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Review" for January, 1848, "is assuredly the person 11
all Europe best fitted to undertake and accomplish such
a work. Science has produced no man of more rich and
varied attainments, more versatile in genius, more inde-
fatigable in application to all kinds of learning, more
energetic in action, or more ardent in inquiry, and, we
may add, more entirely devoted to her cause in every
period of a long life. At every epoch of that life, from
a comparatively early age, he has been constantly before
the public, realizing the ideal conception of a perfect
traveller ; a character which calls for almost as great a
variety of excellences as these which go to realize Cicero's
idea of a perfect orator. . . . Above all things is neces-
sary :, genial and kindly temperament, which excites no
enmities, but, on the contrary, finds or makes friends
everywhere. No man in the ranks of science is more
distinguished for this last characteristic than Baron von
Humboldt. We believe that he has not an enemy."
The " Kosmos" has been translated into French by H.
Faye and Ch. Galusky, (1848-57,) and into English by
Mrs. Sabine. He received from the French government
the title of grand officer of the legion of honour, and
was a member of all the principal Academies of the
world. Among his other works is "Aspects of Nature,"
("Ansichten der Natur," 1808; 3d edition, 2 vols., 1849.)
He died in Berlin, May 6, 1859, in his ninetieth year.

See JULIETTE BAUER, " Lives of the Brothers Humboldt," Lon-
don, 1852: H. KLENCKB or KLETKK, "A. von Humboldt; ein oio-
graphisches Denkmal," 1853 ; Review of the " Kosmos" in the " Lon-
don Quarterly Review," vol. batvii. ; R. H. STODDARD, " Life of
Alexander von Humboldt," New York, 1859: AGASSII, "Eulogy on
Humboldt" in the "Living Age" for October J, 1869; PRUVS VAJ1
DER HOBVEN, " A- von Humboldt, Interpres Naturae," 1845 ; " Quar-
terly Review" for January and July, 1816, October, 1817, April, 1819,
July, 1821, December, 1845, and January, 1854 ; " Edinburgh Re-
view" for June, 1815 ; " Eraser's Magazine" for February, 1848.

Humboldt, von, (KARL WILHELM,) BARON, a cele-
brated German philologist and statesman, born at Pots-
dam on the 22d of June, 1767, was a brother of the
preceding. His early education was directed by Joachim
Campe, a distinguished philanthropist. About 1788 he
entered the University of Gottingen, where he studied
philology under G. Heyne. Among the intimate friends
of his youth was George Forster, the traveller. In July,
1789, he visited Paris, and hailed with enthusiasm the
advent of the new regime. He afterwards studied at
Jena, and there formed an intimate and lasting friendship
with the poet Schiller, who encouraged and directed him
in his literary pursuits. Humboldt became also the friend
and literary counsellor of Goethe. About 1791 he mar-
ried Caroline von Dachenroden. Among his early works
was an excellent " Essay on the Greeks," (1792.) In 1799
he produced an admirable critical essay on Goethe's
" Hermann and Dorothea," which established his repu-
tation as a critic. He was appointed minister to Rome
by the King of Prussia about 1802, and soon after that
date produced a poem entitled " Rome," (" Rom.") He
returned to Prussia in 1808, and was appointed minister
of public instruction about the end of that year. lie
took a prominent part in the foundation of the University
of Berlin. About iSiohe resigned his office, and was sent
as ambassador to Vienna. While thus employed in the
public service, he devoted his leisure time to the study of
languages, in many of which he was profoundly versed.
He acquired distinction as a diplomatist, and induced
Austria to join the coalition against Napoleon in August,
1813. He represented Prussia at the Conference of
Chatillon and the Congress of Vienna, 1814. Talley-
rand's opinion of him is said to have been expressed in
these words : " Europe does not possess three statesmen
of such power," ("L'Europe n'a pas trois hommes d'e"tat
de cette force.") He was sent as ambassador to London
about 1816, and was appointed minister and privy coun-
cillor at Berlin in 1819. He advocated a liberal constitu
tion, and, when he found that the king was determined to
adopt a reactionary policy, he resigned his office about
the end of 1819, after which he took no part in political
affairs. He composed numerous poems, the most of
which remained in manuscript until his death, and many
treatises on language, philology, etc. Among his prin-
cipal works are an " Essay on the New French Consti-
tution," (1792,) a metrical translation of the "Agamem-
non" of jEschylus, (1816,) which is highly commended,

ee Explanations, p. 23. ^




" Researches on the Aborigines of Spain by Means of
the Basque Language," (1821,) and a " Memoir on Com-
parative Linguistic." He was one of the greatest philoso-
phers and critics of his time, and has been called the
creator of comparative philology. The interesting corre-
spondence between Schiller and Wilhelm von Humboldt
was published in 1830. In the latter part of his life he
devoted his attention to the study of the languages of
barbarous tribes of America and Asia. He died at
Tegel, near Berlin, April 8, 1835, leaving unfinished an
extensive and excellent work, entitled "On the Kawi
Language in the Island of Java," (" Ueber die Kawi
Sprache auf der Insel Java,") which was published in
1836. His works were collected and edited by his
brother Alexander, under the title of " Wilhelm von
Humboldts Gesammelte Werke," (4 vols., 1841-52.)

See GUSTAV SCHLBSIER, " Wiihelm von Humboldts Leben;'
KLENCKB, "W. von Humboldts Leben," (translated into English
by JULIBTTB BAUER in 1852;) SCHLBSIER, " Erinnerungen an Wil-
helm von Humboldt," 2 vols., 1843-45; ROBERT HAYM, "Wilhelm
von Humboldt Lebensbild und Charakteristik," 1856 : " Foreign
Quarterly Review" for January, 1842; "Quarterly Review" for
April, 1868.

Hume, (Rev. ABRAHAM,) an English antiquary, born
about 1815. He became incumbent of a parish in Liver-
pool about 1846, and distinguished himself as a promoler
of education. He wrote, besides other works, "The
Learned Societies and Printing-Clubs of the United
Kingdom," (1847.) Died in 1884.

Hume, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish poet and minister,
born about 1560, preached at Logie. He published a
volume of " Hymns or Sacred Songs," which were ad-
mired, especially the " Day Estival." Died in 1609.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Hume or Home, (DAVID,) of Godscroft, a Scottish
minister and writer, supposed to have been born about
1560. He preached some years in France. He wrote
some Latin poems, " Apologia Basilica," (" Apology or
Defence of the King," 1626.) and "The History of the
House and Race of Douglas and Angus," (1644.)

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen.

Hume, (DAVID,) an eminent English historian and
philosopher, born in Edinburgh on the 26th of April,
1711. He was a younger son of Joseph Hume or Home,
who, though related to the Earl of Home, was not
wealthy. In his Autobiography he says, " My studious
disposition, my sobriety, and my industry gave my family
a notion that the law was a proper profession for me ;
but I found an insurmountable aversion to everything
but the pursuits of philosophy and general learning ;
and, while they fancied I was poring upon Voet and
Vinnius, Cicero and Virgil were the authors which I
was secretly devouring." For the sake of economy, he
went to France in 1734 or 1735, and spent about two years
at Rheims and La Fleche, where he wrote his " Treatise
on Human Nature." This was published in London in
1738, but was treated with discouraging neglect He
says himself, " It fell from the press without reaching
such distinction as even to excite a murmur among the
zealots." Mackintosh calls this work " the first systematic
attack on all the principles of knowledge and belief, and
the most formidable, if universal skepticism could ever
be more than a mere exercise of ingenuity." He passed
several ensuing years in Scotland in his favourite studies,
and issued in 1742 the first part of his "Essays, Moral,
Political, and Literary," which was moderately successful.
These contain new, ingenious, and suggestive ideas on
commerce, political economy, and other subjects.

In 1746 he was appointee secretary to General Saint
Clair, with whom he passed two years on the continent
Returning to his brother's residence in Scotland, he

The latter of these was received with favour abroad and
at home, while the other was scarcely noticed. About
this time he commenced his most celebrated work, the
" History of England," the first volume of which (com-
prising the reigns of James I. and Charles I.) was pub-
lished in 1754. He describes its reception in these
terms: "I was assailed by one cry of reproach, disap-
probation, and even detestation : English, Scotch, and

Irish, Whig and Tory, churchman and sectary, free-
thinker and religionist, patriot and courtier, united their
rage against the man who had presumed to shed a gene-
rous tear for the fate of Charles I. and the Earl of Straf-
ford ; and after the first ebullitions of their fury were
over, what was still more mortifying, the book seemed
to sink into oblivion. Mr. Millar told me that in a
twelvemonth he sold only forty-five copies of it." The
subsequent volumes, however, were better appreciated,
and the whole work became very popular and raised
the author to affluence. The last volume was published
in 1761. His style is generally admired, as graceful,
natural, and perspicuous. But the value of his history
is materially lessened by his partiality and inaccuracy.
He was, as a skeptic, prejudiced against religion, and
in civil government was inclined to favour prerogative.
He is not profoundly versed in the philosophy of history,
or in the progressive development of the British con-
stitution. " He was far too indolent," says Alison, " tc
acquire the vast stores of facts indispensable for correct
generalization on the varied theatre of human affairs."
Macaulay compares him to "an accomplished advocate,
whose insidious candour only increases the effect of his
vast mass of sophistry."

Respecting his merits as a political economist, Lord
Brougham says, " Of the ' Political Discourses' it would
be difficult to speak in terms of too great commendation.
They combine almost every excellence which can belong
The great merit, however, of
originality." In 1763 Hurae
accepted the office of secretary to the Earl of Hertford,
ambassador to Paris, and having returned in 1766, much
delighted by the caresses of the Parisians, he was em-
ployed two years as under-secretary of state. In 1769 he
retired from office, and, with an income of jioooa year,
took up his residence in Edinburgh, where he died in Au-
gust, 1776. Besides the works above named, he wrote the
"Natural History of Religion," (1755,) and "Dialogues
concerning Natural Religion," (1783.) He was never
married. His personal character appears to have been
amiable and respectable on the score of morality. " The
Life of Mr. Hume, "says Mackintosh, "written by himself,
is remarkable above most, if not all, writings of that sort
for hitting the degree of interest between coldness and
egotism which becomes a modest man in speaking of
his private history. Few writers, whose opinions were
so obnoxious, have more perfectly escaped every per-
sonal imputation."

See HUMB'S "Autobiography," 1777; DAVID DALRYMPLB, " Life
of D. Hume," 1787 ; JOHN HILL BURTON, "Life and Correspond-
ence of D. Hume," 2 vols., 1846; T. E. RITCHIE, "Account of the
Life and Writings of D. Hume," 1807 ; MACKINTOSH, " Progress of
Ethical Philosophy," I vol. 8vo; BRENNER, "Das Genie des Herrn
Hume," etc, 1774; BROUGHAM, " Lives of Men of Letters of the
Time of George HI."

Hume, (DAVID,) an able Scottish lawyer, born in
1756, was a nephew of the preceding. He was professor
of Scottish law in the University of Edinburgh, and a
jaron of the court of exchequer. He wrote a valuable
legal text-book, entitled " Commentaries on the Law of
Scotland respecting the Description and Punishment of
Crimes," (1797.) Died in 1838.

Hume, (FERGUS,) an English novelist, born in

1896,) etc.


Hume, (HUGH CAMPBELL,) third Earl of Marchmont
x>m in 1708, was a grandson of Patrick, the first Earl.
He acted a prominent part in Parliament as an opponent
of Walpole, and was keeper of the great seal of Scot-
"and from 1764 to 1794. Died in 1794, without male

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Hume, (JAMES DEACON,) an English financier, born
at Newington in 1774, obtained in 1790 a clerkship in the
London custom-house. Having given proof of ability
and energy in responsible positions, he was employed
in 1823 in the arduous task of simplifying and reducing
to order the multitude of discordant statutes by which
the transactions of the custom-house were complicated

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, 4, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;



and perplexed. For this important service he received
from government a present cf five thousand pounds, and
in 1829 he was appointed assistant secretary of the board
of trade. He resigned in 1840, and died in 1842.

Hume, (JOSEPH,) M.P., a British statesman of the
Radical partv, was born at Montrose, Scotland, in 1777.
Having studied surgery, he entered as surgeon the ser-
vice of the East India Company in 1797. He learned
the native languages of India, and, by combining the
functions of interpreter and paymaster with those of
army-surgeon, he acquired a handsome competence, and
returned home in 1808. By a careful study of the na-
tional resources and the condition of the people, he pre-
pared himself for the task of a legislator and reformer,
and entered Parliament in 1812. From 1818 to 1830 he
represented Montrose in Parliament, where he gained
great distinction by his industry and independence and
by his important services to the working-classes. He
was for many years pre-eminent in the House as a finan-
cial reformer and a sturdy opponent of monopolies and
high taxes. He declined political preferment on several
occasions, and continued to serve in the House of Com-
mons until his death, in 1855.

Hume, (MARTIN ANDREW,) an English historical
writer, born at London in 1847. He has published
"Chronicle of Henry VIII.," (1889,) "Courtships
of Queen Elizabeth," (1896,) "Spain: its Greatness
and Decay," (1898,) etc., and edited the "Calendar
of Spanish State Papers."

Hume, (Sir PATRICK,) Earl of Marchmont, a
Scottish patriot, was born in 1641. He was perse-
cuted in the reign of Charles II., and escaped to
Holland in 1684. Having returned in 1688, he was
made lord chancellor in 1696, and Earl of March-
mont. Died in 1724.

Hume, (PATRICK,) a Scottish critic, who taught school
in London. He published in 1695 " Annotations on Mil-
ton's Paradise Lost," which was the first attempt to
illustrate that author, and was commended by Bishop
Newtcn. His critical labours have been appropriated
by later commentators. According to "Biackwood's
Magazine," Hume is "the father of that style of com-
parative criticism which has been so much employed
during these later days in illustrating the works of our
great poet."

Humerus, hoo'ml-roos, (?) (LARS JOHANSSON,) a
Swedish poet, known as " Lucidor the Unfortunate,"
born in Stockholm about 1642. He was educated at
Upsala, where in 1668 he became a professor, but in 1669
he went to Stockholm and wrote verse for his living.
He was murdered August 13, 1674, "The Flowers of
Helicon" (" Helicons Blomster") is considered his poet-
ical monument, but his hymns are his best work. With
great faults of taste and style, he was by far the best
Swedish writer of his times. He is called " Lars Jo-
hansson" in many bibliographies.

Humes, humz, (THOMAS WILLIAM,) D.D., an Amer-
ican educator, born at Knoxville, Tennessee, April 22,
1815. He graduated at East Tennessee College in 1836,
held an Episcopalian rectorship, 1846-61, was president
of East Tennessee University, 1865-79, and of the Uni-
versity of Tennessee, 1879-83. Died January 16, 1892.

Humieres, d 1 , dii'me-aiR', (Louis de Crevant
deh kReh-voN',) Due, a French general and courtier of
Louis XIV., was created marshal in 1668, and com-
manded the right wing at the victory of Cassel, in 1677.
He commanded the army in Flanders which was de-
feated by Waldeck in 1689. Died in 1694.

Hummel, hoom'mel, (joaANN ERDMANN,) a German
painter, born at Cassel about 1770. He worked in Ber-
lin, and became in 1809 professor of perspective, etc. in
the Royal Academy of that city. Died in 1827.

Hummel, hoom'mel, (JOHANN NEPOMUK,) an excel-
lent composer and pianist, born at Presburg, Hungary,
in 1778. About the age of eight he became a pupil of
Mozart in Vienna, and at the age of sixteen he was ac-
counted one of the rr.ost skilful performers in Germany.
He entered the service of Prince Esterhazy in 1803, and
became chapel-master to the King of Wurtemberg in

1816. He was chapel-master to the Duke of Weimar
from 1818 until his death, during which period he
performed with applause in London, Paris, and Saint
Petersburg. Among his best works are concertos and
sonatas for the piano. Died in 1837.

Sec Fins, " Biographic Universelle des Musiciens ;" " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge"nerale."

Hummelius, hoom-ma'le-us, or Hummel, (JOHANN,)
a German mathematician, born at Memmingen in 1518,
was professor at Leipsic. Died in 1562.

Hum'perdinck. (ENGELEERT,) a musical com-
poser, born at Siegberg, near Bonn, in 1854. His
musical fairy play, " Hansel und Gretel," (1893,)
was phenomenally successful. It was followed by
" Schneewittchen," "Die Lieben Geislein," etc.

Humphrey, hum'fre,* (HEMAN,) D.D., an American
divine, born in Simsbury, Connecticut, in 1779. He
graduated at Yale in 1805. He was six years minister
in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. He became president of
Amherst College in 1823, and was succeeded in that
office by Dr. Edward Hitchcock in 1845, when he re-
moved to Pittsfield. He wrote several valuable works,
among which are a "Tour in France, Great Britain, and
Belgium," (2 vols., 1838,) " Domestic Education," (1840,)
and " Letters to a Son in the Ministry," (1845.) Died
in 1859.

Humphrey, hum'fre, (LAWLENCE,) an English Cal-
irinistic divine, born at Newport-Pagnel about 1527.
In 1555 he retired to Zurich to escape persecution, and
returned after the death of Queen Mary. He becime
professor of divinity in Oxford in 1560, and Dean of
Winchester in 1580. He published several able theo-
logical works. Died about 1590.

Humphreys, hum'frez,* (ANDREW A.,) an American
general, born at Philadelphia in 1810, graduated at West
Point in 1837. He served against the Seminole Indians
in Florida, and subsequently in the engineer department
of the army, and on the coast survey and the hydro-
graphic survey of the delta of the Mississippi. During
the civil war he held important positions in the Union
army, commanded a division at the battle of Gettysburg,
July 1-3, 1863, and a corps in the battles near Petersburg
in 1865. In 1866 he was appointed chief of engineers of
the army. Retired June 30, 1879 ; died Dec. 27, 1883.

Humphreys, (DAVID,) an American poet, born in
Derby, Connecticut, in 1753. He entered the army
about 1776, and became in 1780 a colonel and aide-de-
camp to General Washington. In 1784 he went to
Europe with Jefferson, as secretary of legation. He
a'ded Barlow and other poets in " The Anarchiad," and
wrote other works, among which are a " Poem on the
Happiness of America," and an " Address to the Armies
of the United States," (1772.) He was sent as ministei
to Portugal in 1790, and to Spain in 1797. Died in 1818.

See GRIS^VVOLD, "Poets and Poetry of America;" DUVCKINCK,
" Cyclopaedia of American Literature," vol. i. ; " National Portrait-
Gallery of Distinguished Americans." vol. ii.

Humphieys, hum'frez, (HENRY NOEL,) a British
antiquary and numismatist, born at Birmingham in 1810.
He published "The Coins of England," (1847,) "Ten
Centuries of Art," (1851,) etc. Died June 13, l&g.

Humphreys, (JAMES,) an eminent lawyer and juridi-
cal writer, born in Montgomeryshire, Wales. He pub-
lished a valuable work on "English Laws of Real
Property," (1820.) Died in 1830.

Humphreys or Humphrey, (PELHAM,) an English
composer and musician, born in 1647. He composed
anthems and songs. Died in 1674.

Hunauld, ^ii'no', (FRANjcis JOSEPH,) a learned
French physician, born at Chateaubriant in 1701, resided
in Paris. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences,
and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1730
he became professor of anatomy in the Jardin des Plantes.
He wrote dissertations on osteology, etc. Died in 1742-

See QuiRARD, " La France Litte'raire."

Hund, hoont, (WiGUL^EUS,) a German genealogist

* This name is pronounced differently in different parts of th
United States : some families writing their names HUMPHREY or
HUMPHREYS always omit the initial h in pronunciation.

liislcr LU II1C JVIH^ Ol vv UI Lemuel g HI nUMrtinnra ctiw<iy:> uuiik me luiiioi n

\rd; gasro, H, K.,gufforal; N, nasal; R,trilltd; sasz; thasinMw. (J^ = See Explanations, p. 23.'

; 9as.r;



born in 1514, became aulic councillor at Munich in 1540.
Died in 1588.

See J. T. K8HLER, " Leben und Schriften Hunds," 1750.

Hundeshagen, hoon'des-ha'gen, QOUANN CHRIS-
TIAN,) a German writer on forests, was born at Hanau
in 1783. Among his works is an " Encyclopaedia of the
Science of Forests," (2 vols., 1821.) Died in 1834.

Hundeshagen, (KARL BERNHARD,) a theologian, son
of the preceding, was born in Hesse-Cassel in 1810. He
became professor at Heidelberg in 1847, and published
"German Protestantism: its Past and Present," (1846.)
In 1867 he became a professor at Bonn, where he died,
June 2, 1872.

Hundhorst See HONTHORST.
Hundt, hoont, (MAGNUS,) a German naturalist and
writer, born at Magdeburg in 1449. He taught physics
in the University of Leipsic. Died in 1519.

Hun'e-ric or Hun'nj-ric, [Gr. 'Ovupiw,} second
King of the Vandals of Africa, was the eldest son of
Genseric, whom he succeeded in 447 A.D. ; hut he did
not inherit his father's abilities. He married the daugh-
ter of the emperor Valentinian III. His reign was
extremely cruel and tyrannical. As an Arian, he perse-
cuted the Catholics in particular. He died in 484, and
left three sons, of whom Hilderic was the eldest; but
Gondamond, a nephew of Huneric, was proclaimed his

See GIBBON, "Decline nd Fall of the Roman Empire,'
Hunfalvy, (JOHN,) (in Hungarian, HUNFALVY JANOS,
hoon-folvye' yi'nosh,) a brother of Paul, noticed below,
was born at Gross-Schlagendorf, June 8, 1820. In 1846
he was made historical professor at Kasmark. His works
include " Universal History" and various books on Hun-
gary. In 1870 he was appointed professor of geography
in the University of Pesth. Died in 1888.

Hunfalvy, (PAUL,) (in Hungarian, HUNFALVY PAL,)
an eminent philologist, born at Nagy-Szalok, Hungary,
March 12, 1810. He was educated at Pesth, and in 1842
became law-professor at Kasmark. Among his publica-
tions are one on the Finnish language, entitled " Chresto.
mathia Fennica," (1861,) " Ethnography of the Magyars,'
(1876,) and many other works, chiefly relating to the non-
Aryan races and languages of Europe. Died in 1891.
Hun'gerford, (MARGARET WOLFE,) nee Hamil-
ton, an Irish novelist, born in 1855. Under the
pseudonym of The Duchess she published a large
number of novels of a light society character. Diec!
June 24, 1897.

Hu-m'a-deB or Hun'ya-dei, [Hun. HUNYADY
hoon'yody ; Fr. HUNIADE, h'u'ne-id',] (JOAN'NES COB-
VI'NUS,) a brave Hungarian general, who about 1440
was cliosen Vaivode of Transylvania. Soon after I^adis
laus. King of Poland, was killed at the battle of Varna
by the Turks, (1444,) Huniades was made captain-gen
eral of his army and Governor of Hungary. His chiel
exploit was the successful defence of Belgrade agains
Mahomet II., in 1456. He died of wounds received in
this action. His son, Matthias Corvinus, was electee
King of Hungary'.

Hun'nis, (WILLIAM,) chapel-master to Queen Eliza
beth, wrote several volumes of psalms and hymns, (pub-
lished from 1550 to 1588.)

Hunnius, hoon'ne-us, (^fccroius,) a Lutheran theo
logian, noted for intolerance, was born at Winnenden, in
Wurtemberg, in 1550. He was professor at Wittenberg

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 18 of 425)