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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Cumberland in 1655, rose through various preferments
to be Archbishop of Cashel, in Ireland. He was the
author of three works, entitled "The English Historical

a, e, i, B, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, ?, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; mt; n6t; g<5&d; m<5on:




Library," (1696,) "The Scottish Historical Library,"
(1702,) and "The Irish Historical Library," (1724.)
Died in 1727.

Ni-com'a-ehus, [Gr. titxo/atxof ; Fr. NICOMAQUE,
ne'ko'mSk',} a Greek tragic poet, bom in the Troade,
wrote about 450-420 B.C., and was contemporary with
Euripides. His works are lost, except small fragments.

Nicomachus, a Greek physician of Macedonia, who
flourished about 400 B.C., was the father of Aristotle,
and was patronized by Amyntas II., King of Macedonia.

Nicomachus, a son of Aristotle, lived about 320
B.C. Little is known of his life. His mother was a
slave, named Herpyllis. Some critics have ascribed tr>
him certain ethical treatises which are generally included
among the works of Aristotle.

Nicomachus, a Greek mathematician, born at Gerasa,
in Arabia, lived probably between 50 and 150 A.D. He
was a Pythagorean. He wrote several works on arith-
metic, one of which is extant, and a Life of Pythagoras,
which is lost.

Nicomachus [NUCO/MJOC] OF THEBES, an excellent
Greek painter, was a son and pupil of the painter Aris-
todemus. He flourished about 350-300 B.C. His skill
is piaised by Cicero, who classes him with Apelles.
Among his works noticed by Pliny were " Apollo and
Diana," the "Tyndaridas," and the "Rape of Proser-
pine." He was renowned for rapidity of execution. His
brother ARISTIDES was also an eminent painter.

See CICHRO, " Brutus."

Nicomaque. See NICOMACHUS.

Nicomede. See NICOMEDES.

Nic-o-me'des [Gr. Nucop/tlf ; Fr. NICOMEDE, ne'-
ko'mjd'j I., King of Bithynia, began to reign at the
death of his father, 278 B.C. He was opposed by his
brother Zipoetes, and took into his service an army of
Gauls, by whose aid he gained the victory. He founded
the great city of Nicomedia. Died about 250 B.C.

See DROYSEN, " Hellenismus."

Nic-o-me'des n. E-piph'a-uei [Fr. NICOMEDE
EPIPHANE, ne'ko'm^d' a'pe'ftn'] was a son of Prusias
II., who sent him to Rome as a hostage. He gained
the favour of the Roman senate, and excited the jealousy
of his father, who sent an agent to assassinate him. In-
formed of this design, Nicomedes dethroned and killed
Prusias in 149 B.C. He was afterwards an ally of the
Romans. Died about 90 B.C.

See JUSTIN, books xxxiv., xxxvii., etc

Nicomedes 111., surnamed PHILOP'ATOR, was a son
of the preceding, whom he succeeded, in 91 B.C. In the
Mithridatic war, which ensued soon after, he was an ally
of Rome, but, having been defeated, he was driven from
his kingdom. Bithynia was subsequently restored to
Nicomedes, who, dying without children, (74 B.C.,) left it
to the Romans.

Nicomedes, a Greek geometer, the inventor of the
curve called the "conchoid," flourished about 100 B.C.

Ni'con [Ni/tuv] OF PERGAMUS, a Greek architect and
geometer, was the father of the celebrated Galen. Died
about 150 A.D.

Ni'con, SAINT, a monk, who preached in Armenia
about 960 A.D., and wrote a work "On the Impious Re-
ligion of the Armenians." Died about 998.

Ni-coph'a-nes, [Nuto^diTjf,] a Greek painter, who
is supposed to have lived about 300 B.C. His works are
praised by Pliny in high terms.

Nic'o-phon or Nic'o-phron, [Nwco^uv or Noc%>uv,]
an Athenian comic poet, lived about 400 B.C. Only
email fragments of his plays are extant.

Nicostrate. See NICOSTRATUS.

Ni-cos'tra-tus, [Gr. NocooTporoc; Fr. NICOSTRATE,
ne'ko'strSt',] an Athenian comic poet, was a son of
Aristophanes, and lived in the latter part of the fourth
century B.C. His works are lost.

Nicostratus, an Athenian general, commanded in
the war against the Spartans about 425 B.C. He was a
colleague of Nicias in the expedition to Chalcidice.

Nicot, ne'ko', (JEAN,) a French scholar, born at
Ntmes in 1530. By his merit and talents he acquired
the confidence of Henry II. and his successor, and was
employed as secretary of the king. On his return from

an embassy to Lisbon, about 1 560, he brought the tobicc^
plant, which was then unknown in France, and which
was named in his honour Nicotiana by the botanists.
The honour of producing the first model of a French
dictionary is ascribed to him. It was entitled " Treasure
of the French Language," (1606.) Died in 1600.
See F. HOBPBR, " Dictionnaire de Botanique pratique,'*

Nicotera, (GIOVANNI,) BARON, an Italian states-
man, born in Calabria in 1828. He took part in
various revolutionary movements, was taken prisoner
in 1857 and sent to the galleys for life, but was set
free by the revolutionists in 1860. He commanded
an expedition against Rome in 1867. In the parlia-
ment of the new kingdom of Italy he became an
eloquent leader of the extreme left. He was minister
of the interior in the first Crispi cabinet, was re-
elected to the Chamber in 1892, and died in 1894.

Nicou-Choron, ne'koo' sho'roN', (S TEPHANO Louis,)
a French composer, born in Paris in 1809. His works
are chiefly masses, oratorios, and other kinds of sacred
music. Died September 7, 1886.

Nicquet, ne'ki', (HoNORAT,) a French Jesuit and
religious writer, born at Avignon in 1585 ; died in 1667.

Nicuesa, de, da ne-kwa'sa, (DiEGO,) a Spanish ad-
venturer, born in 1464, accompanied the expedition of
Amerigo Vespucci to the Gulf of Urata in 1501.

Nidda, von, fon nid'da, ( FRIEDRICH ALBRECHT
FRANZ KRUG,) a German poet, born near Querfurt in
1776. He wrote tales, ballads, etc. Died in 1841.

Nider, Nieder, or Nyder, nee'der, (JOHANNES,) a
German theologian, was appointed by the Council of
Bale (i 53 1) to labour for the conversion of the Hussites
Having tried argument without success, he resorted to
violent persecution, and was responsible for the death
of thousands. Died about 1440.

Nid'hogg (NiShoggr) or Nidhoger, [from nid,
"malignity," and hoggva, to "hew" or "cut,"] in the
Norse mythology, the name of a dragon or serpent which
dwells in the fountain of Hvergelmir, (or Vergelmir,)
in Niflheim, and continually gnaws at the root of the
life-tree Yggdrasil. From Hvergelmir flow the rivers
of Hell. (See HELA.) According to some writers, Nid-
hogg typifies the original evil principle which forms an
element in the creed of so many of the Indo-Gennanic

Niebelungen-Lied. See SIEGFRIED.

Niebuhr, nee'booR, (BARTHOLD GEORG,) a cele-
brated German historian and critic, born at Copenhagen
on the 27th of August, 1776, was the son of Carstens Nie-
buhr, noticed below. He had a great facility for learning
languages, and he read the works of Shakspeare in the
original about the age of seven. In 1794 he entered
:he University of Kiel, where he profoundly studied
Roman law, history, philosophy, and ancient languages.
He was appointed secretary to Count Schimmelmann,
minister of finance at Copenhagen, in 1796, made a tour
n Great Britain in 1798, and became an assessor in the
council of commerce at Copenhagen in 1800. In the
ast-named year he married Amalie Behrens. In 1806
ic passed into the service of Prussia, as joint director of
commerce, and in 1809 he became privy councillor and
member of the commission of finances at Berlin. Al-
though he performed these various functions with much
ability and success, he soon retired from political life,
and in 1810 was chosen professor of history in the Uni-
versity of Berlin. His lectures on Roman history, pub-
ished in 1811-12, announced the important discoveries
and original ideas which have effected a great revolution
in the principles of Roman history, and constitute his
chief title to durable celebrity.

During the war of liberation (1813) he attended the
lead-quarters of the allies, and was employed in nego-
tiating loans. In 1816 he went as Prussian ambassador
to Rome, where he remained until 1822 and pursued
with ardour his researches in the history of ancient
Rome and the study of philology. He became a resident
of Bonn in 1823, and in 1825 opened there a course of
ectures on history and Roman antiquities. In 1827 he
published the first volume of a revised edition of his
"History of Rome," ("Romische Geschichte,") which

as k; 9 as j; g hard; g as/; G, H, Yi.guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( J=See Explanations, p. 23.)




is considered the most original and profound work on
ancient history that any modern has produced. The third
and last volume appeared in 1832. The author died at
Bonn in January, 1831, leaving a son, Marcus, who held
a high position in the Prussian civil service. Niebuhi
had refused several titles of nobility. His character was
eminently truthful, upright, and generous. He had
noble features, and a graceful facility of elocution. His
attainments as a critic and philologist were of the highest
order.* He spoke all the languages of Europe, and was
master of the Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, and Psrsian.
Among his principal works are an edition of the
Byzantine Historians, (1828,) "Short Historical and
Philological Treatises," (1828,) "Lectures on Ancient
Ethnography and Geography," and " Lectures on An-
cient History." In 1838 appeared an interesting col-
lection of his Letters, with memoirs of his life, edited
by Madame Hensler, (" Lebensnachrichten u'ber B. G.
Niebuhr," etc., 3 vols.) His reputation as a historian
continued to increase after his death, though several of
his positions are controverted by eminent critics. He
rejected as fabulous many stories which other historians
had credited, and aimed to construct a fabric of rational
probability out of the confused mass of traditions, con-
jectures, and mythical legends. " He would have been
the first writer of his time," says Macaulay, "if his talent
for communicating truths had borne any proportion to
his talent for investigating them." (Preface to "Lays
of Ancient Rome.")

See " The Life and Letters of B. G. Niebuhr, with Essays on hit
Character and Influence," by CHEVALIER BUNSEN, London, 2 vols.,
1852 ; FRANCIS LIBBER, " Reminiscences of B. G. Niebuhr," 1835 ;
" Edinburgh Review" for January, 1833, and July, 1852 : " Quar-
terly Review," article on " Early Roman History," vol. xxvu. and vol.
Txxii , (by ARNOLD "Westminster Review" for May. 1843; "Quar-
terly Review" for September, 1840; "Foreign Quarterly Review"
for June, 1828. and July, iSn; " Eraser's Magazine" for July and
December, 1852; "North American Review" for April. 1823, (by
EDWARD EVERETT:) "North British Review" for August, .852;
"Westminster Review" fnr December, 1*43. (by G. H. LEWES.)

Niebuhr, (CARSTENS or KARSTENS,) a German trav-
eller of distinguished talent and energy, was born at
Ludingworth, in Hanover, in 1733. He entered the
Danish service as lieutenant-engineer in 1760, and was
appointed by Frederick V. in 1761 to accompany a sci-
entific expedition to Arabia. Soon after their arrival at
Mocha, Von Haven, one of the company, died, and within
a year Niebuhr had the misfortune to lose his three re-
maining companions. He now adopted the diet of the
Arabians, and his health, which had previously suffered,
continued good during the rest of his journey. He spent
six years in the country, taking upon himself all the
labours of the mission, and in 1767 returned to Den-
mark. His "Description of Arabia" came out in 1772.
The accuracy, research, and freedom from exaggeration
which characterize this production have caused it to be
regarded as a standard work. In 1778 he brought out
"Travels in Arabia and the Surrounding Countries."
In addition to the above, he edited and published
the "Flora Egyptiaco-Arabica," and "Descriptions of
Animals" by Forskll, the naturalist of the expedition.
Niebuhr was a councillor of state, and a member of
the Academy of Sciences at Paris. Died in 1815.

See B. G. NIEBUHR, " Leben Carstens Niebuhr's," 1817;
"Monthly Review," vol. liii., 1776, (Appendix,)

Niebuhr, von, fon nee'booR, (MARCUS,) a son of
Barthold G. Niebuhr, was born at Rome about 1817.

* It is interesting to know that he who was perhaps the most
thorough and searching of all historical critics, and whose intellect,
as he tells us himself, "early took a skeptical direction," felt himself
nevertheless obliged to accept the Gospel narratives as true history
in all essential points. He says. " He whose earthly life and sorrows
were depicted had for me a perfectly real existence, and His whole
history had the same reality even if it were nnt related with literal
exactness in any single point. Hence, also, the fundamental fact of
miracles, which, according to my conviction, must be conceded, un-
less we adopt the not merely incomprehensible, but absurd, hypothesis
that the Holiest was a deceiver and Hi* di^ipV* either dupes or liars,
and that deceivers had preached a holy religion, in which self-renun-
ciation is everything, and in which there is nothing tending Inwards
the erection of a priestly rule. nothing that can be acceptable to
vicious inclinations. As regards a miracle in the strictest sense, it
really only requires an unprejudiced and penetrating study of nature
to see that those related are as far as possible from absurdity, and a
Comparison with legends, or the pretended miracles of other religions,
lo perceive by what a different spirit they are animated." (Niebuhr's
" Letters," vol. i. p. 340, Letter 148.)

He was carefully educated by his father, who declared
his determination that he should believe in the letter of
the Old and New Testament, and said, " I shall nurture
in him from his infancy a firm faith in all I have lost or
feel uncertain about" He obtained several high offices
in the Prussian government. He was opposed to the
Liberal party in politics. Died in 1860.

Niederer, nee'deh-rer, (JEAN,) a Swiss teacher, born
at Appenzell in 1778, published a treatise on the system
of Pestalozzi. Died in 1843.

Niedermeyer, nee'der-mi'er, (Louis,) a Swiss com-
poser and musician, born in the canton de Vaud in 1802.
Among his works are the opera of " La Fronde," and a
number of songs and religious pieces. Died in 1861.

See " Nouvelle Biographic G^n^rale."

Niel, ne-81', (ADOLPHE,) a French marshal, born at
Muret (Haute-Garonne) in 1802. He served in the
expedition to Rome in 1848, and became a general of
brigade in 1849, and general of division in 1853. As
general of engineers, he directed with success the opera-
tions at the siege of Bomarsund, in 1854. In May, 1855,
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the engineers
and artillery at Sebastopol. He commanded a corps at
the battles of Magenta and Solferino, June, 1859. For
his services at Solferino he was raised to the rank ot
marshal of France. He became minister of war in Feb-
ruary, 1867, and showed himself an able administrator.
Died in August, 1869.

Nield,neeld, (JAMES,) an English philanthropist, born
in Cheshire in 1744. He devoted much time to the cause
of prison-reform. Died in 1814.

Nielly, ne'4'le', JOSEPH MARIE,) BARON, a French
naval officer, born at Brest in 1751, served against the
English in several campaigns, and became vice-adniiral
in 1815. Died in 1833.

Nielson. neel'son, (JULIA,) an English actress,
was born at London in 1868. Her first appearance on
the stage was made in 1888. She toured widely in
Great Britain and the United States, her greatest suc-
cess being as Rosalind in "As You Like It." She
married Fred Terry, a well-known actor.

Niem, neem, (THIERRY,) a German historian, borr
near Paderborn, became Bishop of Cambray in 1396
He wrote the " Lives of the Roman Pontiffs," and othei
historical works, in Latin. Died about 1417.

Niemann, nee'man, ( A LBERT,) a German tenor-singer,
born at Erxleben in 1831. He has won a good reputa-
tion in Germany, but has only once sung outside of his
native country, on the occasion of the unsuccessful pro-
duction of "Tannhauser" in Paris in 1861.

a Danish publicist and writer on political economy, born
at Altona in 1761 ; died in 1832.

Niemann, nee'man, (JoHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German
physician, born in Anhalt-Dessau in 1764, was the author
of several medical works. Died in 1846.

Niemcewicz, ne-em-tsa'vitch, (JULIAN URSIN,) a
celebrated Polish statesman, historian, and poet, born
in Lithuania in 1757. Being appointed a deputy to the
Constitutional Diet, he had the principal share in drawing
up the " Constitution of the 3d of May," 1791, and about
the same time became one of the editors of a populai
journal called " Gazeta Narodowa." After the battle of
Maciejowice, he was made prisoner with Kosciusko and
confined in the fortress of Saint Petersburg, from which
they were released on the accession of Paul, in 1796
He accompanied Kosciusko to America in 1797, and in
1800 married Mrs. Livingston Kean, a lady of New York.
He returned to Europe on the entrance of Napoleon
into Poland, and when that country was united with
Russia he was appointed by the emperor Alexander
president of the committee of the constitution, and per-
petual secretary of the senate. A short time previous
to the fall uf Warsaw he visited England, and then went
to Paris, where he died in 1841. His principal works
are " Historical Songs of Poland," " History of the Reign
ofSigismund III.," "Memoirs towards the Ancient His-
tory "of Poland," and "John of Tenczyn," a romance.
He also wrote several dramas, which were successful,
and made some translations from the English poets.
See BHOCKHAUS, "Conversations- Lexikon."

i. e, 1. 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fall, lit; met; not; good; moon;




Niemeyer, nee'nri'er, (AUGUST HERMANN,) a Gei
man theologian, born at Halle in 1754. He was ap-
pointed in 1799 director of the charitable institutions
founded by A. H. Francke, and became in 1808 chan-
cellor and perpetual rector of the University of Halle.
He wrote educational and religious works in prose and
verse, and was highly esteemed for his virtue and learn-
ing. Died in 1828. '

Niemojowski, ne-Sm-o-yov'skee, (JOSEPH,) a Polish
patriot, born about 1760, was appointed general of the
palatinate of Posnania. He was killed at the battle of
Polotzk, in 1813.

Niemojowski, (VINCENT,) born near Kalisch in
1784, distinguished himself by his zeal in the cause of
Poland, and held for a time the post of minister of the
interior at Warsaw. Died in 1834.

Niepce, ne-Sps', (JOSEPH NICEPHORE,) a French
chemist and inventor of photography, born at ChSlons-
sur-Saone in 1765. He served in the army in 1792-
95. About 1814 he began his researches on the action
of light on prepared surfaces. In 1822 he obtained
copies of engravings from polished metallic plates cov-
ered with a bituminous varnish. He gave the name of
Hiliographit to this art. He formed a partnership with
Daguerre in 1829. It is stated that Niepce was the
first to fix permanently images formed by the camera.
Died in 1833.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Niepce de Saint- Victor, ne-Sps' deh saN' vek'toR',
(CLAUDE FELIX ABEL,) a French chemist and pho-
tographer, a nephew of the preceding, was born near
ChSlons-sur-Saone in 1805. He entered the army, in
which he gained the rank of captain. Having applied
himself to the task of perfecting the invention of his
uncle, he announced in 1847 to the Academy of Sci-
ences an important discovery of a method of obtaining
images on glass prepared with starch or albumen. He
also invented a process of heliographic engraving on
metal covered with a varnish which consists chiefly of
benzine. In 1854 he was appointed commandant of the
Louvre. He explained his discoveries in numerous
memoirs, which he published collectively under the
title of " Photographic Researches," (1855.) Died in
April, 1870.

See a " Memoir of Niepce de Saint-Victor." prefixed to the work
just named, by M. E. LACAN: "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"nerale;"
' British Quarterly Review" for July and October, 1866.

Nieremberg, nee'rem-b?Rg / , [Lat. NIEREMBER'GIUS,
(JoHANN EUSEBIUS,) a learned Spanish Jesuit, of Ger-
man extraction, born at Madrid about 1590. He was
the author of numerous theological and miscellaneous
works, in Latin and Spanish ; among the principal of
these is his " Historia Naturae maxime peregrinae,"
(1635,) being an account of the natural history of the
Indies. Died in 1658.

Nlethammer, neet'hlm'mer, (FRIEDRICH IMMA-
NUEL,) a German philosopher, born at Beilstein, in
Wurtemberg, in 1766. He was associated with Fichte
as editor of the " Philosophisches Journal" at Jena.
Died in 1846.

Nieto, ne-a'to, (DAVID,) a learned Jewish rabbi, born
at Venice in 1654 ; died in 1728.

Nieto. ne-a'to. (Don VINCENTE,) a Spanish general,
born in 1769, fought on the side of the royalists in the
civil war of 1810 in South America. Having been made
prisoner by the patriot General Balcarca in Upper Peru,
he was shot by his order in 1810.

Nietzsche, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a German
philosopher, born in Saxony in 1844. He studied at
Bonn and Leipsic, and won distinction by works on
the origin of tragedy, etc. In 1878 he began a long
series of works in which he developed a revolutionary
philosophy, denouncing all religion and sustaining the
principle of a pitiless struggle for existence. He be-
came insane and was sent to an asylum in 1895. Died
September 25, 1900.

Nieuhoff; noi'hof, ( JOHANN,) a German traveller, born
in Westphalia in 1630, visited China and Batavia, and
published in 1666 an account of his journey, (in Dutch,)
which was verv popular at the time and was translated

into Latin and several other languages. Having s^no
ashore at Madagascar in 1672, he was lost, killed, or
disappeared mysteriously.

See MACARTNEY, "Travels in India, China," etc.

Nieulant, ne-uh'lant, (WlLLEM,) a skilful Flemish
painter and engraver, born in 1584, studied at Rome.
Among his works are engravings of Italian landscapes.
Died in 1635.

Nieupoort,ne-uh'poRt,( WILLEM HENDRlK,)aDutch
historian and jurist, born about 1670, became professor
of law at Utrecht. Died about 1730.

Nieuport, de, deh ne-uh'poR', (CHARLES FRANCOM
guished mathematician, born in Paris in 1746, was ap-
pointed in 1816 director of the Academy of Brusselt.
He died in 1827, leaving numerous mathematical works.

Nieuwelandt, ne-uw'eh-lant', or Nieulandt, ne-
uh'lant, (ADRIAN,) a Flemish painter, was a native of
Antwerp. His works are chiefly landscapes and sea-
views. Died in 1601.

Nieuwelandt, (JAN,) son of the preceding, was bori>
at Antwerp in 1579. He studied painting under his
father, and produced a number of landscapes of superio'

See DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc

Nieuwelandt, van den, vin den ne-uw'eh-lant,
(WlLLEM,) a Flemish artist and dramatic writer, born at
Antwerp in 1584, was a son of Adrian, noticed above,
He painted architectural pieces of great merit, and
was also a skilful engraver. He was the author of a
popular tragedy, entitled "Nero," and of other works.
Died in 1635.

See DESCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc.

Nieuwentyt, ne-uh'wen-tlt', (BERNARD,) a Dutch
writer and mathematician, born in North Holland in
1654, became burgomaster of Purmerend. He wrote
treatises against the differential calculus, and a popular
work entitled "The Right Use of the Contemplation of
the World," (" Het regt Gebruik der Wereltbeschou-
ingen," 1715,) which was translated into several lan-
guages. Died in 1718.

See NICERON, " Me"moires."

Nieuwerkerke, de, deh ne-uh'wer-ke'R'keh, (AL-
FRED EMILIEN,) COMTE, a French sculptor, of Dutch
extraction, born in Paris in 1811. He executed numer-
ous busts and statues, among which are those of Des-
cartes and Isabella the Catholic. Died in 1892.

Nieuwland, ne-uh'lant, (PiETER,) a Dutch poet and
savant, born near Amsterdam in 1764. He displayed in
youth great precocity and aptitude fur learning languages
and sciences. He wrote several able scientific treatises,
and poems of great beauty, one of which is entitled
"Orion." In 1793 he became professor of natural phi-
losophy, astronomy, and mathematics at Leyden. Died
in November, 1794.

See P. MICHELL, "Jets ter Nagedachtenis van P. Nieuwland,"
1794 ; J. H. VAN SWINDHN, " Lykrcde op P. Nieuwland," 1795 ; C.
L. BRIGHTWELL, "Annals of Industry and Genius," London, 1863.

Nifanius, ne-fa'ne-us, (CHRISTIAN,) a German theo-
logian, born at Lelingen in 1639 ; died in 1689.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 183 of 425)