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Napierua. See NAPIER, (JOHN.)

i, e, T, 6, u, y, .'OH;-: 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, jf, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mSt; n6t; good; moon;




Napione, na-pe-o'ni, (C. ANTONIO GALEANI,) an
Italian mineralogist, born at Turin ; died at Rio Janeiro
in 1814. His brother, J. GALEANI, Count de Napione,
was a dramatist and litterateur.

Napione da Cocconato, na-pe-o'nada kok-ko-na'to,
(GiAN FRANCESCO Galeani ga-14-a'nee,) COUNT, a
learned Italian writer on various subjects, was born at
Turin in 1748. He was a cousin-german of the eminent
author Joseph de Maistre. He held several high civil
offices. Among his numerous works are an essay on
the Italian language, (" Dell'Uso e dei Pregi della Lin-
gua Italiana," 2 vols., 1791,) and "Lives of Illustrious
Italians," (3 vols., 1818.) Died in 1830.

See L. MARTINI, " Vita del Conte G. F. Napione," 1836 : " Nou-
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Napoleon I. See BONAPARTE.


Na-po'le-on [Fr. NAPOLEON, nS'po'li'iN'] HL,
France, a son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beau-
harnais, was born at Paris, in the Tuilerie^, April 20, 1808.
He was inscribed at the head of the register of the family
of the Napoleonic dynasty, the emperor having recog-
nized Louis and his heirs as successors to the crown
in preference to his elder brothers. His mother, being
compelled to quit France in 1815, took this son with her
in her exile, and gave him for preceptors P. Lebas
and Colonel Armandi. He passed several years of his
youth at Arenenberg, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau.
On the accession of Louis Philippe, in 1830, Louis Napo-
leon requested permission to return to France, which
was not granted. He and his brother then went to
Italy and enlisted in the army of insurgents, who at
first gained some advantages over the papal troops, but
were defeated and dispersed by the Austrians in 1831.
On the death of the Due de Reichstadt, in 1832, Louis
Napoleon became a pretender to the throne of France.
He published a work entitled " Political Reveries," and
a "Manual of Artillery," (1836.) His ambition, his
name, and his unscrupulous audacity urged him to enter
a career which presents the most wonderful vicissitudes
of fortune. Having secured the aid of Colonel Vaudrey
and other officers stationed at Strasbourg, he made an
attempt on that place, with a few adherents, in October,
1836. He failed, was arrested, and was banished or trans-
ported to the United States in November of that year.

In 1837 he returned to Europe, attended Queen Hor-
tense in her last illness at Arenenberg, and took refuge

' melange

of liberal principles and -praetorian domination." It is
an apology for the regime of Napoleon I. The unpopu-
lar measures of Louis Philippe encouraged Louis Napo-
leon to engage in another rash and desperate enterprise.
Attended by about fifty partisans and a tame eagle,
which was expected to perch upon his banner as the
harbinger of victory, he sailed from England in August,
1840, and entered Boulogne, where he obtained but little
support, and was speedily arrested by the soldiers who
he had hoped would be induced to join his standard.
He was tried on a charge of treason by the House of
Peers, and, after he had made a speech in his own de-
fence and professed his devotion to the principle of
popular sovereignty, was sentenced to perpetual impris-
onment. He was confined in the Castle of Ham, where
he pursued his political studies and wrote several political
and historical treatises. Aided by his physician, Dr.
Conneau, and disguised as a labourer, he escaped from
Ham in May, 1846, and retired to England.

The revolution of 1848 afforded him an opportunity
to return to France, and thus opened a new field to his
irrepressible ambition. In June, 1848, he was elected
to the National Assembly for the department of the
Seine. He was excluded from that body by Lamartine
and his colleagues for a time, but he took his seat in
September, 1848, and became a candidate for the office
of president of France. On the loth of December, 1848,
he was elected president for four years, having received
5,562,834 votes. His chief competitor was General Ca-
vaignac, who obtained 1,469,166 voles. He soon became

involved in a contest with the Constituent Assembly, the
republican majority of which regarded him with hostility
or suspicion. In April, 1849, he sent an army to Rome
to intervene in favour of the pope, who had been ex-
pelled by the republicans. The French army took Rome,
and continued to occupy that city until 1866.

The Constituent Assembly dissolved itself, and was
succeeded by the Legislative Assembly in May, 1849.
The president appointed the celebrated De Tocqueville
minister of foreign affairs in June, 1849. This minister,
perceiving that the president expected him and his col-
leagues to be the pliant instruments of his will, resigned
in October of that year. De Tocqueville afterwards
remarked, " We were not the men to serve him on
those terms." Louis Napoleon encountered a strong
opposition in the Legislative Assembly, which in May,
1850, restricted universal suffrage and ordered that a
residence of three years in a commune must be a qualifi-
cation of voters. A long and violent struggle between
the president and the representatives of the people
was terminated by the coup d'ttat of December 2, 1851.
Having secured the support of the army, by a reckless
violation of his plighted faith he raised himself to
the supreme power. The Assembly was forcibly dis-
solved, and the leading statesmen were arrested. Legis-
lators and felons, statesmen and vulgar culprits, were
huddled together in the same vehicle and conveyed to
prison. Before the end of the year his acts were ratified
by the form of a popular election, and he was chosen
president for a term of ten years. A new constitution
was adopted in January, 1852, and the legislative func-
tions were divided between two houses, the Senate and
the Corps Legislatif, which, however, were so organized
that they offered little or no check to his absolute power.
The question whether he should take the title of em-
peror was submitted to the vote of the people in No-
vember, 1852, when, according to the official report,
7,824,189 voted in the affirmative. He assumed the
title of Napoleon III., and married a Spanish lady of
great personal attractions, Eugenie Marie de Guzman,
Countess de Teba, in January, 1853. Having formed
an alliance with England and publicly announced that
his policy was peace, he, in conjunction with his new ally
declared war against Russia in March, 1854, and sent an
army to the Crimea. After a long siege, the allies took
Sevastopol in September, 1855, and the war was ended
by the treaty of Paris in March, 1856. Among the events
of this year was the birth of the prince imperial, Napo-
leon Eugene Louis, etc.

One great aim of Napoleon III. appears to have been
to reconcile the French people to the loss of liberty by
promoting their material prosperity, by splendid public
improvements, and by gratifying their passion for mili-
tary glory. Accordingly, as an ally of the King of
Sardinia in the war caused by the aggressions of Aus-
tria, he led a large army into Italy in May, 1859. He
commanded in person at the battle of Solferino, where
the Austrians were defeated, June 24, 1859, and in the
next month concluded the peace of Villafranca. (See
FRANCIS JOSEPH.) Among the results of this war was
the cession of Nice and Savoy to France by the King
of Sardinia, who had extended his own dominions by
the conquest of Lombardy. In 1861 he availed himself
of the opportunity presented by the breaking out of the
civil war in America, to intervene in Mexico, and fitted
out against that republic an expedition which landed a
well-appointed army under General Forey early in 1862.
After several victories over the Mexican Liberals, the
French forces entered the city of Mexico in June, 1863.
Napoleon offered the imperial crown of Mexico to
Maximilian of Austria, who accepted the fatal gift and
was supported by a part of the native population. The
United States refused to acknowledge the Mexican em-
peror, and intimated to Napoleon that European powers
would not be permitted to establish monarchies by arms
in North America. He accordingly withdrew his army
from Mexico about the end of 1866, so that the result of
the Mexican enterprise was the reverse of glorious for
France. It is well understood that he sympathized with
the slaveholders in their war against the Union, at least
so far as they sought the disruption of the confederation.

as; casJY ghard; gas/; G, H, Y., guttural ; n, nasal; R, trilled : as i: thasinM/>. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Before the commencement of the American war. Napo-
leon was justly regarded as the most adroit and most suc-
cessful sovereign in Europe. But his prestige was greatly
impaired by the events of 1866. He remained neutral
in the war between Austria and Prussia, which war he
probably might have prevented ; but in the diplomatic
contest which ensued between France and Prussia
he appears to have found more than a match in the
genius of Count Bismarck, who suddenly raised Prussia
to the rank of a first-rate power and united the Germans
in a determined attitude against the aggressiveness of
France. The French felt themselves humiliated by the
fact that so great changes in the map of Europe should
have been effected without their agency or concurrence,
and condemned the policy by which France was isolated
and excluded from the hope of extension towards the
Rhine. After the battle of Sadowa, July 3, 1866, Napo-
leon offered himself as a mediator between the belligerent
powers. The Emperor of Austria ceded to him Venetia,
instead of surrendering it to the King of Italy, to whom
it seemed naturally to belong. About the loth of De-
cember, 1866, the French army was withdrawn finally
from Rome, and the pope, finding himself in a critical
position, addressed to Napoleon language which was far
from complimentary. Napoleon and Bismarck were in-
volved in a dispute about Luxemburg, which the former
purchased of the King of Holland ; but the Prussians
occupied a strong fortress in that province, which they
refused to relinquish. It was generally believed that
war was imminent ; but the difficulty was settled by a
European Convention which met in London in May,
1867, and decided that neither France nor Prussia should
retain possession of Luxemburg.

The exciting and warmly-contested elections of May
and June, 1869, showed so great an increase of votes
against imperial despotism, that Napoleon thought it
expedient to make large concessions to the people and
the legislative body. He gave the latter the right to
elect its own officers, to have partial control over the
expenditure of the public mjney, the right of interpel-
lation, and the privilege to share with himself the power
of initiating laws. He proclaimed a general amnesty
for political offences in August, ;86o,. In December of
that year he appointed Emile Ollivier prime minister,
and requested him to form a cabinet. " Designate per-
sons," he said, *' who will, associated with yourself, form
a homogeneous cabinet faithfully representing the legis-
lative majority." This was regarded as the end of per-
sonal government in France, and the beginning or resto-
ration of a constitutional regime. He addressed to prime
minister Ollivier, March 22, 1870, an important letter, in
which he says, " I think it opportune, under present cir-
cumstances, to adopt all the reforms required by the
constitutional government of the Empire, in order to put
an end to the immoderate desire for change which pre-
vails in certain minds." He afterwards issued an address
and appeal to the people, asking their votes, in these
terms : " Do the people approve the liberal reforms
which have been effected in the Constitution since 1860
by the Emperor, with the concurrence of the great legis-
lative bodies of the state, and ratify the senatus-consultum
of April 20, 1870?" On the eve of the election the
government detected or concocted an extensive plot to
assassinate Napoleon, and arrested many suspected per-
sons. The result of the plebiscite of the 8th of May
was that about 7,000,000 voted yes, and 1,500,000 voted
no. Louis Napoleon wrote a " History of Julius Caesar,"
(1867,) in which he carries out the '* Idees Napoleoni-
ennes," inculcating the doctrine that certain gifted men
are appointed by Providence or destiny to rule, and that
it is as necessary for the people as for themselves that
this destiny should be fulfilled.

Without a reasonable pretext or tangible cause, he
declared war against Prussia about July 15, 1870, and,
having appointed the Empress regent, took the com-
mand of his army in person. The Germans crossed the
frontier early in August, and assumed the offensive. The
French were outnumbered and outgeneralled in a series
of great battles at Worth, Metz, and near Sedan. On
the 2d of September, Napoleon, who had displayed great
incapacity as a general, surrendered himself, with about

100,000 men as prisoners of war, at Sedan. The dahe-
ance of Napoleon was passed in the corps legislatif, and
a republic was formed by the citizens of Paris, Septem-
ber 4, 1870. He died at Chiselhurst, January 9, 1873.

See AMKDlta HENNBQUIN, "Histoire de Louis Napoleon Bona-
parte," 1848 ; A. BOUDIN, " Histoire politique du Prince Louis Napo-
le'on," etc., 1852; ADRIEN PASCAL, "Histoire de NapoWon III,"
1853 ; VICTOR HUGO, " NapoMon le Petit," 1852 : PAUL LACROIX,
"Histoire de NapoMon III," 1853: J. B. FELLBNS, "Louis Napo-
le'on, sa Vie," etc., 1853; W. L. WKSCHE, "Napoleon III. Kaiser
der Franzosen," 1853: SCHOBNHUTH, "Napoleon III. Kaiser,' 1 etc.,
1853; ABBOTT, "The History of Napoleon III.," 1869; " Nouvello
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Nap'p?r-Tau'dy, (JAMES,) an Irish insurgent, born
near Dublin in 1747. He invaded Ireland with a body
of French troops in 1798, was taken prisoner and con-
demned to death, but was released after an imprisonment
of two years. Died in 1803.

Narada, nl'ra-da, written also Nareda, the name of
a celebrated Hindoo sage and lawgiver, supposed to have
been the son of Brahma and Saraswati. He was the
inventor of the Vina, a sort of lute, and is said to have
been an intimate friend of Krishna.

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Nar'a-slng'ha, [modern Hindoo pron. nur'a-sing'ha
or nur'a-sing^, from the Sanscrit n&r&, a " man," and
tinglid, a "lion,"] (the "Man-Lion,") the name, in the
Hindoo mythology, of the fourth Avatar of Vishnu. It is
related that Hiranyakasipu,* by his penances and sacri
fices in honour of Brahma, had obtained as a boon from
that deity that he should possess universal monarchy
and be wholly exempt from death or injury from every
god, man, or creati're in existence. Having now nothing
to fear, his arrogance and impiety became insufferable.
He had, however, a son of a wholly different character,
and remarkable for his piety and virtue. The son, re-
proving his father's wickedness, once said to him that the
Deity was present everywhere. " Is he in that pillar ?"
said the angry tyrant. "Yes," replied the son. There-
upon Hiranyakasipu, in contempt, struck the pillar with
his sword, when the stony mass fell asunder, and a being,
half man and half lion, issuing from its centre, tore to
pieces the impious wretch who had thus insulted and
defied the Divine Power.

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Narayana, ni-ra'ya-na, a Sanscrit word of somewhat
uncertain etymology, commonly supposed to signify
" moving upon the waters," and applied, in the Hindoo
mythology, to the universal Divine Spirit, which existed
before all worlds. (Compare Genesis i. 2.) In this sense,
Narayana may be regarded as another name for BRAHM,
(which see ;) but it is also frequently used as one of thr
many appellations of Vishnu.

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Narayani, n5-ra'ya-nee', the consort (or sakti) of Na-
rayana, considered as Vishnu, and hence a name of
LAKSHMf, (which see.)

Narbonne, de, deh niR'bon', (Louis,) COUNT, a
French courtier and minister of state, was born of the
noble family of Narbonne-Lara at Colorno, in Parma,
in 1755. He was taken to Paris in 1760, and educated
at court, where his mother was a lady of honour. He
was handsome, accomplished, and witty, and a favourite
of the royal family. In the Revolution he acted with
the constitutional party, and became a confidential friend
of Madame de Stael, who regarded him with admiration.
" She exalted him in her imagination," says Lamartine,
" until she raised him to the height of her ideal." By
her influence, partly, he became minister of war in De-
cember, 1791. He tried with success the policy of frank-

Pronounced by the modem Hindoos hl-run'ya-kus'a-poo. By
some blunder, as it would seem, on the part of the writers from whom
he has copied, Southey gives this name in a strangely ctrrup'4
form, Errgnen :

" For often would Ereenia tell
Of what in elder days befell,
When other tyrants in their might
Usurped dominion o'er the earth.
And Veeshnoo took a human birth.
Deliverer of the sons of men.
And slew the huge Ermaccasen,
And piecemeal rent with lion force
ER'SKNEN'S accursed corse."

Curst ofKthama, vol. i., x

a, e, I, c, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, J?, short;*, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; m?t; not; good; moon.




ness and confidence towards the Assembly, and extorted Nares, (ROBERT,) a distinguished critic and theolo-

applause even from the stern and suspicious radicals, gian, a son of the preceding, was born in 1753. He be-
He performed prodigies of activity in raising armies and ' came Archdeacon of Stafford, and pastor of Allhallows

preparing for war. Inspired by his fervent, rapid, and Church, London ; he also held the office of assistant

martial eloquence, a glow of patriotism pervaded France, librarian of the British Museum. He published, among

He was suddenly dismissed from office in March, 1792, other works, "Elements of Orthoepy," (1784,) and a

in consequence of a difference with his colleague and "Chronological View of the Prophecies relating to the

rival De Lessart. About the loth of August he was Christian Church," (1805.) He was one of the founder*

proscribed by the Assembly, but, by the efforts of Ma- of the " British Critic." Died in 1829.
dame de Stae'l, escaped to England. He returned to Narfi. See NORVI.

France in iSoo, and was restored to his rank as lieu- Narino, na-ren'yo, (ANTONIO,) a South American

tenant-general in 1809. Soon after that he was made general, born at Santa F^ de Bogota in 1769. He fought

ambassador to Bavaria. He attended Bonaparte as aide- against the Spaniards in 1812-13, was made prisoner,

de-camp in the Russian campaign, (1812.) Died in 1813. and was confined at Cadiz, where he died about 1822.

See VILLEMAIN, "Souvenirs contemporains ;" BICNON. "His- See CAPTAIN BONNYCASTLE, " Spanish America," 1818; LALLH-

toire de France sous Napoleon ;" MARMONT, " Me'moires ;" " Nou- MANX. " Hisloire de la Colombie," 1836.
relle Biographie Generate." Narni, di, de naR'nee, (GiROLAMO Mautin mow-

Narborough, nar'biir'?h, ( Sir JOHN, ) an English teen',) an Italian monk and eloquent preacher, lived in

naval officer, distinguished himself in the war with the the seventeenth century.

Dutch in 1666. In 1672 he served as second captain Nar'rl-en, (JOHN,) F.R.S., an English geometer, born

under the Duke of York against De Ruyter in the en- a t Chertsey in 1782, was a maker of mathematical and

gagement of Solebay, where his bravery and skill were philosophical instruments in his youth. He contributed

conspicuous. He was created rear-admiral and made a
knight in 1673. In 1674 he was sent against the pirates

to the " Penny Cyclopaedia," and published, besides
several works on geometry, a " History of the Origin

of the Mediterranean, and forced the Bey of Tripoli to and Progress of Astronomy," (1838.)

give up his British captives and pay a large sum of money
for previous injuries to British trade. Died in 1688.

Nar-cis'sus, [Gr. Kapxtaaof ; Fr. NARCISSK, ntR'sess/',]
a beautiful youth, in the Greek mythology. He is said
to have been insensible of amorous passion until he saw

Nar'ry, (CHARLES,) a French dramatist, born in
1825. He wrote many novels and plays, his most
successful drama being " Comme elles sont toutes."
Died in 1892.

Nar'ses, [Gr. Nopo^c,] a celebrated general under the

his own image in the water, with which he fell in love, emperor Justinian I., was a eunuch, and is supposed to
Having died of disappointed love, he was changed into have been a native of Asia. He was early distinguished
the flower of the same name. by the favour of the emperor, and in 538 A.D. was ap-

Narcissus, a profligate Roman courtier and favourite ' pointed to a command under Belisarius in Italy. Owing
of the emperor Claudius, was a slave in his youth. He to dissensions arising between them, Narses was recalled
acquired unlimited influence over Claudius, and pro- ' n 539- but he was sent again in 552 as commander-in-
cured the death of several innocent persons. He also chief of the Italian army. He obtained a signal victory
caused Messalina to be assassinated. He -vas put to over the Goths, led by Totila, and recovered Rome,
death, by order of Agrippina, in 54 A.D. Having driven the barbarians from the country, he was

Nardi, naR'dee, (JACOPO,) a distinguished historian, appointed in 553 Exarch of Italy. On the accession of
born at Florence in 1476. His principal work is a "His- Justinus II., Narses was superseded in his command by


tory of Florence from 1494 to 1531," (1582.) He also
wrote a comedy entitled " L'Amicizia," and made a
translation of Livy, (1540,) esteemed one of the best in
the Italian language. Died about 1555.

Nardin, (T.,) a French negotiator and litttratrur
born at Besan9on in 1540; died in 1616.

Nardini, naR-dee'nee, (PiETRO,) an Italian musician,
born at Leghorn in 1725, was esteemed one of

Longinus. Died in 558.

See GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Li
BEAU, "Histoire du Bas-Eirpire ;" PROCOPIUS, " Bellum Gothi-

Nar'seS or Narsi, nar'see, [Gr. Nopmjc,] a Sassanide
king of Persia, a son of Varanes II., began to reign in
294 A.D. He waged war against the emperor Diocletian,
whose army he defeated in Mesopotamia in 296. Having

violinists of his time. He composed a number of pieces been defeated ln th e second campaign, Narses sued for

for the violin and flute. Died in 1796.
Nareda. See NARADA.

P eace - and . ln 2 ?7 de a treat y bv whlch he ceded
Mesopotamia and Armenia to Diocletian. Narses abdi-

Nares, narz, (Rev. EDWARD,) nephew of James Nares, cat JL d in favour f h l s T son ' Hormisdas II., in 303 A.D.

Narssms. See NAFRSSF.N.

noticed below, was born in London in 1762. He became
professor of modern history at Oxford in 1814. He was

Narssius. See NAERSSEN.

Naruszewicz, ni-roo-sha'vitch, (ADAM STANISLAS,)

.. u ~.. u . u mi m. -.10

the 'author"ofTnove'l entitled" Thinks l"toMyself'" and a Polis , h his t"an and poet, born in 1733. He was ap-
of the " Life and Administration of Lord Burghley," P 01 """ 1 successively professor of poetry in the Jesuits'
which is severely criticised bv Macaulay in the " Edin- College of Nobles at Warsawand Bishop of Smolensk.

burgh Review," (1832.) Died in 1841.
Nares, (Sir GEORGE STRONG,) an

English navi

ks are a " History of Poland," an <
ation of Tacitus into Polish, and a number

otvBkAvaj ion \_i r.^ jvvi c. i_j i rv^ntj, i nil Zjiitusii iittvi- r i r i_i j * T-** i *-

gator, born in 1831. He was educated at the Royal of lyrics, fables, and satires. Died in 1796.

Naval College, and entered the navy. He was on the See BBNTKOWSKI "Histoire de la Lmirature Poloi^se,"

ship Resolute in the Arctic voyage of 1852-54, served in Narvaez, de, da na-v3.eW, (PANFILO,) a Spanish

the Crimean war, was for many years employed in hy- commander, born at Vallaao,,... He went to America

drographic surveys in various parts of the world, com- ! n or bef re '5 10 ' and served in the army. When Ve-

manded the Challenger expedition, 1872-74, and led the lasquez Governor of Cuba, learned that Cortez disowned

expedition of 1875-76 in the Arctic waters west and hls authority in Mexico, he sent an army against him,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 175 of 425)