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succeeded Honorius IV. in 1288. He wrote a number
of commentaries on the Scriptures. He died in 1292,
and was succeeded by Celestine V.

See J. Rossi, (RUBEUS,) " Vita Nicolai Papa; IV.," 1761.

Nicholas V. (called THOMAS OF SARZANA) succeeded
Eugenius IV. in 1447. Having persuaded Felix V., who
had been made pope by the Council of Bale in 1439, to
resign in his favour, he thus restored peace to the West-
ern Church. He was a munificent patron of learning,
and the founder of the Vatican Library. Died in 1455,
aged about fifty-seven.

as k; c as s; g hard; g as/,- G, H, Vi,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. !2^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Nicholas [in Russian, NIKOLAI PAVLOVITCH, ne-ko-
IJ'e (or ne-ko-1!') piv'lo-vitch] L, Emperor of Russia,
born at or near Saint Petersburg in July, 1796, was the
ihird son of Paul I. His mother was Mary of Wurtem-
berg. He was instructed in the languages, sciences, etc.
by the philologist Adelung and the counsellor Storch.
He learned to speak French and German fluently. In
1817 he married a daughter of Frederick William, King
of Prussia, who, on joining the Greek Church, changed
her name to Alexandra. On the death of Alexander I.,
in December, 1825, Nicholas succeeded him without op-
position from his elder brother, Constantine, who was
notoriously unfit to reign, and who had been induced by
Alexander to renounce his claim to the throne. His
accession, however, was the occasion of a dangerous
revolt among the troops of the capital, instigatecfby an
extensive conspiracy, or secret society, the design of
which was to make a radical change in the government
This revolt was not suppressed without much blood-
shed, and many nobles implicated in the conspiracy
were exiled to Siberia. This affair tended to confirm
his despotic propensities.

His reign was signalized by a number of important
wars, beginning with one against Persia in 1827,
followed by a war with Turkey in 1828-29. Both of
these added new territory to the Russian empire. In
1830 began a great insurrection of the Poles, which
it took two years to quell. The ambition of Nicholas
next led him to attempt the conquest of Circassia,
which he did not live to complete. In 1849 he joined
his armies to those of Austria to aid in the suppression
of the Hungarian patriots and the triumph of des-

Nicholas had long entertained ambitious designs
respecting Turkey, which at length involved him in a
disastrous war. In the spring of 1853 he demanded of
the Sultan the protectorate of all the Turkish subjects
who professed the Greek religion. The Sultan refused
to submit to this demand, and France and England
united to defend him against the aggressions of Russia.
Hostilities commenced in October, 1853, but Nicholas
was ill prepared for a war of such magnitude. In the
spring of 1854 the Russian army besieged Silistria with-
out success. In September the allied English and French
armies landed in the Crimea, gained decisive victories

elected a Senator from Virginia in 1799. He became
Governor of that State in 1814. Died in 1820.

Nicholas Damascenus. See DAMASCENUS,

Nicholas de Cusa. See CUSA.

Nicholas de Lyra. See LYRA.

Nicholas Paulovitch, (or Pavlovitch.) See

Ni-eh'olls, (FRANK,) a distinguished anatomist and
physician, born in London in 1699. He married in
1743 a daughter of the celebrated Dr. Mead, and on the
death of Sir Hans Sloane became physician to George
II. He wrnte several able scientific treatises, and was
a Fellow of the Royal Society. Died in 1779.

Nich'ols, (EDWARD LEAMINGTON,) educator and
scientist, was born of American parents at Leaming-
ton, England, in 1854. He studied in European
universities, was a fellow of Johns Hopkins 1879-80,
with Edison at Menlo Park 1880-81, professor of
physics and astronomy, University of Kansas, 1883-87,
and of physics at Cornell after 1887. He published
"The Elements of Physics" and other works.

Nieh'ols, (!CHABOD,) D.D., an American Unitarian
divine, born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1784.
He was the author of a treatise " On Natural Theology,"
and " Hours with the Evangelists," the latter published
after his death. He was distinguished for his mathe-
matical attainments, and was for a time vice-president
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Died
in 1859.

Nih'ol, (JOHN,) an English litterateur, born at
Islington in 1744, was a partner of William Bowyer,
the eminent printer. He became in 1778 one of the
publishers of the "Gentleman's Magazine," and was
subsequently editor of that journal for many years. He
published, besides other works, the " History and An-
tiquities of Leicestershire," (6 v Ms., 1795-1811,) and
"Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century," (8
vols., 1812-15.) Died in 1826.

Nichols, (JOHN BOWYER,) an archaeologist, a son
of the preceding, was born about 1780. He succeeded
his father in business, and edited several volumes of the
" Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth
Century." which his father commenced. Died in 1863.

Nichols or Niccols, (RICHARD,) an English poet,
Horn in London in 1584. He wrote "The Cuckow,"

English fleet gained victories in the Baltic, and threat-
ened the capital of Russia. Nicholas was overtasked by
the labours which his despotic policy imposed on him,
and before the end of the war he died, on the 2d of March
1855. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander II.

Nicholas IX, Emperor of Russia, the grandson of
Nicholas I. and son of Alexander III., was born at St.

f for Magistrates," 1610,) to which he added a
"Winter Nigh s Vision, and a p.ece on the Life of

^ U J:

Nich'olson, ALEXANDER,) a Scotch writer, born

in the Isle of ^ye > 1827. Among his produc-
""" s were manv delightful songs both m English and
Gaelic. Died in 1893.

Petersburg, May 18, 1868. While heir-apparent to the Nih'9l-S9n, (ALFRED OSBORN POPE,) an American

throne, besides the numerous complimentary military statesman and journalist, born in Williamson county,

honours bestowed upon him by foreign powers, he held Tennessee, in 1808. He has been successively editor of

the positions of commander-in-chief of all the Cossack the "Western Mercury," the "Nashville Union," and

troops, governor of the Cossacks of the Don and Koo- the " Washington Union," an organ of President Pierce,

ban, colonel of several regiments of guards, and member In '857 he was elected to the United States Senate. He

of the Council of the Empire. He ascended the thron. became chief justice of Tennessee, and died in 1876.

on the death of his father, November I, 1894. Amonc Nicholson, (EDWARD WILLIAM BYRON,) an

the leading events of his reign were the alliance n: English author, born at S^. Helier's, Jersey, in 1849,

Russia with France, the promulgation by him of ?.
project for international peace and the reduction o (
European armaments, the building of the -

rarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, after 1882.
He published " The Christ-Child and Other Poems,"
(1877,) " The Rights of an Animal," ( 1879,) " The

The Man with Two

Railway, and the extension of Russian dominion <.- : Pedigree of Jack," (1892,)

Manchuria. Souls," (1898,) etc.

Nteh'9-las, (HENRY,) a fanatic, born at Miinster or Nih'ol-89n, (HENRY ALLEYNE,) M.D., an English

I.eyden, founded about 1540 a sect called "The Family zoologist, born at Penrith, September 8, 1844. He was

of Love." He pretended that he was superior to Christ. ! educated at the Universities of Gottingen and Edinburgh,

Nieh'o-las, SAINT, honoured as the guardian and and held biological professorships in the Universities of

patron of children, school-boys, captives, merchants, and Toronto, (1871,) Durham, (1874,) Saint Andrew's, (1875,)

sailors, and of many towns and countries, was a native and Aberdeen, (1882.) He published various geological

of Patara, in Lycia, and became Bishop of Myra. He works, a "Manual of Zoology," "Manual of Palseon-

died in 340. Many curious legends illustrate his benev- tology," etc. Died in 1899.

olence and good nature. Nicholson, (JAMES.) an American naval officer, born

Ni-eh'o-las, (WILSON GARY.) nn American officer at Chestertown, Maryland, in 1737; died about 1804.

and statesman, served in the Revolutionary war, and was His brother SAMUEL attained the rank of commodore,

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon;




nd became commander of the frigate Constitution.
Died in iSn.

Nih'oi-son, (JoHN,) a British general, born in Ire-
land in 1821 or 1822. He served with distinction in the
war against the Afghans and in the campaign against
the Sikhs. In the Sepoy mutiny he commanded a
column or division, and performed an important part in
the capture of Delhi. He died of wounds received at
Delhi in September, 1857.

Nicholson, (JOSEPH SHIELD,) a British author,
born at Wrawley in 1850. In 1880 he became pro-
fessor of political economy at Edinburgh. His
writings embrace several works on economy, and
three anonymous romances, " Thoth," "Toxar," and
" A Dreamer of Dreams," (1888-90.)

Nicholson, (Wn.UAM.) See NICOLSON.

Nicholson, (WILLIAM,) an English chemist and sci-
entific writer, born in London about 1755. He published,
among other works, a " Dictionary of Chemistry," (2 vols.,
1795,) and a "Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry,
and the Arts," (5 vols., 1797-1800.) Died in 1815.

Nicholson, (WILLIAM,) a British portrait-painter,
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1784. He lived mostly
at Edinburgh, and published " Portraits of Distinguished
Living Characters of Scotland," (1818,) a series of etch-
ings. Died at Edinburgh, August 16, 1844.

Nicholson, (WILLIAM RUFUS,) D.D., an American
bishop, was born in Green county, Mississippi, January
8, 1822. He graduated at La Grange College. Alabama,
in 1840, was a Methodist clergyman in New Orleans,
1843-46, took orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church
in 1847, an d held rectorships in Cincinnati, Boston, and
Newark. In 1874 he joined the " Reformed Episcopal
Church" and became minister of a parish in Philadel-
phia. In 1876 he was made a bishop. He published
various pamphlets, controversial and expository.

Nicias, nish'e-as, or NikT-as, [Noaoc,] a celebrated
Athenian general, was the son of Niceratus, who left
him a large fortune. His moderate and cautious char-
acter and conservative principles identified him with the
aristocratic party. On the death of Pericles he became
a prominent opponent of Cleon, the democratic leader.
By prudence rather than by skill, he generally obtained
success in his earlier military operations against the
Spartans. In 426 B.C. he commanded a successful ex-
pedition against Melos, and in 425 invaded Corinth,
the army of which he defeated. Cleon, his principal
rival, having died, Nicias exerted his influence in favour
of peace, and a treaty was made between Athens and
Sparta in 421 B.C. This was called the peace of Nicias.
A long contest ensued between him and Alcihiades, the
leader of the democracy, who wished to renew the war,
and who prevailed in 415, when an expedition was sent
against Syracuse, the ally of Sparta. Nicias, Alcibiades,
and Lamachus were chosen joint commanders ; but the
second was recalled before the fleet arrived at Syracuse.
In the spring of 414 Nicias blockaded the port of Syra-
cuse, seized the heights of Epipolae, and had nearly en-
closed the city on the land side by a wall, when Gylippus,
the Spartan general, arrived. Nicias was disabled by ill
health and wished to resign, but was compelled to retain
the command. The Athenians were defeated in several
actions on land and water, and the timidity or incapacity
of Nicias caused the total loss of his large army. He
was made prisoner, and put to death in 414 or 413 B.C.

Nicias, a celebrated Greek painter, born at Athens,
flourished probably between 350 and 300 B.C. He was
a pupil of Antidotus, and is also called the most eminent
disciple of Euphranor. According to Pliny, he was em-
ployed by Praxiteles to colour or varnish marble statues,
(in iiatuis circumlinendis. ) This was probably in his
youth, before he had attained celebrity. He painted chiefly
in encaustic, and was very skilful in representing female
figures. He excelled in design and chiaroscuro. His
master-piece was a picture of the infernal regions as
described by Homer, " Necromantia Homeri," which,
says Plutarch, he refused to sell to Ptolemy of Egypt,
although he was offered the enormous price of sixty
talents. Among his other works were a " Calypso," a
'Diana," and a " Hyacinthus."

Nicias, physician to Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, pro-
j posed to Fabricius, the Roman general, to poison his
.master for a sum of money. His treachery being dis-
! closed by Fabricius, he was put to death.

Ni-coh'a-re3, [No,top^f,] an Athenian comic poet,
was a son of the poet Philonides, and a contemporary
of Aristophanes. He flourished about 375 B.C. His
works are lost.

Nic'o-clel, [ Gr. NucoicXjyo, ] King of Salamis, in
Cyprus, was a son of Evagoras I. He began to reign
j about 375 B.C. Isocrates wrote a panegyric on him.
Nicodeme. See NICODEMUS.
Nicodemo. See NICODEMUS.
Nic-o-de'mus, [Gr. N6i%/or ; Fr. NICODEME, ne'-
ko'dSm' ; It NICODEMO, ne-ko-da'mo,] a Pharisee and
ruler of the Jews.

See John iii. and xix. 39.

Nic-o-de'mus, [Fr. NICODEME, neTco'dim',] (ADAM
BURCHARD SELLY,) a Russian monk and historian,
of Danish origin. His chief work is "De Rossorum
Hierarchia," (5 vols.) Died in 1746.

Nic'ol, (ERSKINE,) a Scotch painter, born at
: Leith in 1825. He resided in Ireland for several years
after 1846, and has made that island the scene of most
of his pictures. He was elected an associate of the
Royal Academy in 1866.

Nic'ol, (WILLIAM,) a Scottish natural philosopher,
| born about 1768. He invented the polarizing prism,
and left important papers on light and kindred subjects.
Died at Edinburgh in 1851.

Nicolai, nee'ko-li', (CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH,) a cele-
brated German litterateur, born at Berlin in 1733. Having
at an early age acquired the friendship of Lessing and
Moses Mendelssohn, he published, conjointly with the
latter, the first four volumes of the " Library of Belles-
Lettres," (1758.) "The Universal German Library,"
(" Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek,") in which he was
assisted by several eminent writers, came out in 1792,
in io6vols. A continuation of this standard work was
published in 1805, making in all 162 vols. Among his
other writings may be named a " Description of Berlin
and Potsdam," " Life and Opinions of Sebaldus No-
thanker," (3 vols., 1773,) a "Tour through Germany and
Switzerland," (I2vols., 1783,) and " Anecdotes of Fred-
erick II.," (1788.) The conservative spirit of Nicolai's
criticisms, and his hostility to all innovations in German
literature, exposed him to the severe strictures of Goethe,
Schiller, and other writers of the time. Died in 1811.

Nicolai, (ERNST ANTON,) a German medical writer,
born at Sondershausen in 1722. He became professor
at Jena in 1758, and wrote numerous works. Died
in 1802.

Nicolai, ne'ko'lfe', (JEAN,) a French theologian, born
at Monza in 1594. He wrote several polemical works
against the Jansenists, and edited Thomas Aquinas,
(1663.) Died in 1673.

Nicolai, (JoHANN,) a German antiquary, born at Ilm
in 1665. He wrote numerous works on Jewish, Greek,
and Roman antiquities. Died in 1708.

Nicolai, (OTTO,) a German musician, composer, and
conductor, born at Konigsberg, June 9, 1810. He re-
! ceived his musical education in Berlin and Rome. From
! 1841 to 1847 he was first kapellmeister of the Court
I Opera at Vienna. He produced operas, of which the
! best-known are "II Templario" (1840) and "The Merry
; Wives of Windsor," (1849.) Died March u, 1849.

Nicolai, de, deh neTco'lt'e', (ANTOINE CHRETIEN,)
COMTE, a French general, born in 1712, commanded a
I corps at Rossbach, Crefeld, and Minden, (1758.) He
became a marshal of France in 1775. Died in 1777.

Nicolas, the French for NICHOLAS, which see.

Nicolas, ne'ko'la', (AUGUSTS,) a French writer and
judge, born at Bordeaux in 1807. His chief work is
" Philosophical Studies on Christianity," (4 vols., 1842-
45,) which obtained great success. Died in 1888.

Nicolas, (AUGUSTIN,) a French poet and litterateur,
born at Besancon in 1622 ; died in 1695.

Nicolas, (MICHEL,) a learned French writer and
philosopher, born at Nimes in 1810, was a Protestant

L^idiici, ttiiu a i j.jrav.iiikiiio. piiuusupin-i , wii

e as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,gutiural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^^See Explanations, p. 23.)




minister. He became professor of philosophy at Mon-
tauban about 1838. Among his numerous works are
a "Treatise on Eclecticism," (1840,) and a "Literary
History of Nimes," (1854.) He wrote many articles for
the " Nouvelle Biographic Generale." Died in 1886.

Nic'p-las, (Sir NICHOLAS HARRIS,) a distinguished
English antiquary and biographical writer, born in Corn-
wall in 1799. Among his most important works are
" Notitia Historica," or "The Chronology of History,"
(1824,) a "Life of Chaucer," and the "History of the
Battle of Agincourt." He was a Fellow of the Society
of Antiquaries. He left unfinished a " History of the
British Navy," (2 vols.) Died in 1848.

Nicolas, (PIERRE,) a French mathematician and Jes-
nit, born at Toulouse in 1663. He wrote able works
on geometry. Died in 1708.

Nicolas OF AMIENS, a French scholastic philosopher
nd writer, lived about 1180-1200.

Nicolas OF BALE, a Swiss reformer, born at Bile.
He joined a society called "Friends of God," and was
an eminent witness to the spirituality of true religion.
About 1340 he was instrumental in the conversion of
John Tauler. He went to Rome in 1377, and openly re-
buked the pope. He was burned at the stake about 1395.

See HODGSON, "Reformers and Martyrs," Philadelphia, 1867.

Nicolaus. See NICHOLAS I., Pope.

Nicolaus Damascenus. See DAMASCENUS.

Nicolaus Myrepsus. See MYREPSUS.

Nic-o-la'us Fraepositus, (pre-pos'e-tus,) surnamed
SALERNITA'NUS, a physician of the twelfth century, was
the founder of a celebrated medical school at Salerno.
His " Antidotarium" has often been confounded with
the work of Nicolaus Myrepsus on the same subject.

Nicolay, (JOHN GEORGE,) an American author,
born at Essingen, Bavaria, in 1832. He became a
printer, and subsequently a journalist in Illinois, was
private secretary to President Lincoln 1860-65, consul
at Paris 1865-69, and marshal of the United States
supreme court 1872-87. He wrote "The Outbreak
of Rebellion," and, with John Hay, " Abraham
Lincoln: A History," (10 vols.,) also with the same
author edited Lincoln's complete works.

Nicolay, nee'ko-li', (Luowic HEINRICH,) BARON, a
German poet, born at Strasburg in 1737. He was ap-
pointed, in 1769, preceptor to the grand duke Paul, after-
wards Emperor of Russia, and subsequently became
director of the Academy of Sciences at Saint Petersburg.
He was made a privy councillor in 1801. His works
consist of elegies, epistles, narrative poems, and fables.
Died in 1820.

See P. VON GBRSCHAO, "Aus dem Leben des H. L. Nicolay,"

Nicole, ne'kol', (CLAUDE,) a French poet, born at
Chartres in 1611, was a cousin-german of Pierre Nicole,
noticed below. He produced versions of the Odes of
Horace, the Elegies of Ovid, and of other classic poems.
Died in 1685.

Nicole, (FRANCOIS,) a French mathematician, born
in Paris in 1683. He wrote, besides other works, a
"Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences," (1727.)
Died in 1758.

Nicole, (PiERRE,) an eminent French theologian and
philosopher, born at Chartres in 1625. He was a promi-
nent member of the institution of Port-Royal, and an
intimate friend of Arnauld, in conjunction with whom he
wrote the treatise entitled " Perpetuity of the Faith of
the Catholic Church concerning the Eucharist," (1664.)
His most important work is a collection of treatises called
"Moral Essays and Theological Instructions," (25 vols.,
1671 et sef.) One of these, entitled "On the Means
of Preserving Peace," is styled by Voltaire " a master-
piece of its kind, to which we can find nothing equal in
antiquity." Among his other productions we may name
his "Treatise on Human Faith," (1664,) and " I,es
Imaginaires et les Visionnaires," (2 vols., 1667.) Died
in 1695.

Nicolini, ne'ko-lee'nee, the assumed name of ERNEST
Nicolas, a French vocalist, born at Tours in 1834.
After making successful appearances in opera in the
principal cities, he took professional engagements with

Madame Adelina Patti, whom he married on ner divorce
from the Marquis de Caux. Died in 1898.

Nicolini. the stage-name of NicoLlNO Grimaldi. a
famous Italian singer, born at Naples about 1673. His
voice was originally a soprano, but sank to a magnificent
contralto. After singing with great success in the prin-
cipal Italian cities, he went to England in 1708, where
he met with an enthusiastic reception. He is mentioned
in the " Spectator" in Addison's humorous attacks on
the Italian opera, and always with praise, though no man
did more than Nicolini to foster a taste for this species
of opera among the English. In 1717 he left England
and returned to Italy, but is lost sight of after 1726.

Nicolini, ne-ko-lee'nee, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian lit-
tfratfur, born at Brescia in 1788. He wrote a didactic
poem "On the Culture of Cedars," and translated the
tragedy of "Macbeth" into Italian. Died in 1855.

Nic'pll, (HENRY J.,) a Scottish author, born at Lums-
den, Aberdeenshire, about 1850. He was educated at
the Aberdeen University. He published "Great Schol-
ars," (1880.) "Great Orators," (1880,) "Thomas Car-
lyle," ( 1 880,) " Great Movements," ( 1881 ,) " Lord Byron,"
"Landmarks of English Literature," (1883,) etc. He
became a journalist of Aberdeen, and edited several
collections of poetry.

Nic'pll, (JAMES CRAIG,) an American artist, born in
New York city, November 22, 1846. He has made a
specialty of coast-views, and has been prominent in con
nection with the Water-Colour Society and the Etching
Club of New York. His best works show high ideal-
istic powers.

Nicoll (W. ROBERTSON,) a Scotch divine and
author, was bom in Aberdeenshire in 1851. After
several years of ministry in the Free Church, he be-
came editor of the " Expositor" in 1884, and founded
the " British Weekly" at London in 1886. He wrote
numerous theological works, was long engaged on
" The Victorian Era of English Literature," and was
joint editor of " Literary Anecdotes of the Nineteenth
Century," etc. He founded the " Bookman" in
1891, the "Woman at Home" in 1893, and became
editor of the "Christian Budget" in 1898.

Nicolle, ne'kol', (CHARLES DOMINIQUE,) a French
teacher and educational writer, born in the department
of Seine-Inferieure in 1758. He was appointed in 1821
rector of the Academy of Paris. Died in 1835.

Nicolle, (GABRIEL HENRI,) brother of the preceding,
was born in 1767, and became successively associate
editor of the " Journal Francais," " Courrier Universe!,"
and " L'Eclair." Died in 1829.

Nicollet, neTto'li', (JOSEPH NICOLAS,) a French as-
tronomer and explorer, born in Savoy in 1786, or, as some
Bay, about 1795. He obtained the place of secretary and
librarian of the Observatory of Paris in 1817. About
1832 he emigrated to the united States. He made a
scientific exploration of the region drained by the Mis-
souri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers. He was afterwards
employed by the government of the United States to
explore the country west of the Mississippi, of which he
produced a good map. He wrote, besides other works,
a treatise on the geology of the valley of the Upper Mis-
sissippi. Died at Washington in 1843.

Nicolls, (RICHARD,) COLONEL, an English officer,
who in 1664 compelled the Dutch Governor Stuyvesant
to surrender New Amsterdam, to which he gave the
name of New York. He was appointed first English
governor of that city. In the same year he took Fort
Orange, (or Williamstadt,) which was afterwards called
Albany, in honour of the Duke of York and Albany.

Nicolopoulo, ne'ko-lo-poo'lo, (CONSTANTINE,) a
philologist, of Greek extraction, born at Smyrna in 1786.
He became professor of Greek literature at the Athe-
naum in Paris, and was a contributor to the " Revue
encyclope'dique." Died in 1841.

Nicolosi, ne-ko-lo'see, (GiAMBATTiSTA,) a Sicilian
geographer, born at Paterno in 1610; died in 1670.

Nic'pl-son, (WILLIAM,) an English prelate, born in

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 182 of 425)