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portraits, and other branches of painting. He was pa-
tronized by the King of Spain, and adorned the churches
of Madrid, Seville, and Cadiz with his works. As a
colorist he surpassed all other Spanish artists. His
productions are remarkable for originality, fidelity to
nature, freedom of touch, and softness, splendour, and
harmony of colour. He delighted and excelled in the
representation of virgin saints and of beggar-boys at
play. Among his master-pieces are " Moses Striking
the Rock," " The Marriage of Saint Catherine," " Saint
Elizabeth of Hungary," "Christ Feeding the Five
Thousand," a "Young Beggar," "The Prodigal Son," a
"Holy Family," and "Saint Anthony of Padua." He
died, in consequence of a fall from a scaffold, in 1682.

Muris, de, deh mu'ress', (JEAN,) a learned French
ecclesiastic, sometimes called MEURS or MURS, lived
about 1310-40. He was the author of a valuable treat-
ise on music, entitled " Speculum Musicae," an abridg-
ment of which has been published. Died after 1345.

Mumer, mooR'ner, (THOMAS,) a famous German
satirist and controversialist, born at Strasburg in 1475.
He possessed uncommon abilities and caustic wit, and
the offensive personalities in which he indulged kept
him in constant warfare with his contemporaries. His
satires are chiefly directed against Luther and his asso-
ciate Reformers ; and some of them are regarded is the
ablest which have been levelled at the Reformation.
He also wrote " The World of Fools," and " The Mill
of Schwindelsheim," in which he keenly satirized the
follies of the time. Died about 1536.

See WALDAU, " Nachrichten von Mumers Leben," 1775; Fud-
CBL, " Geschichte der komischen Literatur."

Mur'phy, (ARTHUR,) a dramatic and miscellaneous
writer, born in the county of Roscommon, in Ireland,
about 1728. He edited for a time "The Gray's-Inn
Journal," and wrote, among other plays, a tragedy



/fc.- casj; gkard; gas /'; G, H, H, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz,' th as in this.



e Explanations, p. 23.)



MURPHY



1788



MURRA Y



entitled "The Grecian Daughter," and "The Way to
Keep Him," a comedy. He also made a translation of
Tacitus, and wrote the Lives of Johnson and Garrick.
Died in 1805.

See J. FOOT, "Life of Arthur Murphy."
Murphy, (FRANCIS,) a temperance advocate, born
at Wexford, Ireland, in 1836. He served in the
American civil war, and in 1870 began a highly
successful career as a temperance lecturer, inducing
great numbers to sign the pledge. He afterwards
lectured successfully in England, and was chaplain in
the Spanish- American war.

Murphy, (JAMES CAVANAGH,) a distinguished archi-
tect and writer, born in Ireland about 1760. In 1788 he
visited Portugal, and after his return published an ac-
count of that country. Among his principal works we
may name "The Arabian Antiquities of Spain," with 97
plates, (1813-16.) Died in 1816.

Murphy, (ROBERT,) an excellent self-taught Irish
mathematician, born at Mallow in 1806. In 1825 he
entered Caius College, Cambridge, of which he was
chosen a Fellow in 1829. He became a resident of
London in 1836. Among his works are "Analysis of
the Roots of Equations," and "The Theory of Algebraic
Equations," published by the Useful Knowledge Society.
Died in 1843.

Murr, von, fon mooR, (CHRISTOPH GOTTLIEB,) a
German scholar and antiquary, born at Nuremberg about
1734, published an "Essay on the History of the Greek
Tragic Poets," (1760,) "Antiquities of Herculaneum,"
(6 vols., 1777-82,) and a number of historical works,
among which is " Commentatio de Re diplomatica Fre-
derici II.," (1756.) He was noted for his various and
extensive learning. Died in 1811.

Murray, mur're ? (ADOLPHUS,) a Swedish physician,
born at Stockholm in 1 750. He was professor of anatomy
at Upsal. Died in 1803.

Murray, mur're, (ALEXANDER,) an eminent Scottish
linguist, born at Dunkitterick in 1775. The son of a
shepherd, his early instruction was very limited ; but,
with the aid of a powerful memory and his persevering
exertions, he acquired, before the age of twenty, the
French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages. He
entered the University of Edinburgh in 1794, where he
studied theology and became versed in the Oriental
tongues. He was appointed professor of those languages
it Edinburgh in 1812, and soon after was created D.D.
He died in 1813, of consumption. His principal work
is a " History of the European Languages," etc., (1813.)

Murray, mur're, (CHARLES,) an English actor and
dramatist, born in Hertfordshire in 1754. His principal
plays are entitled "The Experiment," and "The New
Maid of the Oaks." Died in 1821.

Murray, (CHARLES AUGUSTUS,) an English diplo-
matist, a son of the Earl of Dunmore, was born about
1806. He was sent as envoy to Persia in 1854, and as
minister to Saxony in 1859. He wrote " Travels among
the Indians of North America," (1839.) His Indian
tale or novel entitled "The Prairie Bird" (1844) has
been warmly praised. Died June }, 1895.

Murray, (DAVID CHRISTIE,) an English novelist,
born at West Bromwich, April 13, 1847. He was a
successful journalist of London. His tales include " A
Life's Atonement," (1879,) "Coals of Fire," (1881,) "The
Way of the World," (1883,) "The Making of a
Novelist," (1894,) "The Bishop's Amazement,"
(1896,) etc.

Murray, (EUSTACE CLARE GRENVILLE,) known as
GRENVILLE Murray, an English author, a son of the
Duke of Buckingham, was born October 2, 1819, and
was educated at Oxford. He entered the diplomatic
service when young, remaining in it with brief intervals
from 1845 to 1868, when he became involved in vexatious
suits with the government and was bankrupted and out-
lawed.



(1853,) "Embassies and Foreign Courts," "The Roving
Englishman," (this became his literary pseudonym,)
"Young Brown," (a novel, 1874,) "Turkey," (1877,)



"The Russians of To-Day," (1878,) and many other
works. Died in 1881.

Murray, (Sir GEORGE,) a British general, born m
Perthshire in 1772. He served in Flanders and Egypt
with distinction, and rendered important services as
quartermaster-general in the Peninsular war, (1808-14,)
after which he was employed in France as lieutenant-
general of the army of occupation. He was appointed
governor of the Royal Military College at Woolwich
about 1819, and secretary of state for the colonies in
1828. In 1841 he became master-general of the ord-
nance. Died in 1846.

SeeCuAMBBKS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Murray, (HUGH,) a Scottish geographer and miscel-
laneous writer, born in East Lothian in 1779. Among
his principal works are "Discoveries and Travels in
America," (1829,) "Encyclopedia of Geography," (1834,)
and " History of British India." Died in 1846.

See " Quarterly Review" for January, 1821.

Murray, (JAMES AUGUSTUS HENRY,) a British
philologist, born in 1837. He won reputation as a
philologist by his "Dialects of the Southern Counties
of Scotland," (1873,) an d in 1879 began the great
task of editing the Philological Society's New English
Dictionary.

Murray or Moray, (JAMES STUART,) EARL OF, often
called REGENT MURRAY, born about 1533, was a natural
son of James V. of Scotland and Margaret Erskine. In
1558 he joined the " Lords of the Congregation," as the
Protestant chiefs styled themselves, and in 1560 was sent
to France to invite Queen Mary (his half-sister) to return
to her kingdom She returned in 1561, and he became
her most favoured and powerful minister, and was made
Earl of Murray. His talents, firmness, and courage had
already caused the Reformers to regard him as the head
of their party. The marriage of Mary with Darnley,
(1565.) against the advice of Murray, caused a breach
between him and the queen, which was afterwards greatly
widened by the countenance she showed to Darnley's
murderers. Mary having been deposed, he was ap-
pointed regent of the kingdom in August, 1567. In
1568 she escaped from Lochleven Castle, and raised an
army, which was quickly routed by the regent at Lang-
side. At the trial of Mary, which Queen Elizabeth in-
stituted, the regent appeared as evidence against the
captive queen. By this and other acts he had incurred
the bitter hatred of the queen's party, and they resolved
upon his destruction. In January, 1570, he was waylaid,
shot, and mortally wounded by James Hamilton of
Bothwellhaugh, a notorious desperado, who was after-
wards selected by the agents of Philip II. to assassinate
the Prince of Orange.

The character of the regent Murray has been estimated
very differently, according to the temper or prejudice of
those who have judged him. By his firmness, modera-
tion, humanity, and impartial justice, he appears to have
well deserved the title of "the Good Regent," by which
he was known among the people of Scotland. "Those,"
observes Froude, "who can see only in the Protestant
religion an uprising of Antichrist, and in the Queen
of Scots the beautiful victim of sectarian iniquity, have
exhausted upon Murray the resources of eloquent vitu-
peration, and have described him as a perfidious brother,
building up his own fortunes on the wrongs of his in-
jured sovereign. . . . But facts prevail at last, however
passionate the predilection ; and, when the verdict of
plain human sense can get itself pronounced, the 'good
regent' will take his place among the best and greatest
men who have ever lived."

Murray, (JOHAN ANDERS,) a Swedish physician and
botanist, born at Stockholm in 1740, was a pupil of Lin-
naeus. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences
of Stockholm, and of the Royal Society of Gottingen,
and was created a privy councillor by the King of Eng-
land. Linnaeus gave the name of Mtirrayn exotica to
an East Indian tree. He was a brother of Adolphus,
noticed above. Died in 1791.

See C. G. HEVNE, " Elogium J. A. Murray," 1701.

Murray, JOHN,) a Scottish physician, published a



a, e, I, o, u, y, long;\,k, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, tit; mil; n&t; good; moon;



MURRAY



1789



MUS&US



" System of Materia Medica and Pharmacy," and " Ele-
ments of Chemistry." Died in 1820.

Murray, (JOHN,) a celebrated divine and preacher,
born in Hampshire, England, in 1741, is regarded as the
founder of Universalism in America. Having emigrated
to the United States in 1770, he was appointed in 1775
a chaplain in the army. He took part in the proceedings
of the Universalist Convention in 1785, and subsequently
became pastor of a church in Boston. Died in 1815.

See "Records of the Life of John Murray," written by himself.

Murray, (JOHN,) an eminent English publisher, born
in London in 1778. He commenced in 1803 a career
of publication which is perhaps unrivalled in the annals
of literature. About 1807 he projected the "Quarterly
Review," in which he obtained the co-operation of Can-
ning and Scott, and published the first number in 1809.
His sagacity in discerning the merits or talents of
authors, and his tact in anticipating the wants of the
public, rendered him very successful. He was a liberal
patron of literature, and a generous friend to Byron
and other eminent authors. Died in 1843.

Murray, (JOHN,) biologist, was born at Coburg,
Canada, in 1841. He was one of the naturalists on
the Challenger expedition, and in 1882 became
editor-in-chief of the "Challenger Reports." He
wrote a " Narrative" of the expedition, and has pub-
lished very numerous scientific papers.

Murray, (LiNDLEY,) a distinguished American gram-
marian and educational writer, born near Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, in 1745, was a member of the Society of
Friends. Having removed at an early age to New York,
he studied law, but he subsequently engaged in mercan-
tile pursuits. The latter part of his life was spent in
England, to which he removed about 1784. Among his
works, which obtained great popularity both in England
and America, we may name his " Power of Religion on
the Mind," etc., (1787,) "Grammar of the English Lan-
guage," (1795,) "English Reader," "Introduction to the
English Reader," and " Duty and Benefit of a Daily
Perusal of the Holy Scriptures," (1817.) He also com-
piled several French readers. He died near York,
England, in 1826.

Murray, (NICHOLAS,) D.D., a Presbyterian divine,
born in Ireland in 1803, studied theology at Princeton,
New Jersey, and in 1834 became pastoral Elizabethtown,
in that State. He published several theological works.
His "Letters to Bishop Hughes," (1847-48,) under the
signature of KIRWAN, have enjoyed a great popularity,
and have been translated into several foreign languages.
Died in 1861.

Murray, (PATRICK,) a Scottish writer, born in 1703,
was the fifth Lord Elibank. He published an " Inquiry
into the Origin and Consequence of the Public Debts,"
" Thoughts on Money, Circulation," etc., and a " Let-
ter to Lord Hailes on his Remarks on the History of
Scotland." His writings were highly esteemed. Died
in 1778.

Murray, (Sir ROBERT.) See MORAY.

Murray, (WILLIAM,) Earl of Mansfield, lord chief
justice, a British lawyer and orator of great merit and
celebrity, was born at Perth, Scotland, in 1704. He was
a younger son of Andrew, Viscount Stormont. Having
gained distinction as a classical scholar at Oxford, and
enlarged his mind by foreign travel, he was called to the
bar in 1731. He speedily rose into extensive practice,
and in 1743 was appointed solicitor-general. About this
time he entered the House of Commons, where he was
successful as an elegant and persuasive speaker, and
defended the government when Mr. Pitt (Lord Chatham)
was the leader of the opposition. "He surpassed Pitt,"
says Macaulay, " in correctness of taste, in power of
reasoning, in depth and variety of knowledge ; but he
wanted the energy, the courage, the all-grasping and all-
risking ambition which make men great in stirring times."
(" Review of the Life of the Earl of Chatham.") He was
appointed attorney-general in 1754, and chief justice of
the king's bench in 1756. Over that great court he pre-
sided with honour above thirty years. In 1756 he was
raised to the peerage, as Baron Mansfield. On more
than one occasion he refused high political positions,



among which was that of lord chancellor. He had,
however, a seat in the cabinet for more than a year. In
the trial of Woodfall for publishing " Junius's letters,"
Lord Mansfield gave offence to the popular party, and
was censured for leaning against the freedom of discus-
sion in cases of libel. During the riots of 1780, his house
in London was burned down by a mob. He died, with-
out issue, in 1793. "His mind and his habits," says
Lord Brougham, " were eminently judicial ; and it may
be doubted if, taking both the externals and the more
essential qualities into the account, that go to form a
great judge, any one has ever administered the laws in
this country whom we can fairly name as his equal."

See the "Life of William, Earl of Mansfield," by JOHN HOILI-
DAY ; BROUGHAM, " Statesmen of the Time of George III. ;" Foss,
" The Judges of England ;" LORD CAMPBELL, " Lives of the Chief
Justices ;" CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scots-
men."

Murray, (WILLIAM,) a Scottish actor, born in 1791,
performed in Edinburgh for many years. Died in 1852.

Murray, (WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON,) an American
preacher, editor, and author, born at Guilford, Connec-
ticut, April 26, 1840. He graduated at Yale College in
1862, and was for some years a Congregationalist pastor
in Boston, and editor of "The Golden Age." His pub-
lished works include "Adirondack Tales," "Camp-Life
in the Adirondacks," " Deacons," " Music Hall Sermons,"
" The Perfect Horse," etc.

Murray, (WILLIAM VANS,) an American diplomatist,
born in Maryland about 1762. Having studied law in
England, he was elected to Congress in 1791. He
was afterwards appointed by Washington United States
minister at the Hague. Died in 1803.

Mursinna, mooR-sin'na, (CHRISTIAN LUDWIG,) an
eminent German surgeon, born at Stolpe in 1744. He
became chief surgeon in the army in 1787, and published
several surgical works. Died in 1823.

Muraka, di, de mooRs'ka, (ILMA,) an Austrian oper-
atic singer, born about 1843. She made her dibut in
Florence in 1862, and afterwards appeared in the prin-
cipal cities of Europe and America. Died Jan. 17, 1889.

Murtola, mooR'to-la, (GASPARO,) an Italian poet,
born at Genoa. He wounded, with a pistol, Marini the
poet, who had criticised one of his poems. Died in 1624.

Mus. See DECIUS Mus.

Musa. See MOOSA.

Mu'Ba, (ANTONIUS,) a celebrated Roman physician,
originally a slave of the emperor Augustus, and a brother
of Euphorbus, is said to have been the first who pre-
scribed the use of the cold bath. Having cured the
emperor by this remedy, he received his freedom, and
was created a knight Musa was also distinguished for
his literary tastes, and enjoyed the friendship of Virgil
and Horace.

See ACKBRMANN, " De Antonio Musa," 1786; ATTKKBURV,
" Reflections on the Character of lapis, in Virgil, or the Character
of A. Musa," etc,, 1740; HALLBR, " Bibliotheca Botanica."

Musae, mu'ze, |Gr. Mowot,] the Muses, sometimes
called PIER'IDES, in the Greek mythology, the daughters
of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, (Memory,) were supposed to
preside over poetry, the liberal arts, and the sciences.
According to the generally received opinion, there were
nine Muses, namely, Calliope, Clio, Euterpe, Erato, Mel-
pomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
(See these names under their separate heads.) The
places especially consecrated to the Muses were Mount
Parnassus, Mount Helicon, and the fountains of Castaiia
and Aganippe.

Muaaeus. See MUSAUS.

Musaeus, mu-zee'us, [Gr. Mowrsiof; Fr. MusSE,
mii'za',] a celebrated and ancient Greek bard, commonly
regarded as a semi-fabulous personage. He was said to be
the son of Eumolpus and Selene, or, according to others,
of Orpheus, of whom he was a disciple. Tradition in-
forms us that he presided over the Eleusinian mysteries
in the time of Hercules. He was the reputed author
of several poetical works, among which were "Oracles,"
and a hymn to Ceres. Pausanias regarded this hymn as
the only genuine poem of Musaeus that was extant in
his time. Onomacritus collected the Oracles of Musasus
and mixed with them some of his own productions,
which he wished to pass for the work of Musaeus. For



as >:; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H. K. guttural; N, -nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. ( JJ^'See Explanations, p.



MUS&US



1790



MUSSET



this imposture he was banished by Hipparchus, the son
of Pisistratns.

See VERGIL, "jEneid," book vi. 666; ULRICI, "Gcschichte da
Hellenische* Dichtkunst"

Musasus, surnamed GRAMMAT'ICUS, or " the Gram-
marian," is supposed to have lived in the fifth century.
He is celebrated for his poem of " Hero and Leander,"
a production of rare merit, of which several good editions
have been published.

See KROMAVER, "De Muszo Grammatico."

Mnsaus or Musaeua, moo-sa'us, (JoHANN KARL
AUGUST,) a celebrated German writer, born at Jena in
1735. His principal works are a novel entitled "The
German Grandison," (" Der Deutsche Grandison," 1760,)
" Physiognomic Travels," (1778,) a satire on the theories
of Lavater, " Popular Legends of Germany," (1782,)
which enjoy great popularity, and " Friend Hein's Ap-
paritions, in Holbein's Manner," (1785.) His writings
are characterized by delightful humour, simplicity, and
genial satire. Musaus was a relative of Kotzebue, who
published in 1791 his posthumous works, with an inter-
esting notice of the author prefixed. Died in 1787.

Muschenbroek. See MUSSCHENBROEK.

Muscher. See MUSSCHER.

Mus'cu-lus [Ger. pron. moos'koo-lus] or Meusel,
moi'zel, (ANDREAS,) a German Lutheran theologian, born
at Schneeberg in 1540. He preached at Frankfort-
on-the-Oder, and wrote "Compendium Theologicum."
Died in 1581.

Muaculus, Miisslin, miis-leen', orMeusslin, moiss-
ieen', (WOLFGANG,) a German Reformer and scholar, born
in Lorraine in 1497, was a monk in his youth. He
was converted by Luther about 1520, became minister
of a church at Augsburg in 1531, and acquired a high
reputation as a preacher. Having been banished from
Augsburg in 1548, he settled at Berne. He published
commentaries and other works. Died in 1563.

See CRAIK, "Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties."

Musee. See Musaus.

Muselli, moo-sel'lee, (GIOVANNI GIACOMO,) MAR-
QUIS, an Italian antiquary and writer, born at Verona in
1697 ; died in 1768.

Musemeci, moo-sa-ma'chee, (MARIO,) an Italian
architect and antiquary, born at Catanea in 1778. He
wrote several works on antiquities and art, among which
is " Opere archeologiche ed artistiche," (2 vols., 1851.)
Died in 1852.

Mus'grave, (Rev. GEORGE,) an English writer, born
about 1798. He published "Rambles in Normandy,"
and other books of travel. Died at Bath, December 26,
1883.

Mus'grave, (Sir RICHARD,) an Irish historian, born
about 1758, published in 1801 a "History of the Irish
Rebellions." Died in 1818.

Musgrave, (SAMUEL,) a grandson of the following,
was a distinguished classical scholar. He published,
among other works, an edition of Euripides, and a treat-
ise on Grecian Mythology. Died in 1782.

Muagrave, (WILLIAM,) an English physician and
antiquary, bom in Somersetshire in 1657. He was a
Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1684 became its
secretary. He wrote several treatises on the gout, and
a number of dissertations on British and Roman An-
tiquities. Died in 1721.

Mush'et, (DAVID,) a Scottish metallurgist and in-
ventor, born at Dalkeith in 1772. He acquired distinc-
tion by his improvements in the fabrication of iron and
steel, on which subject he wrote several treatises. He
originated the method of assaying iron ores which is
now generally used. Died in 1847.

Mu'sick, (JOHN RAY,) an American author, born
in Missouri in 1849. He was admitted to the Mis-
souri bar in 1877, and in 1882 devoted him-
authorship and journalism. Among his works are the
"Columbian Historical X - 12 vols.,) "The

War with Spain," "Our Xew Possessions/' ' Ilis
Brother's Crime," etc.

Musis or Musi, de, (Ac.< >-. i IMJ.) See AGOSTINO
VENEZIANO.



Musitano, moo-se-ta'no, (CARLO,) a learned Italian
medical writer, born in Calabria in 1635 ; died in 1714.

Musius. See MUYS, (CORNELIS.)

Mu-so'nI-us Ru'fus, (CAius,) a Stoic philosopher,
born in Etruria, flourished about 70 A.D. He was
banished from Rome by Nero, but he returned under
Vespasian, and was excepted by him from the sentence
of exile pronounced against the Stoics. He was highly
esteemed by Pliny, Tacitus, and other eminent writers.
Fragments of his works are to be found in Stobaeus.

See NIHUWLAND, "Dissertatio de C. Musonio Rufo," 1783,
TACITUS, " Annales," books xiv. and xv.

Muspell, mus'p?! or moos'pjl, written also Mus-
pel, Muspellheim, and Muspelheim, [etymology
unknown,] in the Norse mythology, the world of light
and heat, situated in the south part of the universe,
Niflheim, the habitation of mist and cold, being situated
in the north. (See HELA.) The inhabitants of this
world are called " the sons of Muspell," among whom
Surt, or Surtur, is chief, and the ruler of Muspellheim.
(See SURT.)

Mus'pratt, (JAMES SHERIDAN,) a distinguished
chemist, born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1821. He was a
pupil of Professor Graham at Glasgow and at London
About 1843 he went to Giessen to pursue his studies
under Liebig. He produced at Giessen a remarkable
treatise on Sulphites. He founded a College of Chem-
istry in Liverpool, and married Miss Susan Cushman, the
actress, in 1848. Among his works is a " Dictionary
of Chemistry; or, Chemistry, Theoretical, Practical, and
Analytical," (2 vols., 1860.) Died February 3, 1871.

Muss, (CHARLES,) a painter in enamel. Among his
works is a picture of the " Holy Family." Died in 1824.

Mussato, moos-si'to, (ALBERTINO,) an Italian his-
torian and poet, born at Padua in 1261. He wrote a
" History of the Life and Actions of Henry VII.," and a
number of eclogues, hymns, and tragedies. Died in 1330.

See GiNGUENt " Histoire Liile'raire d'ltalie."

Musschenbroek, van, vin mtis'icen-bRSok', (Pl-
TER,) a celebrated Dutch savant, bora at Leyden in 1692.
He studied medicine in the university of his native city,
but he subsequently devoted himself chiefly to experi-
mental physics, in which he was eminently successful
and made important discoveries, especially in magnetism
and the cohesion of bodies. Having visited England in
1717, he made the acquaintance of Newton, whose sys-
tem he was one of the first to introduce into Holland.
He became professor of physics and mathematics at
Duisburg in 1719, and afterwards filled the same chair


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