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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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NEVILE 1812 NEWCOMMEN

NevUe or Nevyle, nev'il, (ALEXANDER,) an English resigned, or was removed, in 1855. In June, 1859, he
classical scholar, born in Kent in 1544, was secretary to accepted office as colonial secretary in the Liberal min-
Archbishop Parker. His paraphrase of the "CEdipus" istry of Palmerston. He was the attendant and chief
of Seneca is highly eulogized by Warton. Died in 1614. counsellor of the Prince of Wales in his visit to Canada

Nevile or Neville, (HENRY,) an English writer, born and the United States in 1860. Died in 1864.
in 1620, embraced the republican cause, and became a Sec "Gentleman's Magazine" for December, 1864.
member of the council of state, but resigned on the Newcastle, (HENRY PELHAM FIENNES PELHAM
usurpation of Cromwell. He was the author of " Plato CLINTON,) fourth DUKE OF, an English peer, bom in
Redivivus, or a Dialogue concerning Government." ij8$. He inherited the title of duke at the death of his
Died in 1694. father. He was a Tory, and an opponent of the Reform

Nev'ille, (HENRY,) an English actor, born in Man- bill of 1832. He died in 1851, leaving a son, Henry,
Chester, June 20, 1837. He went very early upon the fj fth Duke O f Newcastle.

stage, and won great distinction as a versatile and able Newcastle, (THOMAS PELHAM,) DUKE OP, an Eng-
comedian. He has also written "The Stage : its Past ]j s h whig minister of state, born in 1693, was the eldest
and Present," a id several plays. son o f Sir Thomas Pelham, of Sussex. His mother was

Neville, (RICHARD CORNWALLIS and RICHARD GKIF- a s j ste r of John Hollis, Duke of Newcastle, who, dying
FIN.) See BRAYBROOKE, LORD. in 175 ti ] e ft a princely fortune to the subject of this article.

Nev'in, (ALFRED,) an American clergyman, born l n 1715 he was created Duke of Newcastle, and in 1724
at Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1816. He was ad- appointed secretary of state. In 1754 he was promoted
mitted to the bar in 1837, and afterwards became to the office of first lord of the treasury, (or premier,)
a Presbyterian clergyman. After holding several which was then vacated by the death of his brother,
pastorates
Standard,

ous theological works. Died in 1890. chief minister, fronTi 757' until May, 1762, when Lord

Nevin, (JOHN WILLIAMSON,) D.D., a distin- Bute became premier. " His love of mBuence, says
guished American divine and theological writer, of the Macaulay, (in his Review of Walpole's "Letters to
(German) Reformed Church, was born in Franklin Horace Mann,") "was so intense a passion that it sup-
county, Pennsylvania, in .803. He became president P'. led the P lace of 'f e " ts ' * at " ln *P lred evei ? ,( atu , lt ?

of tlJ theological seminary at Mercersburg in ,84,, th cunn '"g- ' A1 ! tf !f able " f , hlS tlme " dlcul . e . d

, him as a dunce, a driveller, a child who never knew his
and later was president of franklin and Marshall Col- Qwn mmd for an ' hourtogeth ' er . and he overreached them



lege. He published a number of theological works,
was editor for a time of the "Mercersburg Review,*'
and was a distinguished exponent of the " Mercers-
burg theology." Died June 6, 1886.



all round." He died, without issue, in 1768, when the
title passed to Henry Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, who had
married a daughter and heiress of Henry Pelham.

See MACAULAY, Review of Thackeray's " History of Lord Chat-



Nevin, (ROBERT J.,) son of the above, was bom! ham," 1834.

at Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in 1839. He became a New'cpmb, (SlMON,) LL.D., an American astrono-

clergyman of the Episcopal Church in 1869, and mer, born at Wallace, Nova Scotia, March 12, 1835. He

founded and became the rector of the beautiful church graduated at the Lawrence Scientific School, Cambridge,

of " Saint Paul's within the Walls" at Rome, Italy. Massachusetts, in 1858. In 1861 he became a professor in

Nevin, (WILLIAM CHANMNG,) an American au- 'he United States navy, and in 1877 superintendent of
thor, born at New Athens, Ohio, in 1844. He became the " Nautical Almanac," retiring in 1897. He be-
a lawyer and a Philadelphia journalist, and published came professor of mathematics and astronomy at Johns
" History of All Religions," " A Wild-Goose Chase," Hopkins University in 1894. He made many astro-
"Joshua Whitcomb's Tribulations," etc., and a num- nomical discoveries. His principal writings are " Fi-
ber of poems. nancial Policy,"(i865,) " A.B.C. of Finance,"(i877,)

Nevizan, na-ved-zin' or ney-e-zin', (GIOVANNI,) an "Popular Astronomy," (1878,) a "Course of Mathe-

Italian jurist, born at Asti. He published "SylvzNup- matics," (1881,) "Principles of Political Economy,"

tialis Libri sex," (1521,) a curious work, often reprinted. ( 1886,) etc.

Died in 1540. i Newcomb, nu'kum, (THOMAS,) an English poet,

New'ber-rf, (JOHN STRONG,) M.D., LL.D., an! born in 1675, became rector of Stopham, in Sussex,

American geologist, born at Windsor, Connecticut, about 1734. He wrote, besides other poems, "The

December 22, 1822. He graduated at Western Reserve Library," (1718,) and "The Last Judgment," (1723.)

College- in 1846, and at Cleveland Medical College in Died about 1766.

1848. He also studied at the Ecole de Medecine and the Newcome, ( WILLIAM,) a learned prelate and eminent

ficole des Mines, Paris. He was United States geologist, biblical scholar, born in Bedfordshire in 1729. He be-

1855-60, served in the United States Sanitary Commis- came successively Bishop of Ossory and of Waterford,

sion. 1861-65, and in 1866 became professor of geology in Ireland, and in 1795 Archbishcp of Armagh. He

in the School of Mines, Columbia College, New York was the author of a " Historical View of the English

city. He was also State geologist for Ohio, 1869-79. Biblical Translations," and " Harmony of the Gospels,"

He was author of many volumes of " Reports," geologi- (I7?8-) Died in 1800.

cal and palseontological, besides a great number of pam- See the " Monthly Review" for October, 1779.

phlets and scientific papers. Died December 7, 1892. New-com'en, (MATTHEW,) an English nonconform-

Newborough or Newburgh, nu / bur-?h, [Lat NEU- j s t, was a member of the Westminster Assembly of

BRIGENSIS,] (WILLIAM OF,) an English chronicler, born divines. He was one of the five persons who wrote

in Yorkshire in 1136, wrote a "History of England," "Smectymnus," a controversial work against Bishop

(in Latin,) beginning with the Norman conquest and Hall. Died at Leyden in 1666.



brought down to 1197.
Newcastle. See CAVENDISH, (WILLIAM.)
Newcastle, nu-kas'el, (HENRY PELHAM CLINTON,)
DUKE OF, born in London in 1811, was the eldest son
of Henry, Duke of Newcastle. He was styled Earl of
Lincoln until the death of his father, (1851,) and entered



Newcommen or Newcomen, nu-kom'en, (THOM-
AS,) an English locksmith, born in Devonshire, was one
of the inventors of the steam-engine. In 1705 New-
commen and Cawley (a glazier of that place) obtained
a patent for an engine combining for the first time the
cylinder and piston, with a separate boiler. The steam



Parliament in 1832. For a short time in 1846 he was 1 admitted below the piston was condensed by the applica
chief secretary for Ireland. In 1852 he became secretary tion of cold water, and the pressure of the atmosphere,
for the colonies in Lord Aberdeen's coalition ministry. ' forcing down the piston, moved a working-beam, to one
He was appointed secretary of war in 1854. As war en d of which a pump-rod was attached. This engine was
minister he was so much censured for the discomforts m uch used in mines,
and disasters of the army in the Crimea in 1854 thai he See J. ROBISON, "System of Mechanical Philosophy."

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mil; not; good; moon;



NEWDIGATE



1813



NEWTON



New'dl-gate, (Sir ROGER,) an English gentleman of
fine taste and classical attainments, born in Warwick-
shire in 1719. He was for many years representative
in Parliament for the University of Oxford. He was a
generous patron of that institution, to which he gave the
Florentine Museum, Piranesi's works, and the cande-
labra in the Radcliffe Library. Died in 1780.

New'ell, (ROBERT HENRY,) an American humour-
ist, born at New York in 1836. He became a journalist
and editor in New York, and was widely known for
his "Orpheus C. Kerr" papers, (four volumes of hu-
mourous letters on the civil war.) He also published
several volumes of poems, novels, etc.

New'man, (FRANCIS W.,) an English author, brother
of John Henry, noticed below, was born in London in
1805. He was educated at Oxford, and, after he left col-
lege, passed three years in the Turkish empire, (1830-
33.) In 1840 he became professor of languages at Man-
chester New College. He was appointed professor of
Latin in University College, London, in 1846. Among
his principal works are a "History of the Hebrew Mon-
archy," (1847,) "The Soul : its Sorrows and Aspirations,"
(1849,) " Phases of Faith, or Passages from the History
of my Creed," (1850,) " Lectures on Ancient and Modern
History," (1851,) "English Institutions and their
Reforms," (1865,) " Hand-Book of Modern Arabic,"
(1866,) etc. His religious views were the opposite
of those of his brother, and advocated a form of faith
including the best features of all known religions.
Died in 1897.

Newman, (HENRY R.,) an American artist, born
at New York city in 1833. He became noted for
water-colour paintings of architecture, landscape, and
flowers.

Newman, (JOHN HENRY,) an eminent English theo-
logian, born in London in 1801. He entered Trinity
College, Oxford, in 1816, and was elected a Fellow of
Oriel College in 1822. At Oriel College he formed a
friendship with John Keble the poet, and with Dr.
Whately. He was ordained a priest in 1824, and became
vice-principal of Alban Hall in 1825, and a tutor of
Oriel College in 1826. In 1828 he was appointed vicar
of Saint Mary's, Oxford, and of Littlemore. In 1833
Newman, Keble, and Pusey initiated the " Oxford move-
ment" in favour of High-Church doctrines, which the/
advocated in a series of "Tracts for the Times." He
manifested a growing tendency to Roman Catholicism
in his " Arians of the Fourth Century : their Doctrines,
Temper, and Conduct," (1833,) his "Tract No. 90,"
(1841,) and his "Essay on the Development of Chris-
tian Doctrine." He became a member of the Roman
Catholic Church in 1845, and was the principal of the
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri at Birmingham from 1848
to 1852. In the latter year he was fined one hundred
pounds for a libel on Dr. Achilli. He defended or ex-
plained his religious course in a work entitled " Apology
for his Life," ("Apologia pro Vita sua," 1864.) He pub-
lished a collection of poems, (1868,) "The Grammar of
Assent," (1870,) and "A Letter addressed to his Grace
the Duke of Norfolk, on the Occasion of Mr. Gladstone's
Recent Expostulation," (1875.) He was made a cardi-
nal-deacon in 1879. Died August n, 1890.

Newman, (JOHN PHILIP,) an American bishop,
born at New York in 1826. He entered the Metho-
dist Episcopal ministry in 1849, and was elected
bishop in 1888. He was noted as a pulpit orator and
lecturer, and wrote " From Dan to Beersheba,"
"Thrones and Palaces of Babylon and Nineveh,"
"America for Americans," "The Supremacy of
Law," etc. Died in 1899.

New'march, (WILLIAM,) an English political
economist, born in 1820. His most important work
was the preparation of the two concluding volumes
of " Tooke and Newmarch's History of Prices,"
(1856.) Died March 23, 1882.

Newport, (GEORGE,) F.R.S., an English comparative
anatomist and entomologist, born at Canterbury in 1803.
He practised medicine, and devoted much time to the



study ol the anatomy of insects, on which subjects he
contributed to the " Philosophical Transactions" a num-
ber of memoirs. One of these was " On the Nervous
System of the Sphinx." He was elected president of
the Entomological Society in 1844. Died in 1854.

New'ton, (ALFRED,) a British zoologist, born at
[Genoa in 1829. He was educated at Cambridge, and
became professor of zoology there in 1866. Among
his works are " The Zoology of Ancient Europe,"
(1862,) -'Ootheca Wolleyana," (1864,) the "Dic-
tionary of Birds," (1896,) etc.

New'tpn, (CHARLES THOMAS,) a British archaeologist,
born in 1816. He graduated in 1837 at Christ Church,
Oxford, and was employed (1840-52) in the British Mu-
seum. Becoming vice-consul at Mitylene, he made im-
portant explorations in Asia Minor. In 1880 he was
appointed professor of archaeology in the University of
Oxford. Among his writings are a " History of Discov-
eries at Halicarnassus," etc., (2 vols., 1862,) "Travels in
the Levant," (1865,) " Essays on Art and Archaeology,"
(1880,) etc. Died November 28, 1894.

New'ton, (GILBERT STUART,)a distinguished painter,
of English extraction, born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in
1794. He painted numerous small pictures of great
merit, among which we may name "Shylock and Jes-
sica" and "Portia and Bassanio." Died in 1835.

Newton, (HUBERT ANSON,) LL.D., an American
mathematician, born at Sherburne, New York, March
19, 1830. He graduated at Yale College in 1850, and
became professor there in 1855. Died Aug. 12, 1896.

Newton, (Sir ISAAC,) an illustrious English philoso-
pher and mathematician, born at Woolsthorpe, in Lin-
colnshire, on the 2$th of December, 1642, (Old Style.)
He was the posthumous and only child of Isaac Newton,
a farmer, who died in 1642. His mother, whose original
name was Hannah Ayscough, was married again to the
Rev. Barnabas Smith in 1645. He attended the schools
.jf Skillington and Stoke for several years, and about
the age of twelve entered the grammar-school of Grant-
ham. There he manifested much mechanical ingenuity
by the construction of a windmill, a water-clock, a sun-
dial, and other pieces of mechanism. He also wrote
verses in his boyhood. He entered Trinity College,
Cambridge, as a sub-sizar, in June, 1661, before which
date it does not appear that he had been a profound
student of mathematics. It has been stated that he
commenced the study of Euclid's "Elements," but he
found the first propositions so self-evident that he threw
the book aside as too trifling. " When Newton entered
Trinity College," says Brewster, " he brought with him
a more slender portion of science than at his age falls
to the lot of ordinary scholars." Among the works
which he first studied at Cambridge were the " Optics"
of Kepler and the " Geometry" of Descartes. In 1664 he
read Wallis's " Arithmetica Infinitorum," and discovered
the method of infinite series, or the binomial theorem,
which enabled him to compute the area of curves and
to solve with ease problems which before were insoluble
or very difficult. He took the degree of B.A. in 1665,
and discovered the differential calculus, or method of
fluxions, probably in the same year. This important
method of mathematical investigation was discovered
by Leibnitz about the same time, and before Newton
had published anything on the subject. A controversy
arose between the English and foreign mathematicians
about the priority of the discovery. Sir David Brewster
gives this decision of the question : I. That Newton
was the first inventor of the method of fluxions ; that
the method was incomplete in its notation, and that the
fundamental principle of it was not published to the
world till 1687. 2. That Leibnitz communicated his
differential calculus to Newton in 1677, with a complete
system of notation, and that he published it in 1684.

As a precaution against the plague, he retired from
Cambridge to his native place in the summer of 1665.
He then and there began to speculate on the subject of
gravity. It was in the autumn of 1665 that the apple
which suggested to him the idea of gravitation is said to
have fallen from the tree at Woolsthorpe. " When sitting
alone in the garden," says Brewster, "and speculating



e as k ; 9 as s; s, hard; g as ;'; G, H, K, guttural; N. nasal; R, trilled; s as z; *h as in this. (Jjy See Explanations, p. 23. >



NEWTON



1814



NEWTON



on the power of gravity, it occurred to him that as the
same power by which the apple fell to the ground was
not sensibly diminished at the greatest distance from the
centre of the earth to which we can reach, ... it might
extend to the moon and retain her in her orbit in the
same manner as it bends into a curve a stone or cannon-
ball when projected in a straight line from the surface
of the earth." He arrived at the conclusion that the
force of gravity by which the planets were retained in
their orbits varied as the squares of their distances from
the sun ; but, not being prepared to verify this hypothe-
sis, he abandoned or deferred the subject for many years.

He returned to Cambridge in 1666, and applied him-
self to the grinding of optic glasses, and began to study
the subject of colours in connection with the prismatic
spectrum. He was elected a Minor Fellow in October,
1667, and took his degree of M.A. in March, 1668, as
twenty-third on the list of one hundred and forty-eight
graduates. He made a small reflecting telescope in 1668,
and succeeded Dr. Barrow, as Lucasian professor of
mathematics, in 1669. About this date he made the grand
discovery that light is not homogeneous, but consists of rays
of different rcfrangibility. He also perceived that this
different refrangibility was the real cause of the imper-
fection of refracting telescopes. In 1671 he constructed
with his own hands a second reflecting telescope, which
is preserved in the library of the Royal Society. New-
ton read a course of lectures on optics, at Cambridge, in
1669, 1670, and 1671. He was the author of the theory
of light called the Emission theory, according to which
light is composed of, or produced by, material particles
of inconceivable minuteness, emitted by luminous bodies
in all directions. On this subject he was involved in a
controversy with Hooke and Huygens, who maintained
the undulatory theory. In a letter to Leibnitz, dated
December 9, 1675, he writes, " I was so persecuted with
discussions arising out of my theory of light, that I
blamed my own imprudence for parting with so sub-
stantial a blessing as my quiet to run after a shadow."
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in January,
1672. In December, 1675, he communicated to that
body a discourse entitled a "Theory of Light and Col-
ours." " The theory of Newton," says Sir John Herschel,
"gives a complete and elegant explanation of what may
be considered the chief of all optical facts, the produc-
tion of colours in the ordinary refraction of light by a
prism, the discovery of which by him marks one of the
greatest epochs in the annals of experimental science."
("Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Phi-
losophy.") His optical discoveries are described in a
work entitled "Opticks, or a Treatise on the Reflexions,
Refractions, Inflexions, and Colours of Light," which
was published in 1704, but written many years earlier.
"To avoid being engaged in disputes about these mat-
ters," says the author, "I have hitherto delayed the
printing." The only other optical work by Newton was
his " Lectiones Opticse," (1728,) which contains the lec-
tures he read at Cambridge in 1669-71.

Newton had abandoned the subject of gravity in 1665,
after an attempt to verify his theory by a calculation
which failed because he had employed an erroneous
measure of the earth's radius. About 1684 he resumed
his inquiries and calculations in relation to the moon,
and employed Picard's more accurate measure of the
earth's diameter. He thus demonstrated the great truth
that the orbit of the moon is curved by the same force
which causes bodies to fall on the surface of the earth.
According to a doubtful tradition, he became so much
agitated as his calculations drew to a close, that he was
obliged to ask a friend to finish them. "This anec-
dote is not supported by what is known of Newton's
character." (Brewster's " Life of Newton.") He an-
nounced this discovery to the Royal Society in 1685 by
his treatise " De Motu." This was the germ ol his
greatest work, the "Principia," (composed in 1685-86,)
which Laplace regarded as "pre-eminent above all
other productions of the human intellect" The full
title of this work, which was published by the Royal
Society or by Halley in 1687, is "The Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy," (" Philosophise Na-
turalis Principia Mathematical') It consists of three



Books, of which the first and second are entitled " On
the Motion of Bodies," and the third " On the System
of the World." " The great discovery," says Brewster,
"which characterizes the 'Principia' is that of the prin-
ciple of universal gravitation, that every particle of matter
in the universe is attracted by, or gravitates to, every other
particle of matter, with a force inversely proportional ti the
squares of their distances."

" The glory of these men," says Macaulay. referring to
Wallis and Halley, " is cast into the shade by the tran-
scendent lustre of one immortal name. In Isaac New-
ton two kinds of intellectual power, which have little in
common, and which are not often found together in z
very high degree of vigour, but which nevertheless are
equally necessary in the most sublime departments of
natural philosophy, were united as they have never been
united before or since. ... In no other mind have
the demonstrative faculty and the inductive faculty coex-
isted in such supreme excellence and perfect harmony."
(" History of England," vol. i. chap. Hi.)

In 1687 James II. sent an illegal mandamus to the
University of Cambridge, directing that a certain monk
should be admitted a master of arts without taking thfl
oath of allegiance. Newton took an active and influen-
tial part in defending the privileges of the university on
this occasion. He represented Cambridge in the Con-
vention Parliament, January, i689~February, 1690, and
maintained the principles of civil and religious liberty
in that critical period of revolution. In 1689 he became
acquainted with John Locke, with whom he associated
on friendly terms and corresponded until his death.
Newton, though satiated with fame, had gained no pecu-
niary benefit by his writings, and had received no mark
of national gratitude for his discoveries. Locke and
Charles Montague endeavoured to procure for him some
permanent appointment, but without success.

In 1692 and 1693 he wrote to Bentley four celebrated
[etters on the formation of the sun and the planets, etc.,
in which he affirms that the motions of the planets
could not be produced by any natural cause alone,
but were impressed by an intelligent agent and Divine
power. A report was circulated, chiefly on the conti-
nent, that Newton was insane, about 1692. The story
that his precious manuscripts were burned through the
agency of his little dog Diamond, seems to be equally
unfounded. " He never had any communion with dogs
or cats." (Brewster.)

In 1694 Newton was occupied by researches on the
lunar theory, and obtained from Flamsteed his observa-
tions on the moon. Letters were exchanged between
them in relation to these observations, which became the
occasion of an intemperate and discreditable controversy.
Newton was appointed warden of the mint in 1695 or
1696 by his friend Montague, Earl of Halifax, who had
resolved on an important scheme of re-coinage of clipped
and debased coin. The salary of this office was about
600. In 1699 he was promoted to be master of the
mint, with a salary of from ; 1 200 to ^1500. In 1703 he
was returned to Parliament by the University of Cam-
bridge, and was elected President of the Royal Society.
He continued until his death to occupy the latter po-
sition, to which he was annually re-elected. He was
knighted by Queen Anne in 1705. Among his important
works are "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms
Amended," (1728,) and "Observations upon the Pro-
phecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of Saint John,"
(first published in 1733.) "That the greatest philoso-
pher of which any age can boast," says Brewster, " was
a sincere and humble believer in the leading doctrines
of our religion and lived conformably to its precepts,
has been justly regarded as a proud triumph of the
Christian faith." Newton's religious opinions, however,
were not strictly orthodox : like Milton, he appears to
have had a decided leaning towards Arianism.

Newton was never married. His latter years were
passed in London, where he lived in a handsome style
and kept six servants. He was extremely generous and


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 180 of 425)