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made president of Rock Hill College, Ellicott City,
Maryland. He has published " Philosophy of Litera-
ture," (1874,) "Development of English Literature,"
(1879,) "Address on Thinking," etc., and some note-
worthy papers on education. Died in 1893.

Muller, (ALEXANDER,) a German writer, born in the
bishopric of Fulda in 1780, was the author of "Archives
for the most Modern Legislation of all the German
States." Died in 1844.

Muller, (ANDREWS,) a German divine and Orientalist,
born in Pomerania in 1630. He assisted Walton in his
Polyglot Bible, and contributed to Castell's " Lexicon."
He also published a " Treatise on Cathay," " Japanese
Alphabet," " Chinese Basihcon," and other works. Died
in 1694.

Muller, mii'laiR', (CHARLES Louis,) a celebrated
French painter, born in Paris in 1815. Among his prin-
cipal works may be named " Christ's Entry into Jeru-
salem," "Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew," "Lady
Macbeth," " Marie Antoinette at the Conciergerie," and
" The Sleeping Sylph." He obtained medals of the
first class in 1848 and 1855. Died January 10, 1892.

Muller, (EDUARD,) a German author, (a brother of
K. O. Muller,) was born at Brieg, in Silesia, November
12, 1804. Among his works are " History of the The-
ory of Art," (1834-37,) and " Samson und Delilah,"
(a tragedy, 1853.) Died at Liegnitz, November 30,
1875.

Muller, (FRIEDRICH,) a German poet, born at Kreuz-
nach in 1750, was the author of " Ulrich von Kossheim,"
"Faust," and a drama entitled "Niobe." He was also
a painter and engraver. Died in 1825.

Muller, (FRIEDRICH,) an Austrian ethnologist and
philologist, born at Jemnik, in Bohemia, March 5, 1834.



; 9asj; %hard; gas/';G, H,K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMu.



Explanations, p. 23.)



MULLER



1782



MULLER



He was educated in Vienna, where in 1866 he became
extraordinary, and in 1869 full, professor of Sanscrit
and comparative philology. He has written much on
these subjects and on ethnology.

Miiller, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) a German epic poet,
born in Vienna in 1767, wrote poems entitled " Alfonso,"
(1790,) and "Richard Lbwenherz," ("Richard Cceur-de-
Lion," 1790.) Died in 1807.

Muller, ( FRIEDRICH MAX, ) an eminent German
scholar and Orientalist, a son of the poet Wilhelm, was
born at Dessau in 1823. He visited England in 1847,
and was charged by the East India Company to publish
an edition of the " Rigveda." He was Taylorian pro-
fessor of modern languages at Oxford from 1854 to 1875.
He published, besides other works, " Buddhism and
Buddhist Pilgrims," a " History of Ancient Sanscrit
Literature," (1859,) "Lectures on the Science of Lan-
guage," first delivered in 1861 at the Royal Institution
in London, "Chips from a German Workshop,"
in 5 vols., (1868-83,) "Scienceof Religion," (1870,)
"Origin and Growth of Religion," (1878,) "The
Science of Thought," (1887,) "Biographies of
Words," (1888,) "Natural, Physical, Anthropo-
logical, and Psychical Religion," (1889-93,) "Vedanta
Philosophy," (1894,) and "Science of Mythology,"
(1897.) He wrote a German novel, "Deutsche
Liebe," and edited the extensive series of "Sacred
Books of the East." Died October 28, 1900.

Miiller, (GEORGE,) a German-English philanthropist,
born at Kroppenstadt, in Prussia, September 27, 1805.
He studied at the University of Halle, and in 1829 went
to England. He became a Dissenting minister at Teign-
mouth. In 1836 he opened the famous Orphan-House
on Ashley Downs, near Bristol, which has since become
a great establishment, supported entirely by voluntary
gifts which are sought for only through faith and prayer.
By 1875 upwards of two thousand children were fed,
clothed, and educated. Muller took an evangelistic
tour in the East in 1889. His book, " A Narrative of
the Lord's Dealings with George Muller," was pub-
lished in 1837, and supplemented 1841-56. He died in
1898.

Muller, (GERHARD FRIEDRICH,) F.R.S., a German
traveller and historian, was born in Westphalia about
1705. He was appointed historiographer (1747) and
keeper of the archives (1766) to Russia. He published
a "History of Siberia," "Collection of Russian His-
tories," and other works. Died in 1783.

Muller, (HERMANN,) a German biologist and evolu-
tionist, born at Muhlberg, September 23, 1829. He
studied at Halle and Berlin, and was teacher of natural
science in the real-school at Lippstadt, (1854-83.) His
chief works are " Fertilization of Flowers by Means
of Insects," (1873,) of which subject he was a zealous
student, and "Alpine Flowers," (1881.) He was an
excellent observer and teacher. Died at Prad, August
25, 1883.

Miiller. (TAN.) See CADI >\

Muller, QAN,) a Dutch engraver, born at Amsterdam
about 1570, imitated the style of Goltzius. His prints
are numerous and distinguished for great boldness and
facility of execution.

Miiller, (JOHANN.) See REGIOMONTANUS.

Muller, (JoHANN,) a celebrated German physiologist
and zoologist, born at Coblentz on the I4th of July, 1801.
He entered the University of Bonn about 1819, studied
medicine and other sciences, and graduated as M.D. in
1822. In 1826 he published a remarkable treatise "On
the Comparative Physiology of the Sense of Sight."
He became professor of physiology, etc. at the Univer-
sity of Bonn in 1830. His work on the secreting glands,
"De Glandularum secernentium Structura penitiori,"
etc., (1830,) is a valuable contribution to comparative
anatomy. He succeeded Rudolphi as professor of
anatomy in Berlin in 1833, and acquired a wide repu-
tation as a lecturer. He made several anatomical dis-
coveries. His principal work is a " Manual of Human
Physiology," (" Handbuch (or Lehrbuch) der Physiologic
des Menschen," 2 vols., 1841-44.) which is considered
one of the best works ever written on that subject



There are few points of physiology on which he has not
thrown light by numerous observations or new ideas.
Among his numerous works are a Latin treatise " On
the Respiration of the Foetus," (1823,) and "Grundriss
der Vorlesungen iiber allgemeine Pathologic," (1829.)
Many of his works are illustrated by figures designed
by himself. He edited a journal called " Archives of
Anatomy and Physiology," (1834-40.) In the opinion of
some critics, Muller was the first physiologist of Europe.
He died in Berlin in April, 1858.

See RODOLPH VIRCHOW, "Joannes Muller." 1858; " NouvelV
Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" C. DARESTB, "Jean Muller, ses Travaux,'
etc, in the " Revue Germanique" for February, April, and June,
1859 : " Biographic Univereelle."

Muller, (JoHANN,) a German natural philosopher of
the nineteenth century. He was professor of physics
at Friburg, in Brisgau. He published " Elements of
Experimental Physics," (3d edition, 1852.)

Muller, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a German
engraver, son of Johann Gotthard von Muller, noticed
below, was born at Stuttgart in 1782. Having completed
his studies in Paris, he was appointed in 1814 professor
of engraving in the Academy of Arts at Dresden,
where he was charged with the execution of a plate
after Raphael's "Madonna di San Sisto." His severe
application to this work caused his death soon after the
completion of the print, (1816.) Besides the above-
named, which is esteemed his master-piece, Mullet
engraved "The Four Seasons," after Jordaens, "Saint
John," after Domenichino, and portraits of Schiller
and Hufeland,

Muller, (JOHANN GOTTWERTH,) a German litttra-
Kur, born at Hamburg in 1744, was the author of " Comic
Tales from the Papers of the Brown Man." Died in 1828.

Muller, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a German astronomer
and natural philosopher, born at Nuremberg in 1671,
published many works on astronomy, etc. Died in 173'.

Muller, (JOHANN HEINRICH JAKOB,) a German phys-
icist, born in Cassel, April 30, 1809. He studied at
Bonn and Giessen, and in 1844 became professor of
physical science at Freiburg. He published "Text-
Book of Physics and Meteorology," (1842, based on
Poillet's "Elements,") "Text-Book of Cosmical Phys-
ics," (1856,) works on crystallography, etc. D. in 1875.

Muller, (JOHANN JAKOB,) an excellent landscape-
painter, born at Riga in 1765. He worked at Stuttgart
and in Italy. Died in 1832.

Muller, (JOHANN SEBASTIAN,) a German engraver,
born at Nuremberg in 1715. His plates for the "Sexual
System of Linnaeus Illustrated" are among his best
works. Died in 1783.

Muller, JULIUS,) a German Protestant theologian, a
brother of K. O. Muller, was born at Brieg, in Silesia, April
10, 1801. He was professor of theology at Gottingen,
l8 34-35, at Marburg, 1835-39, and at Halle. His most
noted work is "The Christian Doctrine of Sin," (1839.)
Died September 27, 1878.

Muller, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) a German musician, born
in 1797, the eldest of four brothers, celebrated quartet
players, who made extensive tours under the name of
" The Muller Brothers," and the father of four sons, who
formed a famous quartet, known as " The younger Muller
Brothers." The brothers of Karl were THEODOR HEIN-
RICH GUSTAV, born 1799, died 1855 ; AUGUST THEODOR,
born 1802, died 1875 ; FRANZ FERDINAND GEORG, born
1808, died 1855. His sons are BERNHARD, born in 1825 ;
KARL, born in 1829; HUGO, born in 1832; and WILHELM,
born in 1834. The younger quartet was broken up in
1873 b y the appointment of Wilhelm as Kammermusikus
and teacher at the Hochschule fur Musik in Berlin.

Muller, (KARL Otfried or'fReet,) a distinguished
German scholar, historian, and antiquary, was born at
Brieg, in Silesia, in 1797. He studied at Breslau, and
subsequently devoted himself to philology at Berlin
under the celebrated Bockh. He became in 1817 pro-
fessor of ancient languages in the Magdalenum at Bres-
lau, and in 1819 obtained the chair of archaeology and
Grecian art at Gottingen. In this post his able and
eloquent lectures, and the numerous admirable works
he published during the fifteen years following, gave a
new impulse to the study of philology and antiquities



a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, ?, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; moon:



MULLER



1783



MULLIGAN



In Germany. In 1839 Muller visited Italy, and the next
year arrived at Athens. Having greatly fatigued himself
while making excavations at Delphi, he was soon after
attacked by a fever, of which he died in 1840. He was
buried near the ruins of the Academy, and the Univer-
sity of Athens erected a monument over his grave.
Among his principal works are his " History of the
Hellenic Races and Cities," (1820,) "The Dorians,"
("Die Dorier," 2 vols., 1824-30,) "Introduction to a
Scientific System of Mythology," (1825,) "On the Origin
and Ancient History of the Macedonians," (1825,)
" The Etruscans," (2 vols., 1828,) " Manual of the Archae-
ology of Art," (1830,) and "History of the Literature
of Ancient Greece," (1840.)

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations-Lexikon ;" "Nouvelle Biogra-
phic Ge'ne'rale ;" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for January, 1839.

Muller, (LunwiG CHRISTIAN,) a German engineer
and mathematician, born in the march of Pregnitz in
1744. He served for a time in the Seven Years' war,
and became in 1786 professor of mathematics in the
Academy of Engineers at Potsdam. He wrote several
valuable treatises on military tactics. Died in 1804.

Muller, mul'ler, (OTHO FREDERIK,) an eminent Danish
naturalist, born at Copenhagen in 1730. Being appointed
in 1753 tutor to a young nobleman, he availed himself,
while travelling with him, of the facilities for increasing
his knowledge of botany and zoology. In 1764 he pub-
lished his " Fauna Insectorum Friedrichsdaliana," and in
1767 his "Flora Friedrichsdaliana," giving an account
of the insects and plants of Friedrichsdal. The great
merit of these productions caused him to be appointed
by King Frederick V. to continue the publication of the
" Flora Danica," a magnificent work, surpassing anything
o. r the kind that had hitherto appeared. Muller added
two volumes to the three already published by Oeder.
In 1773-74 he brought out a treatise (in Latin) "On
Earth Worms and Fresh-Water Worms." In the first
part of this work he describes the infusoria, of which he
discovered many new species ; and he was the first
naturalist who distributed animalcules into genera and
species. In 1781 his treatise "On the Hydrachnaa"
appeared, and in 1785 one "On the Monoculi," both
written in Latin and illustrated with many plates. These
two works, together with a treatise on the Infusoria, (in
4to, with fifty plates,) published in 1786, are esteemed
his greatest productions. Muller had begun in 1779 a
"Zoologia Danica," a superb work, of which he pub-
lished two parts, each with forty coloured plates. Several
additions were made to it after his death, which took
place in 1784. Muller is characterized by Cuvier as one
of the most laborious and accurate observers of the
eighteenth century; and the same writer adds, "The In-
fusoria form, as it were, a new animal kingdom, which
he revealed to the world."

See HANSSEN, "Tal til Erindrmg af O. F. Miiller," 1787:
HIRSCHING, " Historisch-Iiterarisches Handbuch."

Muller, (OTTO,) a prolific German novelist, born at
Schotten, in Hesse, June I, 1816. He became court
librarian at Darmstadt, and afterwards was a journalist
at Mannheim and Frankfort, removing at a later date to
Stuttgart. Among his very numerous stories are " Charles
Otto Ackermann," (1854,) " Der Klosterhoff," (1859,)
"Der Wildpfarrer," (1866,) "Schatten und Hbhen,"
(1878,) etc. Died in 1894.

Muller, (PETER ERASMUS,) a learned Danish theolo-
gian and antiquary, born at Copenhagen in 1776. Having
completed his studies in Germany, he was appointed in
1801 professor of theology in the University of Copen-
hagen. In 1830 he succeeded Mu'nter as Bishop of
Seeland. Among his works are "Christian Moral
System," " Sagabibliothek," or " Library of the Sagas,"
and " Critical Examination of the Traditional History
of Denmark and Norway from 1805 to 1830." Died
in 1834.

See KRAFT og NYEKUP, " Almindeligt Litteraturlexicon," etc.

Miiller, (SOPHIE,) one of the most celebrated tragic
actresses of the German stage, born at Manheim in 1803.
She visited successively Vienna, Dresden, and Berlin,
where ner performances elicited the warmest applause.
In private life she was highly esteemed. Died in 1830.

Muller, (WENZEL,) a popular German opera-com-



poser, born in Moravia in 1767. He was appointed in
1786 chapel -master at Vienna. Among his numerous
works is " The Magic Guitar." Died in 1835.

Muller, (WiLHEl.M,) one of the most distinguished
lyric poets of Germany, born at Dessau in 1794. Having
visited Italy in 1817, he published, after his return,
" Poems from the Papers left by a Travelling Bugle-
Player," (" Gedichten aus den hinterlassenen Papieren
eines reisenden Waldhornisten," 2 vols., 1821,) "Songs
of the Greeks," ("Liedern der Griechen," 1821,) and
"Lyrical Promenades," (" Lyrischen Spaziergangen.")
He also published the " Library of the German Poets of
the Seventeenth Century," (1822,) and was a contributor
to Ersch and Gruber's "Encyclopasdia." Died in 1827.

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Muller, (WILLIAM JOHN,) an eminent landscape-
painter, of German extraction, born at Bristol, in Eng-
land, in 1812. He studied under J. B. Pyne, and subse-
quently visited Egypt and Greece, where he executed a
number of admirable pictures. Among these we may
name his " Memnon at Sunset," " Turkish Merchants,"
etc., " View of Athens," and " Praver in the Desert."
Died in 1845.

Muller, von, (FERDINAND,) BARON, an Aus-
tralian botanist, born at Rostock, Germany, in 1825.
He explored Australia broadly in search of new
plants, travelling over ten thousand miles, and intro-
ducing many foreign plants. He wrote largely on the
subject of the Australian flora. Died in 1896.

Muller, von, fon muTler, (JOHANN GOTTHARD,) a
celebrated German engraver, born near Stuttgart in 1747.
He was patronized at an early age by Duke Charles
of Wurtemberg, by whose assistance he was enabled
to study in Paris under Wille. He was chosen a
member of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1776, and sub-
sequently became professor of engraving in the Academy
of Stuttgart, and obtained the order of the Wurtemberg
Crown. Among his master-pieces we may name the
"Madonna della Seggiola," after Raphael, "Saint Ce-
cilia," after Domenichino, and "The Battle of Bunk-
er's Hill," after Trumbull. Died in 1830.

Muller, von, fon muTler, (JOHANNES,) an eminent
Swiss historian, born at Schaffhausen, January 3, 1752,
He studied history at Gottingen under Schlozer, and
in 1772 published his "Cimbric War," ("Bellum Cim-
bricum.") He became, soon after, professor of Greek
in the College of Schaffhausen, from which he removed
to Geneva in 1774. About this date he formed a friend-
ship with Victor de Bonstetten. He published in 1780
the first volume of his " History of the Swiss," which
raised him to the first rank of historians. The second
edition of it was entitled "The History of the Swiss
Confederation," ("Die Geschichte der Schweizerischen
Eidgenossen," 1786.) He was appointed in 1786 aulic
councillor to the Elector of Mentz and librarian of the
University of Mentz. About 1790 he accepted from
Leopold II. of Austria the position of aulic councillor;
but, the publication of his Swiss history having been
prohibited by the Austrian court, he entered the service
of the King of Prussia, as privy councillor, in 1795. The
fourth volume of his great work appeared in 1805. IP
November, 1806, he had a private interview with Napo-
leon, who had invited him for that purpose, and who,
according to some authorities, effected some change in
Muller's political convictions. Through the influence
of Napoleon he was appointed a councillor of state and
director of public instruction by the King of Westphalia
in January, 1808. He died at Cassel in May, 1809.
Among his works are his correspondence with Bonstet-
ten, entitled " Letters of a Young Savant to his Friend,"
(iSoi,) and "Twenty-Four Books of Universal History,"
(3 vols., i8u.)

Muller von Konigswinter, muTler fon kb'nios-
win'ter, (WOLFGANG,) a German litterateur, born at
Konigswinter in 1816. He published "Ballads and
Romances," "Voyage on the Rhine," "Lorelei," a
charming collection of legendary ballads, and "The
May Queen," an interesting village story. Died in 1873.
Mul'U-gan, (JAMES A.,) an officer, born at Utica,
New York, 'in 1830. He removed in 1836 to Chicago,



; casj; ghiird; gas/;G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal: R, trilled; sasz: thasinMii. (JJ^^See Explanations, p. 23.)



MULLNER



1784



MUNDY



where he became editor of the " Western Tablet," a
Catholic journal. He distinguished himself by his defence
of Lexington, Missouri, in 1861, and was made a briga-
dier-general of Union volunteers in 1862. Died in 1864.

Milliner or Muellner, mtil'n?r, (AMADEUS GOTT-
FRIED ADOLF,) a German critic and dramatic writer,
born near Weissenfels in 1774, was a nephew of the
poet Burger. He became in 1820 associate editor of
the " Morgenblatt." Among his most popular dramas
are "The Confidants," "The Twenty-Ninth of Febru-
ary," and "Die Schuld," (1816.) Died in 1829.

See F. K I. ScHtirz, " Milliner's Leben und Geist," 1830; F.
WACHNSR, " Milliner in poetischer, kritischer und religioser Be-
liehung," 1831.

Mullet or Mulot, mulo', (FRANC.OIS VALENTIN,) a
French litterateur, born in Paris in 1749. He was a
member of the Legislative Assembly in 1791. Among
his works is " Le Muse'um de Florence, grave par David,"
(6 vols., 1788-95.) Died in 1804.

Mu'lock, (DiNAH MARIA,) an excellent and popular
English author, born in Staffordshire in 1826. Her prin-
cipal works are entitled " The Ogilvies," (1849.) " Olive,"
" The Head of the Family," " Agatha's Husband," (1852,)
"John Halifax, Gentleman," (1857,) "A Life for a Life,"
" A Woman's Thoughts about Women," " Studies from
Life," " A Noble Life," (1866,) " A Brave Lady," (1870,)
"Hannah," (1871,) "Adventures of a Brownie," (1872,)
"My Mother and I," (1874,) "Sermons out of Church,"
(1875,) and "A Legacy, being the Life and Remains of
John Martin, Schoolmaster and Poet," (1878.) In 1865
she married George Lillie Craik, Jr. Died in 1887.

Mulot. See MULLOT.

Mulready, mul'red-e, ( WILLIAM, ) a celebrated
painter, born at Ennis, in Ireland, in 1786. He entered
the Royal Academy at an early age, and subsequently
formed his style on the model of the Dutch and Flemish
masters. His "Idle Boys," exhibited in 1815, caused
his election as associate of the Academy, and a few
months later he was made a Royal Academician. Among
his other works are "The Fight Interrupted," "The
Roadside Inn," "Lending a Bite," "The Wolf and the
Lamb," " Crossing the Ford," and " First Love." His
" Choosing the Wedding-Gown," and other illustrations
of the " Vicar of Wakefield," are also master-pieces of
the kind, and have placed him in the first rank ofmodern
British artists. Died in 1863.

Mulsant, miil'soN', (MARTIAL STIENNE,) a French
naturalist, born at Marnard (Rh6ne) in 1797. He pub-
lished several works on entomology. Died Nov. 4, 1880.

Mum'ml-us, (Lucius,) an able Roman general, sur-
named ACHA'ICUS, was noted for his integrity. He
became praetor in 154 B.C., and consul in 146. In the
same year he defeated the Achaean League, destroyed
Corinth, and reduced Greece to a Roman province.
Many works of art found at Corinth were carried to
Rome to adorn the triumphal procession of Mummius,
which occurred in 145 B.C. and formed an epoch in the
history of Roman art. He was censor in 142 B.C., when
Scipio Africanus the Younger was his colleague.

MummoL See MUMMOLUS.

Mum'mo-lus, [Fr. MUMMOL, mii'mol',] (ENNius,)
an able Gallic general, became Count of Auxerre about
560 A.D., and commander of the army of Gontran of
Burgundy. He defeated the Lombards near Embrun
in 572, and Didier, Count of Toulouse, in 576. Having
revolted against Gontran, he was killed, by order of that
king, in 585 A.D.

Man, (THOMAS,) an English writer on commerce,
lived about 1620-40. He was a merchant of London,
and wrote " England's Treasure by Foreign Trade ; or,
The Balance of our Foreign Trade is the Rule of our
Treasure."

Munari degli Aretusi, moo-nl'ree dal'yee J-ra-too'-
see, (PELLEGRINO,) an Italian painter of Modena, was a
pupil of Raphael. Died in 1523.

Munatius Plancus. See PLANCUS.

Muncer. See MUNZER.

Munch, mdonk, (ANDREAS,) a Norwegian poet, cousin
of Peter Andreas, noticed below, was born in 1811. He
was author of "Poems, Old and New, "etc. Died in 1884.



Munch or Muench, mflnK, (ERNST HERMANN JO-
SEPH,) a Swiss historian and voluminous writer, born at
Rheinfelden in 1798. He became professor of ecclesias-
tical history and canon law at Liege, (1828.) He wrote
(in German) a " History of the House of Orange-Nassau,"
(1831-33,) "Universal History of Modern Times," (1833
-35,) and other works. Died in 1841.

Munch, (PETER ANDREAS,) an eminent Norwegian
antiquary and philologist, born at Christiania in 1810,
became professor of history in the university of his
native city, (1841.) He published Grammars of the
Runic, the Gothic, and the so-called Old Norwegian
languages, " Historical and Geographical Description
of Norway in the Middle Ages," (1849,) " History of



the Norse Nations," (" Del Norske Folks Historic," 3

" ; ,f

Norway," and the ancient " Edda." Died in 1884.



vols., 1853-59.) He also edited the "Ancient Laws of



Munch-Bellinghausen or Muench-Bellinghau-
aen, mTJnK belling-how'zen, (ELicius FRANZ JOSEPH,)
BARON, a German poet and dramatist, born in Mecklen-
burg-Schwerin in 1806, was known by the pseudonym
of FRIEDRICH HALM. He was the author of tragedies
entitled "Griseldis," (1835,) " The King and the Peas-
ant," (1841,) "The Son of the Wilderness," (1842,) and
"The Gladiator of Ravenna," (1857.) In 1845 ne was
appointed keeper of the Imperial Library at Vienna.
Died May 21, 1871.

Munchauaen or Muenchausen, mfi'nK'how'zen,
(GERLACH ADOLF,) BARON, a German statesman, born
at Hanover in 1688, was for many years curator of the
University of Gottingen. He made valuable contribu-
tions to the library of that institution, and founded the
Society of Sciences at Gottingen. He was appointed
first minister of Hanover in 1765. Died in 1770.

Miinchausen, commonly pronounced in English
miin-chaw's?n, (HiERONYMUS KARL FRIEDRICH,) BA-
RON, a famous German officer, whose name has become
proverbial as a synonym of extravagant boasting, was
born in Hanover in 1720. Having entered the Russian
service, he fought against the Turks in 1737. After his
return, he acquired great notoriety by his exaggerated


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 170 of 425)