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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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liberal in the use of money, for which he is said to have
had a great contempt. On one occasion he offered Dr.
Cheselden, as a fee, a handful of guineas out of his coa-
pocket He was often so absorbed in meditation that

i, e, i, f>, u, y, long; a, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, ? short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; mSt; n6t; good; moon:




he forgot to eat, and it was necessary for his servants
to remind him of his meals. He died at Kensington on
the 20th of March, 1727, and was buried in Westminster
Abbey. His collected works were published by Bishop
Horsley in 5 vols. 4to, (1779-85.)

Near the end of his life he said, " I know not what I
may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have
been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore and
diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother
pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great
ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."

"Though there be few," says Dr. Chalmers, "who
comprehend or follow Newton in his gigantic walk, yet
all may participate in his triumphant feeling when he
reached that lofty summit where the whole mystery and
magnificence of nature stood submitted to his gaze, an
eminence won by him through the power and patience
of intellect alone, but from which he descried a scene
more glorious far than imagination could have formed,
or than ever had been pictured and set forth in the
sublimest visions of poetry." ("Treatise on the Adap-
tation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual
Constitution of Man.")

"Whichever way we turn our view," says Sir John
F. W. Herschel, "we find ourselves compelled to bow
before his genius, and to assign to the name of Newton
a place in our veneration which belongs to no other in
the annals of science. His era marks the accomplished
maturity of the human reason as applied to such objects.
His wonderful combination of mathematical skill
with physical research enabled him to invent at pleasure
new and unheard-of methods of investigating the effects
of those causes which his clear and penetrating mind
detected in operation. Ascending by a series of close-
compacted inductive arguments to the highest axioms of
dynamical science, he succeeded in applying them to the
complete explanation of all the great astronomical phe-
nomena." (" Preliminary Discourse on the Study of
Natural Philosophy.")

See SIR DAVID BREWSTER, " Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton,"

IUIIIC 111. , Ulm_n, liloiuij \J' ""- * j . ~ lety, ,.". ...... ...

MACLAURIN, " Exposition of the Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton,
1748- RIGAOD, "Historical Essay on the Principia of Newton ;
"Life of Newton" in the " Biographia Britannica :" PAOLO FRISI,
" Elogio storico del Cavaliere I. Newton," 1778 ; WM. WHEWBLL,
" Newton and Flamsteed." 1836 ; CARL SHELL, " Newton und di
mechanische Naturwissenschaft," 1843.

Newton, (JOHN,) an English mathematician, oorn in
Northamptonshire in 1622, was the author of "Geo
metrical Trigonometry," " Astronomia Britannica," anc
other works. Died in 1678.

See WOOD, " Athenz Oionienses.

Newton, (JOHN,) an English divine, born in London
in 1725. Having for many years led a profligate life
as a sailor, and engaging in the African slave-trade, he
was converted, and distinguished himself thenceforth
by his zeal in the cause of religion. In 1764 he became
curate of Olney, where he acquired the friendship o
Cowper, and wrote, in conjunction with him, the " Olney
Hymns." He also published a " Review of Ecclesiastica
History," (1770,) " Cardiphonia," etc., and other works
Died in 1807.

New'tpn, (JOHN,) an American general, born in Vir
ginia, graduated at West Point in 1842. He became a
brigadier-general of Union volunteers in 1861, and com
manded a brigade in the battles before Richmond, June
1862, and a division at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. He
served under General Sherman in Georgia in 1864, wit!
distinction, and was brevetted brigadier-general am
major-general in 1865. After the war he was engagec
in removing the obstructions to navigation in He!
Gate. He became brigadier-general and chief o
engineers in 1885, retired in 1886, was made commis
sioner of public works in New York in 1887, anc
president of the Panama Railroad Company in 1888
Died in 1895.

Newton, (REGINALD* HEBER,) D.D., an American
clergyman, a son of Rev. Dr. Richard Newton, was born
in Philadelphia, October 31, 1840. He was educated a
the University of Pennsylvania. Ordained to the ministry

.( the Episcopal Church, his extreme " Broad Church"

rosition attracted much attention. Among his work*

re "The Children's Church," (1872,) "The Morals of

Trade," (1876,) "Womanhood," (iSSo,) "Studies of

ssus," (1881,) "The Right and Wrong Uses of the

_ible," (1883,) and "The Book of Beginnings," (1884.)

ie has written much on social and industrial questions.

Newton, (RICHARD,) an English divine, born about
675, became canon of Christ Church, Oxford. He
mblished a work entitled "Pluralities Indefensible,"
1744.) He was the founder of Hertford College, Oi-
ord. Died in 1753.

See CHALMERS, " History of Oxford."

Newton, (RICHARD,) D.D., an American clergyman,
born in Liverpool, England, July 25, 1813. He gradu-
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1834, and at
he General Theological Seminary, New York, in 1839,
tnd held Episcopalian pastorships, chiefly in Philadel-
phia. He published twenty-two volumes, many of then
:ontaining sermons for the young, which have had a wide
popularity and have been translated into many foreign
anguages. Died May 25, 1887.

New'tpn, (ROBERT,) a Scottish Methodist clergyman
born in 1780. He preached in London and Liverpool,
and was appointed in 1839 a delegate to the General
Conference of the United States. He was a popular
Dreacher. Died in 1854.

Newton, (THOMAS,) an English divine, born at Lich-
ield in 1704, rose through various preferments to be
Bishop of Bristol, (1761.) He published an excellent
edition of Milton's "Paradise Lost," with notes, (1749,)
and "Dissertations on the Prophecies," etc., (3 vols.,
1754-58,) which were translated into German and Danish.
Died in 1782.

See " Life of Thomas Newton," prefixed to the second edition
of his Works; " Monthly Review" for February and March, 1783.

Newton, (THOMAS,) an English littlrateur, born in
Essex, became master of Macclesfield School. He was
the author of a "History of the Saracens," (I575-) of a
number of Latin poems, and other works. Died in 1607.

See WAHTON, " History of English Poetry."

Newton, (WILLIAM,) an English architect and writei,
published an English translation of Vitruvius, (2 vols.,

Newton, (WILLIAM WILBERFORCE,) an American
clergyman, a brother of R. H. Newton, was born in Phila-
delphia, November 4, 1843. He graduated at the University
of Pennsylvania in 1865, and at the Philadelphia Divinity
School in 1868, and became a presbyter of the Episcopal
Church. Among his works are " Essays of To-Day,"
(1879,) "The Voice of Saint John," a poem, (1880,)
"Priest and Man," a novel, (1883,) "The Legend of
Saint Telemachus," a poem, (1882,) and some volumes
of sermons for children.

Ney, ni, (FRANC.OIS,) a Flemish diplomatist, born at
Antwerp, became general of the order of Saint Francis,
in Spain, in 1607. He was the principal agent of the
Spanish king in the negotiation of the treaty of peace
which recognized the independence of the revolted Dutch
provinces in 1609. Watson the historian speaks highly
of his talents and address.

See GROTIUS, " Histoire Acs Troubles des Pays-Bas."

Ney, na, (JOSEPH NAPOLEON,) Prince of the Moskwa,
(in French, "de la Moskowa,") a French general, born
in Paris in 1803, was the eldest son of Marshal Ney. He
served in Algeria in 1837-38, and entered the Chamber
of Peers in 1841. After the revolution of 1848 he was
elected a member of the Legislative Assembly, in which
he was a partisan of Louis Napoleon. Died in 1857.

Ney, (MICHEL,) Duke of Elchingen, Prince of the
Moskwa, a famous French marshal, born at Sarre-Louis
in January, 1769, was the son of a cooper. He entered
the army as a private in 1787, became adjutant-general
in 1794, and a general of brigade in 1796. As general
of division, he acquired a high reputation under Massena,
in Switzerland and Germany, in 1799. In 1800 he passed
into the army of Moreau, and contributed to the victory
of Hohenlinden. He obtained a marshal's baton in 1804.
For an important victory over the Austrians at Elchingen,
in October, 1805, he received the title of Duke of El-
chingen. His impetuous courage rendered essential ser-
vices at the battle of Jena, in 1806. In this year he took

as k; 9 as t; g hard; g as /; G, H, K,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z; th as in this.

: Explanations, p. 23.*




Magdeburg, the garrison of which amounted to about
20,000 men. He commanded an army in Spain in 1809,
ar.d obtained advantages at Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida
in 1810. In the Russian campaign of 1812 he received
from Bonaparte the appellation of the " Bravest of the
Brave." He commanded the centre at the great battle
of Borodino, or the Moskwa, from which he derived
his title of Prince. In the retreat from Moscow, Mar-
shal Ney commanded the rear-guard, and maintained his
reputation by heroic conduct amidst the greatest dis-
asters. " It was when danger was greatest and success
most doubtful," says Alison, " that his courage was most
conspicuous and his coolness most valuable." When
summoned to capitulate, in November, 1812, he replied,
"A marshal of France never surrenders '"

He took a prominent part in the battles of Lutzen,
Bautzen, and Dresden, in 1813, and was defeated at Den-
newitz by Bernadotte in September of that year. On the
abdication of Napoleon, in 1814, Ney submitted to Louis
XVIII., who permitted him to retain his titles and mili-
tary rank. In March, 1815, he received orders to lead
an army against Napoleon, whom he promised to bring
back in an iron cage. His moral courage, however, was
not proof against the seductive offers of his former chief,
to whom he transferred the army, as well as his own
services. He fought with his usual resolution at Water-
loo, where he led several charges of the Old Guard and
had five horses shot under him. He was tried for treason
by the court of the peers, and shot on the 7th of De-
cember, 1815.

" When the Parisians awoke," says Lamartine, " and
found that Ney had been executed, bitter shame seized
on every soul. . . . We must say, however, in the de-
fence of the king and the ministers, that they were re-
pugnant, from moderation, horour, and sensibility, to
this useless, cruel, and shameful sacrifice. In their eyes,
and in those of the impartial portion of the world, Ney
was a great culprit, but his was a gloridus life. His
fault was among those which are condemned but par-
doned. He had redeemed it beforehand by exploits
which will be an eternal theme in the camps of France."
(" History of the Restoration.")

See " Memoires du Marshal Ney," published by his family, 1833 ;
ROUVAL, "Vie du Marechal Ney," 1833: DUMOULIN, "_H>stoire

Ney, (MICHEL Louis FELIX,) Due d'Elchingen, a son
of the preceding, was born in 1804. He served several
campaigns in Algeria, and became a general of brigade
in 1851. Died in 1854.

Ney, (NAPOLEON HENRI EDGAR,) Prince of the
Moskwa, a son of Marshal Ney, was born in Paris in
1812. He entered the army about 1830, was elected to
the Legislative Assembly in 1850, became aide-de-camp
to the emperor in 1852, and general of brigade in 1856.
Died in 1882.

Neyen, ni'en or ni'oN', (AucusTE,) a Belgian his-
torian, born at Luxemburg in 1809. Among his works
is "Biographie Luxembourgeoise," (2 vols., 1861.)

Neyn, nin, (PlETER,) a Dutch painter and architect,
born at Leyden in 1597 ; died in 1639.

Neyra. See MENDANA.

Nezahualcoyotl, na-zi-whll-ko-yotl', surnamed THE
GREAT, King of Tezcuco, born in 1403. He was dis-
tinguished as a legislator and a patron of the sciences.
Died in 1470.

See PRRSCOTT, " History of the Conquest of Mexico."

Ni or Ne. See CONFUCIUS.

Nibby, neb'bee, (ANTONIO,) an antiquary, born at
Rome in 1792. He became professor of archaeology in
the College of Rome in 1820. He was a corresponding
member of the French Institute, and the author of several
antiquarian works. He also published a translation of
Pausanias, with notes. Died in 1839.

Nibelungen-Lied. See SIEGFRIED.

Niboyet, ne'bwl'yi', (EuotME nle Mouchon,)
a French authoress, born in 1797. She wrote several
educational and woman's-rights works and novels, and
founded in 1844 a socialist journal. Died in 1883.

Nicaenetus, ni-sSn'e-tus, [Gr. Nocoivrrof ; Fr. NicS-
NETE, ne'si'nit',] a Greek epigrammatic poet, born ax
Abdera or Samos, probably lived in the third century
B.C. Several of his epigrams are inserted in Jacobs'*
' Anthology."

Nioalae, ne'k&z', (CLAUDE,) a French antiquary, born
at Dijon in 1623. He published a treatise " On the Music
of the Ancients," " On the Sirens," etc., and other works.
He was a member of the principal Academies of Europe.
Died in 1701.

See " Menagiana."

Nicaise, ne'kaz', [Lat NICA'SIUS,] SAINT, a Christian
prelate and martyr, became Bishop of Rheims. He was
put to death by the Vandals when they sacked that city,
n 407 A.D.

See FISQUET, "France pontificale."

Ni-can'der, [Gr. Ni/tafdpof ; Fr. NICANDRE, ne'-
k5NdR',J a celebrated Greek physician and poet, born
near Colophon, is supposed to have flourished about 175-
135 B.C. Of his numerous works only two have come
down to us entire. These are two poems, entitled
Theriaca" and " Alexipharmaca." The latter treats ol
venomous animals and the remedies for their wounds.
As a poet, he is eulogized by Cicero, but severely criti-
cised by other writers. His works are said to be obscure
znd pedantic. Among his lost works was a poem of
Georgics, which Virgil is said to have imitated.

See HALLKR, "Bibliotheca Botanica ;" CLINTON, "Fasti Hel-

Nicander, a king of Sparta, of the family of Pro-
clidae, was a son of Charilaus. He reigned about 780 B.C.

Nicander, ne-kan'der, (KARL AUGUST,) a distin-
guished Swedish poet, born at Strengnas in 1799. In
1826 he obtained the first prize from the Swedish Acad-
emy for his "Death of Tasso." He visited Italy in
1827, and published on his return "Recollections of the
South." Among his other works we may name "The
Runic Sword, or the First Knight," a tragedy, in verse,
(1821,) "King Enzio," (1825,) and "Runor." These are
said to be excellent models, both in style and other
respects. Died in 1839.

Nicandre. See NICANDER.

Ni-ca'nor, [Gr. Nov<jp,] a Macedonian officer, com-
manded the foot-guards of Alexander the Great at the
battles of the Grani'cus, Issus, and Arbela. He died
about 330. He was a son of the famous Parmenio.

Nicanor, a Macedonian general, who became gov-
ernor of Cappadocia in 321 B.C. As a partisan or ally
of Antigonus, he fought against Eumenes. He was ap-
pointed governor of Media about 316, and was defeated
in battle by Seleucus near the Tigris in 312 B.C.

Nicanor, a Greek general, commanded an army which
Demetrius I., King of Syria, sent to subjugate Judea.
He was defeated and killed by Judas Maccabzus.

Nicanor, called Sriyfiarlof, an eminent Greek gram-
marian of Alexandria or Hierapolis, lived in the reign
of Hadrian, (1 17-138 A.D.) He wrote a treatise on Punc-
tuation, and annotations on Homer.

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grzca."

Nicaaius. See NICAISE.

Niccoli, nek'ko-lee, or Nicoli, ne'ko-le, [Lat. Nico'-
LUS.J (NICCOL6,) a learned Florentine, bom in 1364,
who rendered important services to literature by the
discovery of ancient authors and by transcribing manu-
scripts. At his death, in 1437, he bequeathed his valuable
library to the public. He is said to have been the first
man in modern times who founded a public library.

Niccolini, nek-ko-lee'nee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an
Italian poet and dramatist, born near Pisa in 1785. Ht
was appointed in 1807 professor of history and mythol-
ogy in the Academy of Fine Arts at Florence. He was
the author of tragedies entitled " Antonio Foscarini,"
(1827.) "Polissena," "Giovanni da Procida," (1830,) and
" Filippo Strozzi," (1847.) Died in 1861.

See LoNOraLLow, "Poets and Poetry of Europe:" " NouveBe
Biographic Gene'rale :" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for Apnl, 1836.

Niccolo, the Italian for NICHOLAS, which see.

Niccolo, neTto'lo', or Nicolas, ne'ko'll', (ISOUARD,)
a French dramatic composer, born at Malta in 1775. He
produced numerous operas, among which are " Joconde"
and "Jeannot et Colin." He died in Paris in 1818.

i, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, ti, ?, short a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, lit; met; not; good; mflon;




Niccolo d'Arezzo, nek-ko-lo' dl-rSt'so, an Italian
sculptor, born at Arezzo about 1350. He worked at
Florence and Rome. Died in 1417.

Niccolo da Pisa, nek-ko-lo' da pee'sa, or Niccolo
Pisano, nek-ko-lo' pe-sa'no, an eminent Italian archi-
tect and sculptor, lived in the latter part of the thirteenth
century. Among his best works are the church and
monastery of the Holy Trinity at Florence, and the
church of San Antonio at Padua. His bas-reliefs in the
cathedral of Sienna were esteemed superior to any sculp-
tures of the kind since the antique. Died about 1278.

See VASARI, "Lives of the Painters," etc.; QUATREMERB OB
QCIN:Y, " Vies des plus Ulustres Architectes."

Niccolo del Abate. See ABBATE, (NICHOLAS.)

Niccols. See NICHOLS, (RICHARD.)

Ni'ce or Ni'ke, [Gr. N//CT;,] the goddess of victory
in the Greek mythology, was, according to Hesiod, the
daughter of Pallas and Styx, and corresponded to the
Victoria of the Romans.

Nicenete. See NIC*NETUS.

Nicephore. See NICF.PHORUS.

Ni-ceph'o-rus [Gr. tiutr/fopof ; Fr. NICEPHORE, ne'-
sl'foR'j I, Emperor of Constantinople, became leader
in 802 of a conspiracy against the empress Irene, who
had usurped the throne, and, having banished her, was
made emperor. In 811 he was slain, while fighting the

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Nicephoms H, surnamed PHOCAS, a distinguished
Byzantine commander, married about 963 the widow of
Romanus II., and assumed the title of emperor. He
gained several victories over the Saracens in Syria and
Cilicia, but was assassinated by John Zimisces in 969.

Nicephonia TTT, surnamed BOTANI'ATES, a Byzantine
officer, having in 1078 revolted against Michael Ducas,
caused himself to be proclaimed emperor in his stead.
He was, however, soon compelled to give up the throne
to Alexis Comnenus, who banished him. Died in 1081.

See LK BEAU, " Histoire du Bas- Empire. "

Nicephorus, [Fr. NICEPHORE, ne'sa'foR',1 Patriarch
of Constantinople, and a Byzantine historian, born about
758 A.D., was a zealous opponent of the iconoclasts.
He obtained the office of patriarch in 806, and was de-
posed in 815 by Leo V. He wrote, in Greek, besides
other works, a " History of the Eastern Empire from
602 to 770 A.D.," the Latin title of which is " Breviarium
Historicum." He was one of the best writers o f his
time. Died in 828 A. D.

See CAVE, " Historia Literaria."

Ni-geph'o-rus Blem'ml-das, a Greek ecclesiastic
of the thirteenth century, lived at Nicaea. He wrote
several works " On the Procession of the Holy Spirit"

See CAVE, " Historia Literaria."

Ni-geph'o-rus Cal-lis'tus, a learned Byzantine
monk of the fourteenth century, was the author of an
" Ecclesiastical History from the Birth of Christ to 91 1."

See CAVE, " Historia Literaria."

Ni-jeph'o-rus Greg'o-raa, Patriarch of Constan-
tinople, flourished in the fourteenth century. He was
the author of a " Byzantine History," in twenty-eight
books, twenty-four of which are extant.

Ni-cSr'a-tus, [Nut^parof,] a Greek physician who
flourished about 40 B.C. None of his writings are extant ;
but he is mentioned by Pliny, Dioscorides, and others.

Niceron, nes'rA.M', ? (JEAN FRANC.OIS,) a French
mathematician and optician, born in Paris in 1613.
He was a friend of Descartes. He published "Thau-
maturgus Opticus : de iis quas spectant ad Visionem
directam," (1646.) Died at Aix in 1646.

Niceron, ne'sa'ron' ?* (JEAN PIERRE,) a noted French

* Some of the best French authorities are not consistent with
themselves in regard to the spelling of this name. In the early part
of the " Nouvelle Biographic Gen^rale" the name, whenever re-
ferred to, appears to be invariably written with the accent on the second
syllable, NICERON, but under the biographical notice it is spelled
NICERON which is also the spelling of the " Biographic Universelle."
But this fact will not by any means be deemed decisive by those who
are aware of the exceeding negligence of most French writers in re-
gard to marking the accent. It has become very common in France
to omit the accent in certain names (e-g. PETION) in writing, out to
pronounce the name as if spelled with an accent. (See note under
" Petion" in the "Nouvelle Biographie G^ne'rale.")

litterateur, was born in Paris in 1685. His principal
work is entitled " Memoirs towards the History of
Illustrious Writers," (43 vols., 1727-45,) a production
of great value, partly original and partly compiled. He
died in 1738, having published thirty-nine volumes, to
which four were afterwards added. He was professor
of rhetoric and philosophy in several colleges.

See GOUIET, " filoge de J. P. Niceron," in vol. il. of his " Me-
moires. "

Ni-ge'tas, [Gr. Nucr/rof.J a Byzantine physician, sup-
posed to have flourished in the eleventh century. He
left a collection of surgical works in manuscript, copies
of which are preserved in Paris and Florence.

Ni-ge'tas A-com-I-na'tus, ['Axopmiroc,] surnamed
CHONI'ATES, a Byzantine historian of the twelfth century,
wrote a "History of the Greek Emperors from 1117
to 1203," in twenty-one books ; also a " Description of
the Monuments destroyed by the Franks at the Taking
of Constantinople." Died about 1216. ,

Nich'pl, (JOHN,) LL.D., a son of Prof. J. P. Nichol,
was born at Montrose, Scotland, September 8, 1833. He
studied (1848-55) at the University of Glasgow, and at
Balliol College, Oxford, and in 1861 became professor
of English literature in the University of Glasgow. He
published "Byron," (1880,) "Robert Burns." (1882,)
" American Literature," (1882,) and other works in prose
and verse. Died October 12, 1894.

Nieh'ol, (JoHN PRINGLE,) a British astronomer and
philosopher, born at Brechin, in Scotland, in 1804, was
educated for the ministry. He gained distinction as a
lecturer on science, and as a writer. About 1836 he was
appointed professor of astronomy in the University of
Glasgow. He published popular works entitled " The
Architecture of the Heavens," (1836,) "The Stellar
Heavens," "The Solar System," and a "Dictionary
of the Physical Sciences." His style is vigorous and
attractive. He wrote numerous articles for the "Im-
perial Dictionary of Biography." Died in 1859.

Ni-eh'o-las [Lat NICOLA'US ; Fr. NICOLAS, neTco'la';
It. NICCOL6,' nek-ko-lo' ; Ger. NIKOLAUS, nik'o-lowEs']
I., POPE, succeeded Benedict III. in 858 A.p. Not long
after, he was engaged in a broil with Photius, who had
intruded himself into the patriarchal see of Constanti-
nople, and the result was a schism between the Greek
and Latin Churches. He died in 867, and was succeeded
by Adrian II.

Nicholas I , (in Montenegrin, Nik'j-ta,) Prince of
Montenegro, (name in full NIKITA PETROVITCH NIE-
GOSH or NYEGOOSH,) was born October 7, 1841. In
1860 he succeeded his uncle Danilo. His reign has
been signalized by bloody wars with Turkey. The Con-
gress of Berlin, at the end of the Russo-Turkish war of
1876-78, more than doubled the area of his dominions.
Nicholas at that time became an absolute and indepen-
dent monarch. He has done much for popular educa-
tion, and has the reputation of being no mean poet.

Nicholas IX, POPE, (called GERARD OF BURGUNDY,)
succeeded Stephen IX. in 1059. Under his rule a
decree was passed concerning the method of electing
popes. Nicholas bestowed upon Robert Guiscard the
duchy of Apulia and Calabria as a fief of the Roman see.
He died in 1061, and was succeeded by Alexander II.

Nicholas TTT (GIOVANNI Gaetani ga-4-ta'nee)
succeeded John XXI. as pope in 1277. He obtained
from the emperor Rudolph of Germany the confirma-
tion of the Exarchate of Ravenna, and other grants of
territory, said to have been made by former emperors.
He died in 1280, and was succeeded by Martin IV.

Nicholas IV, POPE, (called JEROME OF ASCOLI,)

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 181 of 425)