V.," vols. ii. and iii.

Montmorency, de, (CHARLES,) a French general,
who became a marshal of France in 1343. He fought
against the English at Crecy in 1346. Died in 1381.

Montmoreiicy, de, (CHARLOTTE MARGUERITE,) a
French lady, born in 1594, was the sister of Duke Henri
II. de Montmorency. She was married to Henri, Prince
de Conde, about 1609. Her beauty made such an im-
pression on the king, Henry IV., that her husband was
alarmed, and conducted her to a foreign country. She
was the mother of the great Condd, of the Prince of
Conti, and of the Duchess of Longueville. Died in 1650.

See BAZIH, "Histoirede LouisXIII ;" L'EsTOiLE, "Me'moires,"

Montmorency, de, (HENRY I.,) Due, the second
son of Anne, noticed above, was styled COMTE DE
DAMVILLE in his youth. He was a cousin of Admiral
Coligni. At the battle of Dreux, in 1562, he took the
Prince of Conde prisoner, and in 1566 obtained a mar-
shal's baton. He rendered important services to Henry
IV., who appointed him Constable of France in 1593.
Died in 1614. It is stated that a mutual passion was
felt by him and Mary Queen of Scots, whom he fol-
lowed to Scotland in 1561.

Montmorency, de, (HENRI II.,) Due, a son of the
preceding, was born at Chantilly in 1595. His valour,
generosity, and name rendered him a great favourite with
the court, the army, and the people. He commanded
for Louis XIII. in the civil war against the Huguenots
which began about 1620, and defeated the Due de
Rohan in 1628. For his victory over the Imperialists at
Veillane, in 1629, he was made a marshal. Seduced by
Gaston, a brother of Louis XIII. and heir-presumptive
to the throne, and incited by enmity to Richelieu, he took
arms against the government, and encountered the royal
army at Castelnaudary in 1632. With too impetuous
valour, he exposed himself at the head of his army, was
wounded, and made prisoner. He was tried for treason,
and beheaded in October, 1632. He left no issue, and
the first ducal branch of the Montmorencies then became
extinct. His sister was the mother of the great Prince

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 161 of 425)