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at Utrecht. In 1740 he obtained the professorship of
philosophy at Leyden, where he resided till his death,
in 1761. Among his principal works are his "Physicae
Experimentales et Geometricae Dissertationes," (1729.)
and " Elementa Physicae," or " Introduction to Natural
Philosophy," (1734.) He was a Fellow of the Royal
Society of London, and a member of the principal
learned institutions of Europe.

SeeSAVKRiKN. "ViesdesPhilosophes;"CoNDORCET, "filoges:"
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Musscher or Muscher, van, vin mus'Ker, (Mi-
CHAEI.,) an eminent Dutch painter, born at Rotterdam
in 1645. He studied successively under Van Tempel,
Metzu, and Jan Steen, and painted landscapes, historical
subjects, and portraits. The last-named are most highly
esteemed. Died in 1705.

See DSSCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands. Hollandais," etc

Musset, de, deh mu'sJ)', (Louis CHARLES ALFRED,)
a celebrated French poet, born in Paris on the nth of
November, 1810, was a son of Musset-Pathay, noticed
below. He was educated at the College Henri IV. In
1830 he produced a volume entitled " Tales of Spain
and Italy," ("Contes d'Espagne et d'ltalie,") which at-
tracted much attention. His reputation was increased
in 1833 by "The Cup and the Lips," (" La Coupe et les
Levres,") a drama, "A quo! revent les jeunes Filles?"
and " Namouna." He fell into a morbid state of mind,
and expressed misanthropic sentiments in several of his
works, which are censured for an immoral tendency. He



a, e, I, 5, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, y, short: a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; nit; not; good; moon;



MUSSET



1791



MUZIANO



number of prose tales, which were admired. Under the
reign of Louis Philippe he was librarian to the ministry
of the interior. He was admitted into the French
Academy in 1852. Among his finest works are four
poems entitled the " Nights," etc., (" Nuits : La Nuit de
Mai, La Nuit d'Aoflt, La Nuit d Octobre, et La Nuit
de De'cembre," 1835-37.) Died in Paris in May, 1857.

" None of his illustrious contemporaries," says Leo
Joubert, " has surpassed him in spontaneity of poetical
genius, in the ardent and sincere expression of passion,
in vivacity, grace, and Mat of soul, (esprit;) no one
has represented with more fidelity the spiritual unrest,
the mllange of skepticism and religious aspirations,
which characterize our epoch." (" Nouvelle Biographic
Ge"nerale."

See SAINTE-BEUVK, "Portraits contemporains," and "Causc-
ries du Lundi:" CLEMENT DE Ris, "Portraits a la Plume: A. de
Musset," etc., 1853: "Fraser's Magazine" for July, 1857; "West-
minster Review" for April, 1869.

Musset, de, (PAUL EDME,) a novelist, a brother of
the preceding, born in Paris in 1804. He published
numerous novels, which are said to be well written, and
among which we notice " Lauzun," (1835,) " The Brace-
let," (1839,) "Mignard et Rigaud," (1839,) and " Les
Femmes de la Regence," (1840.) Died May 17, 1880.

Musset, de, (VICTOR DONATIEN,) called MUSSET-
PATHAY, a French littlrateur, born in the Vendomois
in 1768, was the father of the preceding. He wrote,
besides other biographies, histories, and tales, a " Life
of Jean Jacques Rousseau," (2 vols., 1821.) Died in
1832.

See " Souvenirs historiquesde Musset-Pathay," 1810 ; QUSRARU,
" La France Litte'raire."

Mus'sey, (REUBEN DIMOND,) an American surgeon,
born at Pelham, New Hampshire, June 23, 1780. He
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1803, and at a Phila-
delphia medical college in 1809. He held professorships
in the medical department of Dartmouth College, 1814-
38. Having removed to Cincinnati, he acquired a bril-
liant fame as an operator, and as a professor of surgery,
in the Ohio Medical College, 1838-52, and in Miami
Medical College, 1852-60. He published a work "On |
Cutaneous Absorption," (1809,) and " Health : its Friends ,
and its Foes," (1862.) Died at Boston, June 8, 1866.

Miisslln. See MUSCULUS, (WOLFGANG.)

Mustafa, Mustapha, Moustapha, or Moustafa,
mo"6s't3-fa, L, succeeded his brother, Ahmed I., as Sul-
tan of Turkey, in 1617. He was soon after deposed,
and his nephew, Osman, raised to the throne. Though
re-established as Sultan in 1622, Mustafa was again
deposed in 1623, and strangled, in 1639, by order of
Amurath IV.

See VON HAMMER, " Geschichte des Osmauischen Reichs."

Mustafa, Mustapha, or Moustapha H, son of
Mahomet IV., was born in 1664, and succeeded Ahmed
II. as Sultan in 1695. He fought against the Austrians
and Venetians with varying success, and in 1699 con-
cluded with those powers the peace of Carlowitz. Being
deposed in 1703, he died in a few months, and his
brother, Ahmed III., became Sultan.

Mustafa, Mustapha, or Moustapha TTT,, son of
Ahmed III., born in 1717, succeeded Osman III. m
1757. He began in 1769 to wage war with the Russians,
who took possession of the Crimea and Bessarabia. He
died in 1774, and his brother, Abdool Hamid, succeeded
to the throne.

Mustafa, Mustapha, or Moustapha IV., son of
Abdool Hamid, became Sultan on the deposition of Se-
lim III., in 1807. Having caused Selim to be strangled,
Mustafa was deposed by Bairaktar, Pasha of Rudshuk,
and his brother, Mahmood, was raised to the throne.
During the revolt of the Janissaries, in 1808, Mustafa
was executed by the orders of Mahmood.

See F. MBNGIN, " Histoire de 1'figypte sous M^hemet AJi."

Mustafa, Mustapha, or Moustapha Ben-Ismail
moos'ta-fa ben is-ml-eel', an Arabian chief, born in
Algeria about 1770. He became an able adversary of
Abd-el-KSder, against whom he fought in co-operation
with the French, who gave him the rank of general. He
was killed in battle in May, 1843.



Mustapha. See MUSTAFA.

Mus-tox'y-dis or Mustoxidis, (ANDREAS,) a dis-
tinguished modern Greek scholar, born at Corfu in 1785.
He studied at Pavia, and in 1804 was appointed histori-
ographer for the republic of the Seven Islands. Among
his works, which are chiefly written in Italian, we may
name " Considerations on the Present Language of
Greece." Died April 12, 1860.

Mu-Bu'rus, (MARCUS,) a learned modern Greek, born
j in Candia about 1470, was professor of the Greek lan-
guage in the University of Padua. He assisted Aldus
Manutius in the revision of Greek manuscripts, and
published, among other works, the " Etymologicum
Magnum Grascum." In 1516 he was appointed by Leo
X. Archbishop of Malvasia. Died in 1517.

Mut, moot, (i.e., "mother,") a goddess of the ancient
Egyptian people. At Thebes she was worshipped as
the wife of Amen-Ra.

Mu'ta, (from mutus, " silent,") the name of the god-
dess of silence among the Romans.

Mutiano. See MUZIANO.

Mutina. See MODENA.

Mutio. See Muzio.

Mutis, moo'tess, ? (Don JOSE CELESTINO,) a cele-
brated Spanish botanist and physician, born at Cadiz
in 1732. He became professor of anatomy at Madrid
in 1757, and in 1760 accompanied the Spanish viceroy
to South America as his physician. He subsequently
devoted himself to scientific explorations, and was ap-
pointed in 1 790 director of the Royal Academy of Natural
History at Santa Fe. He died in 1808, leaving un-
finished his " Flora of New Granada," one of the most
valuable works of the kind that had then appeared. He
was the first who distinguished the various species of
Cinchona, (Peruvian bark,) the different properties of
which he has described in his "Historia de los Arboles
del Quina."

Muts-Hito, moots-hee'to, Emperor of Japan, was
born November 3, 1852, and succeeded to the throne
in 1867. His reign was distinguished by great re-
forms, such as abolishing the feudal system, giving
Japan a representative government, and adopting the
institutions of Western civilization. During his reign
Japan displayed a remarkable career of progress in
modern ideas.

Muy, du, dii mii-e', (Louis NICOLAS VICTOR DE FE-
LIX,) COMTE, a French military commander, born at
Marseilles in 1711. He served in Germany in the prin-
cipal campaigns from 1741 to 1760. He enjoyed the
favour of Louis XV. and Louis XVI., and was appointed
by the latter minister of war, (1774,) and marshal of
France, (1775.) Died in 1775.

Muys, mois, [Lat Mu'sius,] (CORNELIS,) a Dutch
priest and Latin poet, born at Delft in 1503. He was
hung by some soldiers at Leyden in 1572.

Muys, (WYER WILLEM,) a Dutch savant and writer,
born at Steenwyk in 1682. He was professor of medi-
cine and chemistry at Franeker. He wrote, besides
other works, one "On the Matter of Light," ("De
Materia Luminis," 1722.) Died in 1744.

Muzaffer-ed-Deen, Shah of Persia, was a son of
Nasr-ed-Deen, born March 25, 1853. Though the
second son, he was nominated as successor by his
father, and appointed governor-general of the Azer-
baijan province; on the assassination of his father he
succeeded to the throne, and was crowned at Teheran,
June 8, 1896.

Muziano, moot-se-a'no, or Mutiano, moo-te-a'no,
(GiROLAMO,) one of the first Italian painters of his time,
born near Brescia in 1528, was the pupil of Romanino.
At an early age he visited Rome, where his admirable
landscapes obtained for him the name of "the landscape
youth." He also attained great excellence in historical
pictures, and his mosaics in the Gregorian Chapel are
esteemed the finest of modern times. Among his best
productions are " The Resurrection of Lazarus," in the
Quirinal palace, and " A Company of Anchorites listen-
ing to a Preacher in the Desert," in the Church of the
Carthusians. Muziano completed the drawings from



; 9asj; gAard; gasy'/G, H,K., guttural; ft, nasal; ^trilled: sasz; thasinMw. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



MUZIO



1792



MYTENS



the Trajan column begun by Giulio Romano. He was
the founder of the Academy of Saint Luke. Died in
Rome in 1592.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters ;" ORLOPF, " Histoire de la
Peinture en Italic."

Muzio, moot'se-o, or Mutio, moo'te-o, (GlROLAMO
Nuzio,) an Italian littfrateur, born at Padua in 1496.
He wrote polemical treatises against the doctrines of
Luther, which procured him the surname of the " Ham-
mer of Heretics," ("Malleus Hereticorum/') also vari-
ous other works, in prose and verse. Died in 1576.

See TIRABOSCHI. "Storia della Letterarura Italiana."

Muz'zey, (ARTEMAS BOWERS,) an American Unita-
rian divine and miscellaneous writer, born at Lexington,
Massachusetts, in 1802. He published "The Young
Man's Friend," (1836,) "Moral Teacher," (1839,) and
other works. Died at Cambridge, Mass., April 21, 1892.

Myconius, me-ko'ne-ns, (FRIEDRICH,) a German Re-
former, born in Franconia in 1491, was a monk in his
youth. He became a friend of Luther, whose doctrines
he propagated with zeal and success. He preached many
years at Gotha, and wrote several religious works. Died
jn 1546.

See ANTON PROBUS. "Vita F. Myconii," 1547: LOMMATZSCH,
" Narratio de F. Myconio," 1825.

Myconius, me-ko'ne-us, (OSWALD,) or Geiashau-
aer, (gis'how'zer,) a Swiss Protestant divine, born at
Lucerne in 1488, was a pupil of Erasmus. He became
pastor of a church and professor of divinity at Bale.
He wrote a " Narrative of the Life and Death of Zuin-
glius." Died in 1552.

See KIRCHHOFBR, "Leben O. Myconius Reformators," 1814.

Mydorge, me'doRzh', (CLAUDE,) a French geometer,
born in Paris in 1585, was an intimate friend of Des-
cartes, and furnished the glasses used by that philosopher
in his optical experiments. He wrote several treatises
on optics and mathematics, and a defence of the works
of Descartes against the Jesuits. Died in 1647.

My'er, (ALBERT JOSEPH,) an American meteorologist,
born at Newburgh, New York, September 20, 1828. He
graduated at Geneva College in 1847, and as M.D. at
the University of Buffalo in 1851. In 1854 he entered
the army as assistant surgeon, in 1858 was transferred
to the signal service, and in 1860 became chief signal
officer of the army. In this position he attained in 1866
the rank of colonel and brevet brigadier-general. In
1870 he was placed in charge of the meteorological di-
vision of the signal service, the work of which he organ-
ized. He published "A Manual of Signals" (1868) for
army and navy. Died at Buffalo, August 24, 1880.

My'erB, (ABRAHAM C.,) an American officer, born in
South Carolina about 1814, served in the Mexican war,
and became in 1862 brigadier-general in the Confederate
army.

Myers, (FREDERICK W. H.,) an English psychist,
born February 6, 1843. He became an active member
and secretary of the Society for Psychical Research,
and published "St. Paul," (1867,) "Essays Modern
and Classical," (1885,) " Science and a Future Life,"
(1893,) and, in collaboration, "Phantasms of the
Living," (1886.)

Myers, (PETER HAMILTON,) an American novelist,
born in Herkimer county, New York, in 1812, pub-
lished "The First of the Knickerbockers," (1848,)
"The King of the Hurons," (1850,) "The Van Vel-
dens," and several other historical romances. Died
in 1878.

Myers, (PHILIP VAN NESS,) an American author
and educator, born at Tribe's Hill, New York, in 1846.
He studied law, was president of Farmers College,
Ohio, 1879-90, and professor of history and political
economy at the University of Cincinnati after 1890.
Among his works are " Life and Nature under the
Tropics," " Remains of Lost Empires," " Eastern
Nations and Greece," " History of Rome," etc.



Mylius, mee'le-us, (JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German
bibliographer, born in Weimar in 1710. He published
" Bibliotheca Anonymorum et Pseudonymorum," (1740,)
and " Historia Myliana," (1752,) which contains biog-
raphies of many men named Mylius. Died in 1757.

Mylne, m!ln, (ROBERT,) a Scottish architect, born at
Edinburgh in 1734. He was appointed engineer to the
New River Company, London, and surveyor of Saint
Paul's Cathedral. His principal work is Blackfriars'
Bridge, completed in 1769. Mylne was a Fellow of the
Royal Society, and a member of the Academy of Saint
Luke at Rome. Died in 1811.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Myn, van der, vSn der mln, ( HERMAN, ) a Dutch
artist, born at Amsterdam in 1684, visited London, where
he gained a high reputation by his portraits. His fruit-
and flower-pieces were also admired. Died in 1741.

Mynsicht, von, fon min'siKt, (ADRIAN,) a German
chemist and physician, flourished between 1610 and 1650.

Myuster, muVster or min'ster, (JAKOB PETER,) a
Danish theologian and pulpit orator, born at Copenhagen
in 1775, became in 1828 court chaplain. He was created
Bishop of Seeland in 1834. He published "Reflections
on Christian Doctrine," and other theological works.
Died in 1854.

My-rep'sus, (NICHOLAS,) [Noto^oof <J Mupn/wf,] a
Greek physician of the thirteenth century, practised in
Rome or Constantinople. He wrote a treatise " On the
Composition of Medicines," (" De Compositione Medi-
camentorum," etc.)

Myrick, (Sir SAMUEL RUSH.) See MEYRICK.

Myrmidon, mir'me-don, (Gr. Mvp/uSuv,] in classic
mythology, was supposed to be a son of Jupiter and
Eurymedusa. According to one tradition, he was the
ancestor of the Myrmidons, a people of Thessaly, some
of whom Achilles led to the siege of Troy.

My'ron, [Mipuv,] an eminent Greek sculptor, born In
Boeotia about 480 B.C., was celebrated for his skill in
representing the varied forms of animal life. He worked
with equal success in marble, brass, and wood. Among
his best productions are a "Cow lowing for its Calf," in
bronze, which has been celebrated by the Latin and
Greek poets in numerous epigrams, a colossal group of
Jupiter, Athene, and Hercules, the "Discobolus, ot
Quoit-Thrower," and " Perseus killing Medusa." His
athletes, dogs, and sea-monsters were also greatly id-
mired.

See K. O. MOuLKR, " Handbuch der Archaolope der Kunt ;"
GOETHE, " Propylaen ;" WINCKKLMANN, " Werke," vol. vi.

Myronide. See MYRONIDES.

My-ronl-des, [Gr. Mwpuvitfyf ; Fr. MYRONIDE, me'-
To'ned',1 an Athenian general, who gained a victory over
the Corinthians in 457, and another over the Boeotians
in 456 B.C.

Myrtis, mir'tis, [Miprif,] a Greek lyric poetess of high
reputation, was born at Anthedon, and flourished about
500 B.C. Pindar is said to have received instruction
from her.

Mytena, ml'tlns, (ARNOLD,) a Flemish painter, born
at Brussels in 1541. Among his best works is an altar-
piece representing the " Assumption of the Virgin, with
the Apostles," at Naples. Died in 1602.

Mytens, (DANIEL,) THE ELDER, a Dutch artist, born
at the Hague about 1590. He was patronized by James
I. and Charles I. of England, and painted the portraits
of a number of the royal family and of the nobility. He
was regarded as second only to Van Dyck in portrait-
painting. Died after 1656.

Mytena, (DANIEL,) THE YOUNGER, born at the Hague
in 1636, was a son of the preceding. He became director
of the Academy at the Hague. His principal work is
the ceiling of the Painters' Hall. Died in 1688.

Mytens, mii'tens, (MARTIN,) a Swedish painter, born
at Stockholm in 1695. After visiting Rome, he settled in
Vienna, where he became painter to the court. Among
his best pieces is the " History of Esther and Ahasuerus.
Died in 1755.



i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 8, ii, y, short; a^ e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mtt; not; good; m<36n;



NAAMAN



1793



N&VIUS



N.



Na'a man, [Heb. JOJO.] a Syrian general, commander
of the 'army of Benhadad, King of Damascus, lived
about 890 B.C. He was cured of leprosy by the prophet
Elisha.

See 1 1. Kings v.

Nabaj or Nabadj, nl-bij', a Hindoo poet, flourished
about 1580-1600. He wrote a poem entitled " Bhakta-
mala," which treats of the adventures and miracles of
fayadeva and other ascetics.

Nabega - Ziad - Ibn - Moaweeah-Aldobiani, nl'-
be-gi ze-ad' ib'n mo-a-wee'ah al-do-be-a'nee, an Arabian
poet, flourished in the latter part of the sixth century.
One of his poems, and several fragments, are given in
the "Chrestomathie" of Silvestre de Sacy.

Na'bis, (Gr. Nd^,] tyrant of Sparta, succeeded Ma-
chanidas about 206 B.C., and signalized himself by his
cruelty and avarice. In conjunction with Philip II. of
Macedon, he subjected different parts of the Pelopon-
nesus, but he was afterwards defeated by the Roman
consul Flamininus. He was assassinated by his own
allies. (192 B.C.)

Nab-o-nas'sar, [Gr. NoSovdoapof,] King of Babylon,
lived in the eighth century B.C. He is celebrated for the
chronological era which bears his name, and which was
employed as a point of departure in ancient astronomical
tables. This era began in 747 B.C.

Nab-o-po-las'sar, King of Babylon, was originally
a satrap of Sardanapalus, King of Assyria. He re-
volted against that king, and, aided by Cyaxares, King
of the Medes, took Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.
He died in 605 B.C., and was succeeded by his son,
Nebuchadnezzar.

See EUSEBIUS, " Chronicles :" HOEFHR, " La Phdnicie, la Baby-

NacclrJanti, nak-ke-an'tee, [Lat NACLAN'TUS, ]
(GlACOMO,) an Italian theologian, born at Florence.
He was a member of the Council of Trent, and wrote
several work-.. Died in 1569.

Nachman, Ben, b8n naK'man, ? (MoSES,) a Spanish
rabbi, born at Girone in 1194, v ? s versed ' n tne science
of the Cabala. He wrote, besides other works, "Lex
4ominis," (I5l<f.) and "Fons Jacob! ," (154?-)

Nachtigall See LUSCINIUS.

Nachtigal, niK'te-gal, (GusTAV,) a German explorer,
born at Eichstedt, in Prussian Saxony, February 23, 1834.
He studied at Berlin, Halle, Wiirzburg, and Greifswalde,
and became an army-surgeon in 1858. He was a physi-
cian in Algeria, 1859-63, and then entered the personal
service of the Bey of Tunis. He afterwards traversed
the Eastern Sahara, and made extensive and important
researches in the Soudan, reaching Cairo in 1874. He
was in 1884 German consul at Tunis. Died in 1885.

Nachtigall, naK'te-gll', [Lat LUSCIN'IUS,] (OTMAR,)
a German scholar and writer, born at Strasburg about
1487. He preached against the doctrines of Luther at
Augsburg, and taught Greek at Strasburg. Among his
works is "Evangelica Historia e Gra;co versa," (1523.)
Died about 1535.

See NICBRON, " Me'moires."

Nacke or Naecke, nek'keh, (GusTAV HEINRICH,) a
German historical painter, born at Frauenstein in 1785.
He became professor of painting in the Academy of
Dresden in 1824. His works are highly commended.
Died at Dresden in 1835.

Naclantus. See NACCHIANTI.

Na'dab, [Heb. 31J,] son of Jeroboam, King of Israel,
succeeded him in 968 B.C. While engaged soon after in
fighting against the Philistines, he was slain by Baasha,
the son of Ahijah, who ruled in his stead.

Nadal, nf'dtl', (AUGUSTIN, ) ABBft, a mediocre
French author, born at Poitiers in 1664, wrote tragedies
in verse, criticisms, and moral essays. Died in 1740.

Nadasti, na-das'tee, ? written also De Nadzad,
(THOMAS,) a Hungarian general, was an ancestor of the
following. He distinguished himself by the defence of
Buda against the Sultan Solyman in 1529, and afterwards
rendered important military services to Charles V.



Nadasti, de, deh na-das'tee, ? (FRANCIS,) COUNT, a
patriotic Hungarian statesman, who opposed the des-
potic policy of the emperor Leopold. He was accused
of a conspiracy against the life of Leopold, unjustly
condemned, and beheaded in 1671. He was author
of a " History of Hungary," (1664.)

Nadaud, nS'do', (GuSTAVE,) a French musician and
writer of verse, born at Roubaix in 1820, produced many
popular songs. He became a member of the legion of
Honour in 1861. Died in 1893.

Nadault de Buffon, nfdo' deh bii'fdN', (BENJAMIN
HENRI,) a French engineer and writer, born at Mont-
bard in 1804. He published, besides other works, a
"Course of Agriculture," (4 vols., 1853-56,) and "The
Correspondence of Buffon," (1860.) Died in 1880.

Na-deem', Nadirn, or Al-Nadeem, an Arabian
author, whose name is also given as ABOOLFARAJ IBN
ISHAK, and IBN ABI YAKOOB AL. N ADEEM. His " Fihrist"
is a bibliographical work of high value and interest. He
lived at BagdSd, and died in 995 A.D.

Nadezhdin, na'dezh-din, written also Nadeahdin,
(NICHOLAS IVANOVITCH,) a Russian litterateur, born in
Riazan in 1804. He became a councillor of state at
Saint Petersburg, where he died in 1856.

Nadir Shah, na'dir shSh, written also Nader Chan,
Nadir Schah, and Nauder Shah, also called Koolee
,or Kouli) Khan, koo'lee Kin, a celebrated Persian
conqueror, of Turkish extraction, born in KhorassSn in
1688. His courage and abilities early gained him dis-
tinction in the service of the governor of that province ;
but, in consequence of ill treatment, he left Khorassan
and became the head of a band of robbers. Being soon
after called upon by Tahmasp, Shah of Persia, to oppose
the Afghans, he succeeded, within two years, in expelling
them from the country, upon which he was made com-
mander-in-chief, (1729.) Tahmasp having in 1732 made
a disadvantageous treaty with Turkey, Nadir resolved
to prosecute the war, and gained such popularity by
the success of his arms that on his return he dethroned
the Shah and assumed the supreme power. In 1738
he conquered Candahar and Afghanistan. Having soon
after invaded India, he entered Delhi in 1739, and took
possession of the imperial treasures. The inhabitants,
on a false report of Nadir's death, attacked his soldiers.
After an ineffectual attempt to restrain them, he ordered
a wholesale massacre, in which, it is stated by Fraser,
120,000 perished. His many acts of tyranny and cruelty
at length caused him to be assassinated, (1747.) In the
early part of his career Nadir Shah appears to have been
not only an able, but, on the whole, a just and humane,
prince ; but later in life, having become a prey to avarice
and suspicion, his acts, it is said, " exceeded in barbarity
all that has been recorded of the most bloody tyrants."

See ERASER, "History of Na'dir Shah," 1741: "Life of Nadii
Shah," by his secretary, MADHY KHAN, translated into French by
SIR WILLIAM JONES ; MALCOLM, " History of Persia," vol. ii.

Naecke. See NACKE.

Naenia, nee'ne-a, [Fr. NENIE, nl'ne',] a Roman god-
dess that presided over funerals. This word signifies a
" dirge" or " funeral song."

Naerssen, van, vin nlRs'sen, [Lat. NARS'SIUS,]
(JAN,) a Dutch writer of Latin poetry, born at Dort in
1580. He became physician to Gustavus Adolphus at
Stockholm, and wrote "Gustavidos Libri III.," (1632.)
Died in 1637.

Nsevius, nee've-us, (CNEIUS,) a Roman poet, born in
Campania about 272 B.C., was the author of an epic poem
on the Punic War, and of several dramas. A few frag-
ments only of his writings are extant He is praised
by Cicero as being in some respects superior to Ennius.
He died about 204 B.C. "Cneius Naevius," says Pro-
fessor Sellar, " is the first in the line of Roman poets
and the first writer in the Latin language whose frag


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 173 of 425)