Joseph Thomas.

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In October, 1529, he was appointed lord chancelloi
in place of Cardinal Wolsey. Although the Protestants
were persecuted while he held that office, it would appear
that he was not responsible for the persecution. " It is
a sufficient proof of his clemency," says Erasmus, " that
while he was chancellor no man was put to death for
these pestilent dogmas."*



* This statement is contradicted by Froude, who says, " Soon after
the seals changed hands, the Smithfield fires recommenced ; and, the
chancellor acting in concert with them, the bishops resolved to ob-
literate, in these edifying spectacles, the recollection of their general
infirmities." He afterwards cites the case of Bainham, who was
burned in April, 1532, a short time before More resigned the office
of chancellor. The account of Bainham's execution appears to rest
upon the single testimony of Foxe, who, though generally trust-
worthy, might possibly be mistaken, especially when he was obliged
to depend wholly on the statements of others. He was but a boy
when Bainham's death took place. More, whose word is not to be
lightly set aside, expressly denies in his "Apology" (published the
next year) that he was guilty of any cruel treatment of the heretic^.
If the denial was false, there were doubtless many then living who
could prove it to be so. It appears, however, never to have been
contradicted. How far he was responsible for the acts of the bishop*
it is difficult to say.



as k; >, as s; g hard; g as/,- G, H, m,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in Ms.



Explanations, p. 23.)



MO RE A U



1764



MORE A U



Suitors were astonished at the contrast between the
affable More and the haughty Cardinal Wolsey. Sir
Thomas resigned the great seal in May, 1532, because
his conscience refused to sanction the divorce of Queen
Catherine and the second marriage of the king. " Henry
nad tried every possible means to obtain at least the
appearance of his spontaneous approbation." (Mackin-
tosh.) In 1533 he wrote a work called "The Apology
of Sir Thomas More."

Having declined to take the oath by which he was re-
quired to acknowledge the validity of the king's marriage
with Anne Boleyn, he was committed to the Tower in
April, 1534. After he had been in prison more than a
year, he was charged with denying the king's supremacy
as the head of the Church; and, his answers not having
been found satisfactory, he was pronounced guilty of
treason, and was beheaded on the 6th of July, 1535.
" The scaffold had been awkwardly erected, and shook
as he placed his foot upon the ladder. ' See me safe up,'
he said to Kingston ; ' for my coming down I can shift
for myself.' . . . The executioner offered to tie his eyes.
' I will cover them myself,' he said ; and, binding them in
a cloth which he had brought with him, he knelt, and
laid his head upon the block. The fatal stroke was
about to fall, when he signed for a moment's delay, while
he moved aside his beard. ' Pity that should be cut,'
he murmured : ' that hzs not committed treason.' With
which strange words, the strangest, perhaps, ever ut-
tered at such a time, the lips most famous through
Europe for eloquence and wisdom closed forever."
(Froude's " History of England," chap, ix.) Alluding
to his behaviour on the scaffold, Addison remarks,
" The innocent mirth which had been so conspicuous in
his life did not forsake him at the last. His death was
of a piece with his life ; there was nothing in it new,
forced, or affected. He cid not look upon the severing
his head from his body as a circumstance which ought
to produce any change in the disposition of his mind ;
and, as he died in a fixed and settled hope of immor-
tality, he thought any unusual degree of sorrow and
concern improper." (" Spectator," No. 349.) According
to the account of his great-grandson, More " was of a
middle stature, well proportioned, of a pale complexion,
his hair of chestnut colour, his eyes gray, his counte-
nance mild and cheerful."

See "The Life and Death of Sir Thomas More," by his great-
grandson, C. MORE, 1626 : WILLIAM ROPER, "Vita T. Mori," 1626.
SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH, " Life of Sir Thomas More," 1830: FER-
NANDO DK HERKRRA, "T. Moro," 1592; F. WARNER, "Memoirs
of the Life of Sir T. More," 1758: C. MORE, " Life of Sir T. More,"
iS 2 8 : DOMENICO RECGI. "Vita di T. More," 1675: ARTHUR CAY-
LHY, "Memoirs of Sir T. More," 2 vols., 1808.

Moreau, (FRANCOIS JOSEPH,) a French physician,
born at Auxonne in 1789, practised in Paris. He pub-
lished a "Traite' des Accouchements," (2 vols., 1838-41.)
Died in 1862.

Moreau, (GUSTAVE,) a French painter, born at
Paris in 1836. His " CEdipus and the Sphinx" ( 1864)
gave rise to a violent controversy between the admirers
and opponents of his ideal style. He was made pro-
fessor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1892. Died in
1898.

Moreau, (HgcSsiPPE,) a French poet, born in Paris
in 1810, was the author of songs, elegies, and satires, of
considerable merit, and a prose work entitled "The
Mistletoe of the Oak," (" Le Gui de ChSne.") He died,
in great poverty, in 1838.

Moreau, (JACOB NICOLAS,) a French writer, born at
Saint -Florentin in 1717, was appointed historiographer
of France under Louis XVI. He wrote a " Discourse
on the History of France," "Duties of a Prince," and
other works. Died in 1803.

Moreau, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French musician and
composer, born at Angers in 1656, was patronized at the
court of Louis XIV., and was employed by Racine to
compose the choruses for his "Athalie" and "Esther."
Died in 1733.

Moreau,^ (J RAN MICHEL,) a French engraver and
designer, born in Paris in 1741, became draughtsman of
the royal cabinet, and a member of the Academy ot
Painting. He executed one hundred and sixty plates



fur the " History of France," and upwards of one hun-
dred for editions of Voltaire and Moliere. Died in 1814

Moreau. (JEAN VICTOR,) one of the most eminent
generals of France, was born at Morlaix, in Brittany,
August n, 1763. He studied law, and was provost of
law at Rennes just before the Revolution. In 1792 he
enlisted in the republican army, and, as chef de kataillon,
served under Dumouriez. He became a general of
brigade in 1793, and a general of division in 1794. In
the latter year he commanded with Mat the right wing
of Pichegru's army, which conquered Holland. In the
spring of 1796 he succeeded Pichegru as commander -in-
chief of the army of the Rhine and Moselle, ana opened
the campaign which was the foundation of his military
fame. His passage of the Rhine at Strasbourg was greatly
applauded. He drove the Austrians back to the Danube,
and then, finding his army outnumbered, after several
indecisive actions he performed the famous and masterly
retreat through the Black Forest, which was one of his
chief exploits. He was suspended from the command
in 1797 by the Directory, who probably suspected hirr
of complicity in the defection of his friend Pichegru.

The reverses of the French having rendered his ser-
vices necessary, he was appointed general-in-chief of the
army of Italy in the spring of 1799. At the battle of
Novi he had three horses killed under him, and made a
skilful retreat, soon after which he was transferred to
the command of the army of the Rhine. In the political
crisis of 1 8th Brumaire, (November 9, 1799,) Moreau
was in Paris, and consented to support Bonaparte in
subverting the power of the Directory. Some suppose
that if he had been less modest, or more ambitious, he
might have acted the principal role in that great drama.
The First Consul intrusted to Moreau the command of
the army of Germany, and dictated to him a plan of the
campaign, which the latter refused to adopt "Moreau
would not submit," says Alison, " to the indignity of
acting as second in command to his former rival, and
said, ^1 have no notion of seeing a little Louis XIV. at
the head of my army.'" ("History of Europe.")

After an angry discussion, he persisted in his own plan,
and, while Bonaparte marched to the conquest of Italy,
he invaded the valley of the Danube in May, 1800, with
about 100,000 men. Between the 1st and loth of May
he defeated the Austrians under Kray at Engen and
Biberach. In the next month he gained a decisive vic-
tory at Hochstadt, near Blenheim. After an armistice
of a few months, the two armies met on December 3,
iSoo, at Hohenlinden, where Moreau won a very im-
portant victory, which induced the Austrians to sue for
peace. The war being thus ended, he went to Paris,
and became the chief of a party composed of royalists
and republicans united by their enmity to Napoleon.

In 1804 he was arrested as an accomplice in Pichegru's
conspiracy, and, although they failed to prove that he
had any active part in it, he was sentenced to two years'
imprisonment, which was commuted to exile in the
United States. He resided with his wife at Morrisville,
Pennsylvania, and in the city of New York, until over-
tures from the Czar o( Russia induced him to return to
Europe in July, 1813. He was caressed by the allied
sovereigns and received with triumphal demonstrations
by the people of Germany. The Czar said to Moreau,
(who, it appears, was still a republican,) "I know youi
opinions; I will do nothing which can thwart them, and
will leave France perfectly free." With these views, he
co-operated with the allies against the French, and was
mortally wounded at Dresden, August 27, 1813. He
announced the fact by letter to his wife in these terms :
" At the battle of Dresden, three days ago, I had both
legs carried off by a cannon-ball. That rascal Bonaparte
is always fortunate. Excuse my scrawl," etc.

See LEMAIRE, " Vie impartiale du Ge^ral Moreau," 1814 ; " Me-
moirs of General Moreau," by J. PHILIPPART; GARAT, " Eloge de
Moreau," 1814 ; "Life and Campaigns of Victor Moreau," (translated
from the French ;) A. DE BEAUCHAMP, "Vie politique, militaire et
privee du Ge^ral Moreau," 1814: CHATEACNSUP, " Histoire du
G^n^ral Moreau," etc., 1814; FAUCHB-BOREL, "Notices sur le
Gne"raux Pichegru et Moreau," 1807; HASSK, "Moreau, sein
Leben," etc, 1814 : COUSIN D'AVALLON, " Histoire du Gece>a-
Moreau," 1814; " Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale;" THIERS, " Hi-
tory of the French Revolution ;" " Edinburgh Review" for January,
1814.



i, e, 1, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; m8t; ndt; good; moon



MOREAU



1765



MORERI



Moreau-Christophe, mo'ro' kRes'tof, (Louis MA-
fHURlN,) a French economist, born near Tours in 1799.
He was sent to fore'pn countries to examine prisons,
and wrote several works on the discipline and reform
of prisons. Died April 21, 1881.

Moreau de la Rochette, mo'ro' deh li ro'sheV,
(FRANCOIS THOMAS,) a French horticulturist, born in
Champagne in 1720, founded near La Rochette an agri-
cultural school. Died in 1791.

Moreau de Jonnes, mo'ro' deh zho'neV, (ALEXAN-
DRE,) a French writer, born near Rennes in 1778, was
the author of a number of treatises on mineralogy,
statistics, and other scientific subjects. Died in 1870.

Moreau de la Sarthe, mo'ro' deh li siRt, (JACQUES
Louis,) a French physician and able writer, born near
Le Mans in 1771. He published several professional
works. Died in Paris in 1826.

Moreau de 1'Yonne, mo'ro' deh le^on', a French
politician, born near Tonnerre in 1750, was elected in
1798 to the Council of Ancients. Died in 1806.

Moreau de Saint-Mery, mo'ro' deh saN mi're',
(MEDERIC Louis ELIE,) born, of French parentage, in
the isle of Martinique in 1750, was administrator-general
of the duchies of Parma and Piacenza from 1802 to 1806.
He wrote several descriptive and scientific works. Died
in 1819.

Moreaux, mo'ro', (JEAN RENE,) a French general,
born at Rocroi in 1758. He commanded the army of
the Moselle in 1794, and took Treves and Coblentz.
Died in February, 1795.

Moreelze, mo-ral'zeh, (PAUL,) a Dutch painter, born
at Utrecht in 1571, was a pupil of M. Mirevelt. He
enjoyed a high reputation as a portrait-painter, and was
extensively patronized by the nobility. Died in 1638.

Morel, mo'rSK, (CLAUDE,) a French printer, born in
1574, was a son of Federic the Elder, noticed below.
Died in 1626.

Morel, (FEDERIC,) called THE ELDER, a celebrated
French printer, born in Champagne in 1523, was ap-
pointed printer to the king in 1571. Died in 1583.

Morel, (FEDERIC,) THE YOUNGER, son of the pre-
ceding, was born in Paris in 1558. He was distinguished
as a Greek scholar, and the editions of the classics
issued from his press were conspicuous for their accu-
racy and the beauty of the typography. He succeeded
his father as royal printer in 1583. Died in 1630.

Morel, (GuiLLAUME,) a French printer, born at Til-
leu] in 1505, was noted for the beauty and accuracy of
his editions of the classics. He became printer to the
king in 1555. Died in 1564,

Morel, (JEAN,) a French poet, born in Champagne in
1539; died in 1633.

Morel. (JE\N MARIE,) a French architect and gar-
dener, born in Lyons in 1728. He had a high reputation
*s a designer of gardens. Died in 1810.

See J. B. DUMAS, " Notice sur J. M. Morel," 1825.

Morel de Vinde, mo'reT deh vaN'di', (CHARLES
GILBERT,) VICOMTE, a French writer and agriculturist,
born in Paris in 1759; died in 1842.

Morel-Fatio, mo'rel' fi'te'o', (ANTOINE LEON,) a
French landscape and marine painter, born at Rouer
in 1810. Died at Paris, March 4, 1871.

Morelius. See MORELY.

Morell, mo'rSl', (ANDRE,) a Swiss antiquary, distin-
guished for his profound knowledge of numismatics,
born at Berne in 1646. His principal work is entitled
"Thesaurus Morellianus," being a description of the
coins of the Roman families. It was left unfinished.
Died in 1703.

Mo-relT, (GEORGE W.,) an American general, born
at Cooperstown, New York, graduated at West Point in
1835. He was appointed a brigadier-general of Union
volunteers in 1861. He commanded a division at the
battles of Gaines's Mill and Malvern Hill. Died in 1883.

Mo-rell', (J. D.,) an English contemporary writer,
published " An Historical and Critical View of the Specu-
lative Philosophy of Europe in the Nineteenth Century,"
(2 vois. 8vo, London, 1846,) " The Philosophy of Re-
ligion," (1849,) and other works. He contributed to the
"Encyclopaedia Britannica" the article on "National
Education." Died in 1891.



Morell, (THOMAS,) an English scholar and critic,
born at Eton in 1703. He published an edition of Hede-
rich's "Greek Lexicon," (1762,) and was a contributor
to Hogarth's "Analysis of Beauty." He also edited
Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," and several Greek and
Latin classics. Died in 1784.

Morellet, mo'ri'1^', (ANDRE,) ABBE, an eminent
French litterateur, born in Lyons in 1727, was educated in
the Sorbonne, at Paris. He became a friend of Voltaire,
Rousseau, Diderot, and D'Alembert, to whose " Ency-
clopedic" he contributed. He translated into French
Beccaria's treatise "On Crimes and Penalties," (1766,)
and wrote several treatises on political economy, and
many other works, among which is "Melanges of Lite-
rature and Philosophy of the Eighteenth Century," (4
vois., 1818.) In 1785 he was admitted into the French
Academy, the archives of which he concealed at the risk
of his life in the reign of terror. Died in 1819.

Morelli, mo-rel'lee, (CosiMO,) a distinguished Italian
architect, born at Imola in 1732. He was employed by
Pope Pius VI. to construct the cathedrals of Macerata
and Imola, and other edifices in the Pontifical States.
Died in 1813.

Morelli, (GlACOMO,) an eminent Italian critic and
bibliographer, born at Venice in 1745, became a priest,
and was appointed librarian at Saint Mark's, Venice, in
1778. He published, among other valuable works, a
"Historical Dissertation on the Library of Saint Mark,"
(1774,) and "Library of Greek and Latin Manuscripts,"
(1802.) Many of his minor works were published in
1820, under the title of "Operette," (3 vois. 8vo.) Died
in 1819.

Morelli, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian art critic, born at
Verona in 1816. He took an active part in the revo-
lutionary movement in Italy, subsequently entered the
Italian Parliament, and in 1873 was made Senator.
He became famous as an art critic, his opinion being
widely sought. His critical works were written in
German and published in Germany, the latest two
being on the Roman galleries (1890) and the German
galleries (1891.) Died in 1891.

Morelli, (MARIA MADDALENA,) an Italian poetess
and improvisatrice, born at Pistoiain 1740; died in 1800.

Morelly, mo'r^'le', a French writer on socialism,
born about 1750. He published an able work entitled
' The Code of Nature," which was attributed to Diderot,
' The Basiliade," a political romance, and a number of
treatises on various subjects.

Morelos mo-ra'los, (Don JOSE MARIA,) a Mexicai
patriot and general, born in New Mexico in 1780. He
joined the insurgent army under Hidalgo in 1810, and
subsequently became leader of a band composed chiefly
of negro slaves, with whom he carried on a successful
guerilla warfare for a time against the Spaniards. He
was made prisoner in 1815, and soon after executed al
Mexico.

See DON Josi GUERRA, " Historia de la Revolution de Nuev
Espana," 1813.

Morely or Morelly, mo'rl'le', [Lat. MORE'LIUS,]
(JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French Protestant, noted for his
efforts to organize the Church on democratic principles,
was born in Paris about 1510. His "Treatise on Chris-
tian Discipline" (1561) was condemned by several Prot-
estant synods.

See BAYLR, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NIC^ROH,
" Me"moires."

Morenas, mo'reh-nis', (JOSEPH ELZEAR,) a Frencn
Orientalist, born near Carpentras in 1778. He wrote
"On the Castes of India," (1822,) and other works.
Died in Mingrelia in 1830.

Moreno, (JUAN,) a Spanish admiral, born at Cadiz
in 1743 ; died in 1817.

Moreno, (JUAN IGNACIO,) a Spanish cardinal, born
at Guatemala, November 24, 1817, was made a bishop in
1857, and became Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of
Spain in 1875, having been created a cardinal-priest in
1868. Died August 28, 1884.

Moreri, mo'ra're', (Louis,) a learned French eccle-
siastic, born in Provence in 1643. He published in 1674



eas; 9asj; gkard: g as/; G, H. K, guttural; N, nasal: R, trilled: sasz.- thasinM/V.



Explanations, p. 23.)



MORES



1766



MORGAN



his " Historical Dictionary," (" Grand Dictionnaire His
torique," I vol. fol.,) a work of rare merit. He died in
1680, leaving unfinished his great work, which has been
extended by subsequent writers to ten volumes, (Paris,

"7S9-)

See NICE>ON, "Memoires;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Mores, morz, (EDWARD ROWE,) an English antiquary,
born in 1730. He published several works on English
antiquities. Died in 1778.

Moret, mo-reV, (JosE,) a Spanish historian, born al
Pampeluna in 1615. Among his works is a History of
Navarre, ("Annales del Regno de Navarra," 5 vols.,
1715.) Died in 1705.

Moreto y Cabana, mo-ra'to e ki-Ban'ya, (Don Au-
GUSTIN,) a celebrated Spanish dramatist, born about
1600. Among his best works we may name " The Brave
Justiciary," (" El valiente Justiciero,") " El Lindo Don
Diego," and " Disdain for Disdain," (" Desden con el
Desden." The last is said to have been the original
of Moliere's " Princesse d'Elide." Died in 1669.

See TICKKOR, " Historyof Spanish Literature ;" OCHOA, " Tea-
tro Espanpl ;" A. F. VON SCHACK, " Geschichte der dramatischea
Literatur in Spanien."

Moretti, mo-ret'tee, (GAETANO,) an Italian astrono-
mer, born at Bologna, was author of several scientific
treatises. Died in 1697.

Moretti, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian savant, born at Pavia
in 1783, became professor of botany at that city in 1832.
Among his works is " Biblioteca Agraria." Died in 1853.
Moretto da Brescia. See BONVICINO.
Mor'fit, (CAMPBELL,) an American chemist, born at
Herculaneum, Missouri, in 1820. He was an editor
on the " Encyclopedia of Chemistry," and published
several works on subjects of applied chemistry.

Morgagni, moR-gan'yee, (GIAMBATTISTA,) an eminent
Italian physician and anatomist, born at Forll in 1682.
He studied at Bologna, where he became the favourite
pupil of Valsalva, and in 1715 he was appointed pro-
fessor of anatomy at Padua. His principal work is
entitled " On the Seat and Causes of Diseases discovered
by Anatomy," (" De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per
Anatomen indagatis," 2 vols., 1762.) It was translated
into French, Italian, English, and German, and still en-
joys a very high reputation. His " Adversaria Anato-
mica" is also highly esteemed. Morgagni made several
valuable discoveries, and he has been called the founder
of pathological anatomy. He was a Fellow of the Royal
Society of London, and a member of the principal
Academies of Europe. Died in 1771.

Mor'gan, (AITI.ETON,) a Shakspearian critic, born
at Portland, Maine, in 1850. Becoming a lawyer in
New Vurk, he devoted himself to the study ol Shak-
speare, and founded and became president of the New
York Shakspeare Society in 1885. He wrote several
critical works on Shakspeare, and published the Banks
edition in support of his theory that the 1623 edition
of the plays ciwrcl much to additions made by actors
and stage-censors to Shakspeare's originals.

Morgan, (CHARLES \V.,) an American commodore,
born in Virginia in 1790 ; died in 1853.

Morgan, (('HN\VAY I.i.oyn,) an English zoologist,
born at London in 1852. He became principal of the
University College of Bristol, and published " Animal
Biology," (1887,) " Introduction to Comparative Psy-
chology," (1895,) " Habit and Instinct," (1896,) etc.
Morgan, (DANIEL,) an American officer, born in
New Jersey in 1736, served with distinction in the war
of the Revolution. He was present at the capture of
Burgoyr.e, and commanded a brigade at the battle of
Cowpens, (1781,) where he gained a signal victory, for
which a gold medal was awarded him by Congress.
Died in 1802.

See the " Life of Daniel Morgan," by JAMES GRAHAM, 1856, and
the "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," vol. iii.
Morgan, (EDWIN D.,) an American Senator, born in
Berkshire county, Massachusetts, in 1811. He became
at an early age a merchant in the city of New York.
He was elected Governor of New York by the Repub-
licans in 1858, and again in 1860. He was elected to



the United States Senate from New York in 1863. Died
February 14, 1883.

Mor'gan, (GEORGE CADOOAN,) born in Wales in

7^4, became pastor of a dissenting church at Norwich,

England, in 1776, and subsequently professor of physics

at Hackney. He published " Lectures on Electricity,"

and other scientific works. Died in 1798.

Morgan, (GEORGE W.,) an American general, born
in Washington, Pa., in 1820. He served in the Texan
and Mexican wars, and on the breaking out of the re-
bellion entered the Union service as brigadier-general.
He took Cumberland Gap in 1862, and served actively
until ill health compelled him to retire in 1863. He was
in Congress, 1868-72. Died July 26, 1893.

Morgan, (SiR HENRY,) a Welsh buccaneer, born
about 1637, commanded several expeditions against the
Spaniards, and captured Porto Bello and Panama. He
was afterwards made a knight, and appointed Governor
of Jamaica by Charles II. Died in 1690.

Morgan, (JAMES D.,) an American officer, born in
Boston in 1810, removed in 1834 to Illinois, and in 1862
became brigadier-general of volunteers. Died in 1896.
Morgan, (JOHN H.,) an American guerilla chief,
born near Lexington, Kentucky, or, according to some
authorities, at Huntsville, Alabama, in 1826. He took
command of a troop of cavalry in 1861, and distinguished
himself by his audacity in several raids against the rail-
roads and other public works in Kentucky and Ten
nessee. He was appointed a major-general in 1862. In
July, 1863, he crossed the Ohio River with about 4000
men, and made a raid into Indiana and Ohio, where h
destroyed railroads, bridges, etc. He was captured in
Ohio and confined in the penitentiary, from which he
escaped, by digging, about the end of November, 1863.
In September, 1864, he was surprised in the night at
Greenville, Tennessee, by the troops of General Gillem.
and was killed.

See a Ske'cb of his Life in " Southern Generals," 1865.
Morgan, ^EWIS HENRY,) an American author, born
in Ledyard, New York, November 21, 1818. He grad-
uated at Union College in 1840, and practised law at
Rochester, 1844-64. He acquired great reputation by
his "League of the Iroquois," (1851,) and especially by
his "Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity," (1870.)
He is regarded as one of the founders of the modern
school of ethnological science, which regards the com-


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 164 of 425)