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Hugh (Hugues) V., Duke of Burgundy, son of Robert
[I., inherited the title in 1308, and died prematurely in
1315, leaving the dukedom to his brother, Eudes IV.

Hugh (Hugues) DE CLUNY, (deh klii'ne',) a French
monk, born at Semur about 1024, became Abbot of Cluny
in 1048. He was consulted on important questions by
several kings and popes. Died in 1 109.

Hugh (Hugues) D'AMIENS, (dS'me^N',) a French
prelate and writer, reputed one of the most learned
theologians of his time, was chosen Archbishop of Rouen
in 1130. Died in 1164.

See "Gallia Christiana," tome ii.

Hugh (Hugues) DE FLAVIGNY, (deh flfven'ye',) a
French monk, born in 1065, was chosen Abbot of Fla-
vigny in 1097. He wrote the " Chronicle of Verdun, 1 '
which contains valuable historical data.

Hugh (Hugues) DE FLEURY (deh fluh're') or DE
SAINTE-MARIE, (deh saNt'mf re',) a French monk, who
was eminent for his knowledge. He asserted the divine
right of kings in an able treatise " On Royal Power and
Sacerdotal Dignity," and wrote a general History. Died
about 1125.

Hugh OF LINCOLN, (or of AVALON,) SAINT, was born
at Avalon, in Burgundy, about 1 135. He became a prior
of canons regular, but was so attracted by the severities
of the Grande Chartreuse that he entered that order, in
spite of his oath not to do so. Sent to England, he
founded Witham Abbey. In 1186 he was made Bishop
of Lincoln. Under Henry II., Richard I., and John,
Saint Hugh had great influence in public affairs. He
was a man of strong will, ardent piety, and ascetic life,
but of excellent judgment and kindly feelings. Died in
London, November 16, 1200.

Hugh OF PROVENCE, King of Italy, was a son of
Theobald, (or Thibault,) Count of Provence. Favoured
by the pope, John X., and by many Lombard chiefs,
he obtained the crown of Italy in 926 A.D., but was
expelled by Berenger in 947, and died the same year.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

Hugh (Hugues) DE SAINT-CHER, (deh siN'shaiR',)
a learned French monk and cardinal, was born near
Vienne. His most important work was a concordance
of the Bible, said to be the first ever compiled. He
used the Latin in this work. Died in 1263.

Hugh (Hugues) DE SAINT-VICTOR, (deh sJN'vek'-
ton',) a monk, born near Ypres, entered the monastery
of Saint-Victor, in Paris, in 1118. He wrote theological
works which had a high reputation. Died in 1140.

Hugh Capet. See CAPET.

Hugh the Great, [Fr. HUGUES LE GRAND, hug l?b
gRftN,] Duke of France and Count of Paris, a powerful
noble, was the son of Robert, Count of Paris, and the
father of Hugh Capet. He married a sister of Otho,
King of Germany, and waged war against Louis d'Outre-
Mer. Died in 956.

Hugh the Great, Count of Vermandois, third son
of Henry I., King of France, born in 1057, was noted for
chivalrous courage. He departed in 1096 on a crusade,
and distinguished himself at the siege of Antioch. He
was killed in battle in 1102.

See MICHAUD, " History of the Crusades."

Hughes, huz, (BALL,) a distinguished sculptor, was
born in London, January 19, 1804, and won a high repu-
tation there. In 1829 he removed to New York. Died
in Boston, March 5, 1868.

Hughes, (DAVID EDWARD,) an inventor, born at
London in 1831, and brought to the United States in
childhood. He became successively professor of
music and of natural philosophy, and is notable for
his invention of the printing telegraph, patented in
1855. In 1878 he invented the microphone. Another
invention was the induction balance. Died in 1900.

Hughes, (JOHN,) an English poet and essayist, bom
at Marlborough in 1677, was educated in London, where



a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 5, u,y, short; a, e, \,(),otscurt; far, fall, fit; mdt; n&t; good; moon;




VICTOR Hl.'GO.



HUGHES



1327



HULIN



he mostly resided. He filled, besides other civil posts,
that of secretary to the commissioners of the peace.
His character and talents secured him the friendship of
Addison, Pope, and Congreve. He contributed nume-
rous well-written essays to the "Spectator," "Taller,"
and * Guardian," and once had a fair reputation as a
poet. His best poem is "The Siege of Damascus," a
tragedy, which was first performed on the last night
of the author's life, and was very successful. He made
good translations from Fontenelle and Vertot. Swift
having classed him in the ranks of mediocrity, Fope
answered, " What he wanted in genius he made up as
an honest man." Addison had so good an opinion of
his ability that he requested him to write the fifth act of
" Cato," which, however, he declined. Died in 1720.

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the English Poets;" " Biographia Bri-
tannica."

Hughes, huz, (JoHN,) an eminent Roman Catholic
prelate, born in Ireland in 1798. He came to America
in 1817, and preached several years in Philadelphia. He
became Bishop of New York about 1840, and was raised
to the rank of archbishop in 1850. He published seve-
ral sermons and lectures. He was a man of great
ability, and was particularly distinguished for his skill
in dialectics. Died in 1864.

See JOHN R. G. HASSARD, " Life of John Hushes," 1866.

Hughes, (JoHN,) an English writer and artist, was
the father of Thomas Hughes, M.P. He published in
1822 an " Itinerary of Provence and the Rhone," (with
good etchings by himself,) which was praised by Sir
Walter Scott. He also wrote some poetical pieces.

Hughes, (THOMAS,) an English author, social econo-
mist, and barrister, born near Newbury, October 20, 1823.
He wrote " Tom Brown's School-Days at Rugby," (1856,)
"The Scouring of the White Horse," (1858,) "Tom
Brown at Oxford," (1861,) "Alfred the Great," (1869.)
"Our Old Church What shall we do with It?" (1878,)
" Rugby," (1881,) " Vacation Rambles," (1895,) etc.
He was appointed a Queen's counsel in 1869. He
was a warm friend of the working-classes, and was
elected to Parliament by the Liberals in 1865 and
again in 1868. In 1880 he established a colony in
Tennessee, which was named Rugby. Died March
22, 1896.

Hughes, (THOMAS SMART,) an English historian,
graduated at Cambridge as M.A. in 1811. He became
prebendary of Peterborough in 1827, and rector of Hard-
wick in 1832. He wrote, besides other works, a " His-
tory of England from the Accession of George III. to
the Accession of Victoria, 1760-1837," (7 vols., 1836,) a
continuation of Hume and Smollett. Died in 1847.

Hugi, hoo'gee, (FRANZ JOSEPH,) a Swiss naturalist,
born at Grenchen in 1795. Among his works is a
"Treatise on Glaciers," (1842.) Died March 25, 1855.

Hugo, ^ii'go', (CHARLES Louis,) a French monk,
born at Saint-Mihiel in 1667, became Abbe 1 of Estiva].
He wrote, besides other works, a " Life of Saint Nor-
bert," (1707,) and a "History of Moses," (1709.) Died
in 1739.

Hugo, (FRANCOIS VICTOR,) a son of Victor Marie,
noticed below, was born in Paris in 1828. He produced
version of Shakspeare's Sonnets, (1857.) Died Decem-
oer 26, 1873.

Hugo, hoo'go, (GuSTAV,) a German jurist, distin-
guished for his profound knowledge of Roman law, was
born at Lorrach, in Baden, in 1764. He studied at
Gottingen, and became professor of law in that city in
1792. His principal work, a "Manual of a Course of
Civil Law," consisting of seven volumes, with different
titles, ranks among the standard productions of modern
jurisprudence. Died at Gottingen in 1844.

See H. EYSSENHARDT, "Zur Erinnerung an G. Hugo," 1845.

Hu'go, (HERMAN,) a learned Jesuit, born at Brussels
m 1588, became chaplain to General Spinola. He was
the author of a treatise on the invention of letters, "De
prima Scribendi Origine," (1617,) and a few other works.
Died in 1629.

Hugo, (J. ABEL,) a French litterateur, brother of
Victor Hugo, was born about 1798. Among his works
" e "Picturesque France," (3 vols., 1833,) and "Military



France," a history of the French armies from 1792 tc
'^33, (5 vols., 1834.) Died in 1855.

Hugo, (JOSEPH LEOPOLD SIGISBERT,) a French gen-
eral and count, born at Nancy in 1774. After serving
Joseph Bonaparte as marshal of the palace at Naples,
he fought for him in Spain as general of brigade from
1809 to 1813, gained several victories, and was raised to
the rank of general of division. In 1823 he published
"Memoirs of General Hugo." Died in 1828.

See JULES NOLLKT-FABERT, " Le GcWral J. L. S. Hugo," 8vo,
1853; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale."

Hugo.hii'go', (VICTOR MARIE,) VICOMTE, a celebrated
French lyric poet and novelist, a son of the preceding,
was born at Besan9on in 1802. His mother, Sophie
Trebuchet, was a Vendean royalist, with whose polit-
ical sentiments he sympathized in his youth. His first
poem, "On the Advantages of Study," (1817,) obtained
an honourable mention from the Academic Fran9aise.
He received prizes for several royalist odes in 1818, and
married Mdlle. Foucher in 1822. In the same year he
published the first volume of his "Odes and Ballads,"
which quickly raised him to the first rank among the
French poets of his time. He produced " Cromwell,"
a drama, (1827,) and a volume of odes, entitled "Les
Orientales," (1828,) remarkable for richness of imagina-
tion. The literati of France having ranged themselves
in two hostile schools, styled the Classic and the Ro-
mantic, Victor Hugo became the recognized chief of the
latter, formed mostly of young men. Of his dramas,
"Hernani" (first acted in 1830) and "Marion Delorme"
(1831) proved brilliant successes. Among his most suc-
cessful and popular works are "Notre Dame de Paris,"
a romance, (1831,) "Le Roi s'amuse," a drama, (1832,)
"Les Miserables," a novel, (1862,) "The Toilers of the
Sea," (1865,) and poems entitled "The Leaves of Au-
tumn," (" Les Feuilles d'Automne,") which, says a
French critic in the "Nouvelle Biographic Generate,"
"contain beauties of the first order." He was admitted
into the French Academy in 1841, and raised to the rank
of a peer in 1845. H fi gave his cordial adhesion to the
republic of 1848, and was elected to the Constituent As-
sembly by the voters of Paris. He opposed Cavaignac,
and in 1849 joined the party of advanced democrats, of
whom he became a leader and distinguished orator. For
his opposition to the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851, he
was banished. He retired to the island of Guernsey, where
he resided until the fall of the empire, when he returned
to Paris. In 1871 he was elected to the National As-
sembly, but soon resigned his seat and went to Brussels.
He was expelled for his sympathy with the Communists
there, and again returned to Paris. During his exile he
published several works, among which are " Napoleon
the Little," (1852,) " Les Contemplations," poems, (1856,)
and "L'Homme qui rit," a romance, (1869,) translated
under the title of " By the King's Command." Among
his later works are "The Terrible Year," a poetical
record of scenes and incidents during the siege of Paris,
(1872,) "Ninety-Three," a romance, (1874,) "The Art
of being a Grandfather," (1877,) "The Pope," (1878,)
"Torquemada," (1882,) etc. Died May 22, 1885.

Hu-gp-li'nus, (or hoo-go-le'nus,) an Italian jurist and
legal writer, born at Bologna; died about 1233.

Hugtenburg. See HUCHTENBURGH.

Hugues Capet. See CAPET.

Huijgens. See HUYGENS.

HuUlard-BrehoUes, u-e'liR' bRi'ol', (J. I_ Ai
PHONSE,) a French antiquary, born in Paris in 1817,
published, with M. E. Ruelle, a " History of the Middle
Ages," (2 vols., 1843.) Died March 23, 1871.

Hulaku or Hulakoo. See HOOLAKOO.

Hulda. See HOLDA.

Huldericus. See HULDRICH.

Huldrich, hoolt'riK, [Lat HULDERI'CUS,] (JOHANN
JACOB,) a Swiss divine, born at Zurich in 1683, was a
professor of law in the university of that town. He
published a few religious works, and "Miscellanea Tigu-
rina," (3 vols., 1722.) Died in 1731.

Huliii or Hullin, ^ii'lax', (PIERRE AUGUSTIN,) a
French general, born in Paris in 1758. He became
general of brigade in 1804, commandant at Vienna in
1805, and in 1807 general of division. He had the chief



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xplanations, p. 23.)



HULL



1328



HUMBOLDT



command at Paris when the conspirator Malet made his
daring attempt in 1812, and was shot in the face by
Malet. He was banished in 1815. Died in 1841.

Hull, (EDWARD,) a geologist, born in Antrim, Ireland,
in 1829, published " Physical Geology and Geography
of Ireland," "Volcanoes, Past and Present," (1892,)
" Our Coal Resources at the Close of the Nineteenth
Century," (1897,) etc.

Hull, (ISAAC,) an American commodore, born in
Derby, Connecticut, in 1775. He distinguished himself
in the war with Tripoli, (1804-5,) was promoted to the
rank of captain in 1806, and at the commencement of the
war of 1812 was in command of the frigate Constitution.
In July of the same year, while cruising off New York,
he fell in with a British squadron, which pursued him in
hot chase for three days and nights, but which, by his
skill in seamanship, he managed to escape. On August
19 following, he captured, after a close action of thirty
minutes, the British frigate Guerriere, Captain Dacres,
with the loss of only fourteen in killed and wounded,
while that of the Guerriere was seventy-nine. This was
the first naval action after the declaration of war ; and
in acknowledgment of Captain Hull's distinguished ser-
vices Congress presented him with a gold medal. He
subsequently commanded the United States squadron
in the Pacific and in the Mediterranean. Died in Phila-
delphia in 1843.

Hull, (THOMAS,) an English actor and poet, born in
London in 1728, composed and altered numerous plays.
His most popular poem is "Richard Plantagenet,' a
legendary tale, (1774.) Died in 1808.

Hull, (WILLIAM,) an officer in the American Revolu-
rion, born in Derby, Connecticut, in 1753. He joined
the Revolutionary army at Cambridge at the head of a
company of volunteers in 1775. He took part in many
of the battles of the war, and for his gallant services in
conducting the expedition against Morrisiana he was
honoured with a vote of thanks by Congress. After the
war he became a major-general in the Massachusetts
militia, and in 1805 was appointed by Jefferson Governor
of the Territory of Michigan. On the breaking out of
the second war with Great Britain, in 1812, he was ap-
pointed to the command of the Northwestern army ; and
in August of the same year he surrendered with 2000
troops to the British under General Brock, at Detroit
For this act he was tried by court-martial, in 1814, and
sentenced to be shot President Madison approved the
sentence, but remitted its execution in consideration of
General Hull's age and services in the Revolution. He
published a defence of himself before the court-martial,
(1814.) Died in 1825.

Hullah, (JOHN PYKE,) an English composer and
popular teacher of music, was born in 1812. He com-
posed the music of Dickens's comic opera " The Vil-
lage Coquettes," (1836.) About 1840 he introduced a
new system of instruction in vocal music, which was
very successful. He was professor of vocal music in
King's College, London, from 1844 tc 1874. Died 1884.
Hullin. See HULIN.

Hfill'man'del, (CHARLES JOSEPH,) an excellent lith-
ographer, born in London in 1789. He made several
improvements in the art of lithography, and invented
the process of lithotint He published, in 1824, "The
Art of Drawing on Stone." Died in 1850.

Hullmarm or Huellmann, huVman, (KARL DIE-
TRICH,) a German historian and antiquary, born at Erde-
born in 1765, became a professor at Bonn. He published,
besides other works, a " History of the Origin of Ranks
or Orders (Stdndt) in Germany," (3 vols., 1808,) and a
" History of the Commerce of the Greeks," (1839.)
Died in 1846.

Hulls, (JONATHAN,) an English mechanician and in-
ventor, obtained in 1736 a patent for a "machine for
carrying ships out of, or into, any harbour against wind
and tide." This machine was to be moved by steam-
power, but failed because he did not use the proper
means to transfer the motion from the piston to the
axle.

Hulme, (F. EDWARD,) an art writer, born at
Hanley, in Staffordshire, in 1841. He became a pro-



fessor of drawing at King's College, London, and




Birth and Development of Ornament," (1893,) etc.
Hulot, /Sii'lo', (HENRI,) a French lawyer, born in
Paris in 1732, translated into French fifty books of Jus-
tinian's Pandects, (7 vols., 1803.) Died in 1775.

Hulse, hulss, (Rev. JOHN,) born at Middlewich, Eng-
land, in 1708, founded the Hulsean Lecture of the Uni-
versity of Cambridge, in which he had graduated. Died
in 1790.

Hulaemann, ho61'seh-man',(JOHANN,) a learned Ger-
man Lutheran divine, born at Essen in 1602, was professor
of divinity at Leipsic. Died in 1661.

Hulaius, hul'se-us, (ANTOON,) a Protestant scholar
and theologian, born in 1615, became professor of divinity
and Oriental languages at Leyden. Died in 1685.

Hulsius, (HENDRIK,) a theological writer, son of the
preceding, was born at Breda in 1654; died in 1723.

Hulst, van der, vtn der hulst, (PlETER,) a Dutch
painter, born at Dort in 1652, was successful in painting
flowers, fruits, etc. He studied or worked in Rome.
Died in 1708.

Hultsch, hSolch, (FRIEDRICH OTTO,) a German
Died in Phila- \ scholar, born at Dresden, July 22, 1833. He was edu-
cated at Leipsic. His chief work is " Greek and Roman
Metrology," (1862.) He also published critical editions
of several Greek authors, chiefly mathematical. His
edition of Pappus is of special importance, since more
than half of the text had never before been edited.

Hultz, hdolts, (JoHANN,) a German architect, of whom
; little is known. The completion of the great tower of
the cathedral of Cologne is ascribed to him. It was
finished in the first half of the fifteenth century.

Humann, /m'man', (JEAN GEORGES,) a French finan
cier, born at Strasburg in 1780, became minister of
finance in 1832 ; died in 1842.
Humayun. See HOOMAYOON.
Hum'bert I., (in Italian, TJmberto, oom-beR'to,)
King of Italy, was born March 14, 1844. He was the
son of King Victor Emmanuel and of Queen Adelaide
of Austria. At the battle of Custozza, in 1866, he acted
as a lieutenant-general. In 1868 he was married to his
cousin-german, Maria Margaret of Savoy, and in 1878
! became king. Though popular as a sovereign, he
was assassinated by an anarchist, July 29, 1900. He
was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III.

Humt>? rt, CARDINAL, an eminent French Benedic
tine monk, born in Burgundy ; died about 1063.

Humbert, /fcuN'baiR', (JEAN,) a Swiss Orientalist,
born at Geneva in 1792, published, besides other works,
an "Arabian Anthology," with French versions, (1819.)
Died in 1851.

Humbert, (JOSEPH AMAULE,) a French general, bom
of humble parents at Rouvray, in Lorraine, about 1760.
Having a fine figure, a pleasing address, and great au-
dacity, he was rapidly promoted, and in 1795, as general
i of brigade, served under Hoche against the Vendean
royalists. In 1798, as general of division, he commanded
the army of about 1500 men which invaded Ireland,
where, after gaining a victory over General Lake, he was
forced to surrender to Lord Cornwallis. In 1802 he was
employed in the expedition to Hayti under Leclerc, at
whose death he returned to France in company with
Pauline, the widow of Leclerc, and sister of Bonaparte.
By aspiring to her hand he offended the First Consul.
He consulted his safety by emigrating to the United
States, where he lived in obscurity. Died -.t New Or-
leans in 1823.

See THIKRS, "History of the French Revolution;" " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Humboldt, hum'bolt, von, [Ger. pron. fon hoom'-
bolt,] (FRIEDRICH HEINRICH ALEXANDER,) BARON, au
illustrious German savant and traveller, born :i Berlin
on the I4th of September, 1769. He was a son of Major
von Humboldt, who served as adjutant or aide-de-ramp
to the Duke of Brunswick in the Seven Years' war. In
1786 he entered the University of Frankfort-on-;he-Oder,
where he studied natural science and political economy.



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HUMBOLDT



1329



HUMBOLDT



He hecame a pupil of Heyne, Blumenbach, and Eich-
horn, at Gottingen, in 1788. In 1790 he travelled in
France, Holland, and England, and published a treatise
"On the Basalts of the Rhine." He studied mineralogy
under Werner at Freiberg in 1791, and was appointed
director-general of the mines of Anspach and Baireuth
in 1792. He published in 1792 a work on subterranean
plants, " Specimen Florae subterraneae Fribergensis." At
an early age he cherished a passion to visit far-distant and
unexplored regions of the globe. With this view he re-
signed his office about 1 796, and passed some time at Jena,
where he formed friendships with Goethe and Schiller.
His reputation way extended by a treatise " On the Irri-
tability of Muscles and Nervous Fibres," (1797.) Several
o>f his projects for undertaking a voyage of discovery
were frustrated by the wars that followed the French
Revolution. At length, in June, 1799, he joined Aime
Bonpland in a voyage to South America. They spent
about four years in the exploration of the northern
part of South America, especially those portions which
are drained by the Oronoco and the Rio Negro. They
ascended the Magdalena as far as they could by water,
and penetrated by land to Quito. In June, 1802, they
ascended Chimborazo to a point nineteen thousand feet
or more above the level of the sea, the highest point of
the Andes ewr reached by man. They passed nearly a
year in the exploration of Mexico, visited the United
States, and returned to Europe in July, 1804, with rich
collections of plants, animals, and minerals. Humboldt
became a resident of Paris, where he remained about
twenty years, the greater part of which he spent in digest-
ing and publishing the results of his observations. In
this task he was assisted by Bonpland, Cuvier, Olrmanns,
Arago, Kunth, and others. Between 1807 and 1817 they
published, in French, a "Journey to the Equinoctial
Regions of the New Continent," (3 vols.,) "Astronomical
Observations and Measurements by the Barometer," (2
vols., 1808-10,) a "View of the Cordilleras, and Monu-
ments of the Indigenous Peoples of America," (1810,) a
" Collection of Observations on Zoology and Compara-
tive Anatomy," (2 vols.,) a " Political Essay on the
Kingdom of New Spain," (2 vols., l8n,) and "General
Physics and Geology." He made an important con-
tribution to botanical geography by his Latin work " On
the Geographical Distribution of Plants according to
the Temperature and Altitude," (1817.) His botanical
collections were classed and described by S. Kunth in a
work entitled " Nova Genera et Species Plantarum quas
in Peregrinatione ad Plagam aequinoctialem Orbis novi
collegerunt A. Bonpland et A. de Humboldt," (7 vols.,
1815-25.) An English translation of his " Personal Nar-
rative of Travels" was made by Helen Maria Williams,
(5 vols., 1814-21.) In 1810 he was chosen a member of
(he French Institute in place of Cavendish. He removed
to Berlin in 1826, and received, with the title of coun-
cillor, many marks of royal favour. At the request of
Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, and at his expense, Hum-
boldt, Ehrenberg, and Rose made in 1829 a scientific
exploration of Asiatic Russia. Among the results of this
extensive expedition was an excellent work by Hum-
boldt, entitled " Central Asia : Researches on the Chains
of Mountains and the Comparative Climatology," (3
vols., 1843.) He was sent to Paris on several political
missions by the King of Prussia between 1830 and 1848.
He published a" Critical Examination of the Geography
of the New Continent," (5 vols., 1835-38.) When he
was more than seventy-four years old, he composed his
celebrated work entitled " Kosmos ; Entwurf einer phy-
sischen WcHbeschreibung," (" Cosmos ; Essay of a Phys-
ical Description of the Universe,") the first volume of
which appeared in 1845, and the fourth in 1858. "The
first volume," says the author, "contains a general view
of nature, from the remotest nebulae and revolving
double stars to the terrestrial phenomena of the geo-
graphical distribution of plants, of animals, and of races
of men, preceded by some preliminary considerations
on the different degrees of enjoyment offered by the
study of nature and the knowledge of her laws, and or
the limits and method of a scientific exposition of the
physical description of the universe." "The author of
.the remarkable book before us," says the "Edinburgh



as k : <; as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, Y.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 17 of 425)