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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Niflheim. See HELA.

Nifo, nee'fo, [Lat. NI'PHUS,] (AcoSTiNO,) an Italian
scholar and philosopher, born in Calabria about 1473,
published several Latin treatises and commentaries oil
Aristotle. He was patronized by Leo X., and was a
professor at Rome and Naples. Died about 1538.

See GINGUENE, " Histoire Litte'raire d'ltalie."

Nigel, nl'jel, ? an ecclesiastic, born in Normandy, be-
came treasurer to Henry I. of England, who subsequently
created him Bishop of Ely. Died in 1169.

Ni'ger, (CAius PESCENMUS,) a Roman commander,
and governor of Syria. On the death of Prtinax, 193
A.D., he became a competitor for the empire, vith Sep-
timius Severus and Clodius Albinus for his rivals. After
his army had been several times defeated by the former
in Asia Minor, he was made prisoner and put to death
in 194 A.D.

See TILLEMONT, " Histoire des Empereurs,"

Nigetti, ne-jet'tee, (MATTEO,) an Italian architect and
sculptor, born at Florence about 1560; died in 1646.



e as i; c. as .f , g hard; g as^V G, H, V., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sas z: th as \nthis. iJjg^See Explanations, p. 23.1



NIGHTINGALE



1824



NINUS



Night'in-gale, (Miss FLORENCE,) a lady celebrated
for her philanthropy, the daughter of William E. Night-
ingale, of Derbyshire, England, was born at Florence
in 1820. From her childhood she took a deep interest
in schemes of benevolence, and, after having visited the
hospitals and other similar establishments of England,
he went to Germany, with the view of inspecting the
institution at Kaiserswerth, founded in 1833 by Fliedner.
In 1849 she entered Kaiserswerth, in order to qualify
herself as a hospital nurse in the training-school which
forms a part of tbjat establishment The Crimean war
having broken out soon after her return to England,
Miss Nightingale, accompanied by a number of volun-
tary nurses, set out in 1854 for the East, where, in the
military hospitals at Scutari, they devoted themselves to
the care of the sick and wounded soldiers. In 1856 she
returned to England, where the queen conferred upon her
various distinctions in acknowledgment of her eminent
services. She published a pamphlet on "The Institu-
tion at Kaiserswerth," (1850,) " Notes on Hospitals,"
(1859,) "Notes on Nursing," (1860,) "Observations on
the Sanitary State of the Army in India," (1863,) " Notes
on Lying-in Institutions," (1871,) and " Life or Death in
India," (1874.) A testimonial fund of 72,000 being
subscribed for her, she usecfit to found training-schools
for nurses at St. Thomas's and King's College Hos-
pitals, from which schools some twenty-five thousand
nurses have graduated.

Nightingale, (JOSEPH,) an English dissenting divine,
born in Lancashire in 1775. He wrote, among other
works, "A Portraiture of Catholicism," and "English
Topography." Died in 1824.

Night'iri-gail, (Sir MILES,) K.C.B., an English officer,
served under Sir William Meadows in India in 1791-92,
and was subsequently engaged in the continental war.
About 1820 he became a member of Parliament for Suf-
folk. Died in 1829.

Nigidiua. See FIGULUS.

Nihus, nee'us, (BARTHOLD,) a German Catholic theo-
logian, born in the duchy of Brunswick in 1589, wrote a
number of controversial treatises. Died in 1657.

Nike. See NICE.

Nikitin, ne-ke-tin' or ne-ke-teen', (ATHANASIUS,) a
Russian traveller, who visited Persia and Hindustan,
and wrote an account of those countries, which was dis-
covered and published by Karamzin. Died in 1472.

See GRKTCH, " Essai historiqne sur la Litterature Russe "

Nikolai, neeTco-li, (!ZAAK,) a Dutch painter, born at
Leyden in 1536. He died in 1619, leaving three sons,
all of whom were artists.

See DKSCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc

Nikolaus, the German for NICHOLAS, which see.

Nikon or Nicon, nee'kon, a Russian scholar and
theologian, born near Novogorod in 1605. He was ap-
pointed Patriarch of Russia in 1652 ; but he afterwards
lost favour at court, and was deposed. He rendered
great services to Russian literature by correcting the
Slavonian ecclesiastical works from the Greek originals ;
and he is believed to have compiled the " Russian
Chronicles," published by the Academy of Sciences at
Saint Petersburg, (1792.) Died in 1681.

See IVAN CHOUCHERIN. "Vie du Patriarche Nikon," 1817
APOLLOS, " Vie du Palriarche Nikon," 1839.

Nil, SAINT, an ecclesiastic of the fifth century, be-
longed to a noble family of Constantinople. He was
author of numerous theological works, only a part of
which are extant.

Nilakantha, a surname of SIVA, (which see.)

Niles, nilz, (HEZEKIAH,) an American journalist, and
founder of the " Register" called by his name, which
he edited for twenty-five years at Baltimore, was born
about 1777; died in 1839.

Niles, (JOHN MILTON,) an American journalist and
statesman, born at Windsor, Connecticut, in 1787. He
became editor in 1817 of the "Hartford Times," a
Democratic journal, and in 1840 was appointed post-
master-general by President Van Buren. He was elected
to the United States Senate in 1842. He wrote the
"Lives of Perry, Lawrence, Pike, and Harrison," "His-



tory of South America and Mexico," etc., and othei
works. Died in 1856.

Niles, (NATHANIEL,) an American divine and inventor,
born at South Kingston, Rhode Island, in 1741, was a
member of Congress from Vermont in 1791. He was
the author of religious and miscellaneous works, and
wrote a popular war-song, called "The American Hero."
Died in 1828.

Niles, (SAMUEL,) an American divine, born at Brain-
tree, Massachusetts, in 1744. He graduated at Prince-
ton College, and subsequently became minister of Abing-
ton, Massachusetts. Died in 1814.

Niles, (WILLIAM WOODRUFF,) D.D., an American
bishop, born in Hatley, Lower Canada, May 24, 1832,
graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, in 1857, and at
Berkeley Divinity School in 1861, was ordained a priest
of the Episcopal Church in 1862, was professor of Latin
in Trinity College, 1864-70, and in 1870 was consecrated
Bishop of New Hampshire.

Ni'leus or Neleus, [NcOcvf,] a Greek physician of
uncertain epoch, probably lived before 200 B.C. Ht
invented a machine for the reduction of dislocations.

Nilson, nll'son, QOHANN ESAIAS,) a German paintei
and engraver, born at Augsburg in 1721 ; died in 1788.

Nilson, nJl'son, or Nilsson, (SVEN,) an eminenl
Swedish naturalist and physician, born near Landskrona
in 1787. Among his principal works are his "Swedish
Ornithology," (" Ornithologia Suecica,") "Scandinavian
Fauna," (" Skandinavisk Fauna," 1820,) and an antiqua-
rian treatise " On the Primitive Inhabitants of Northern
Scandinavia," (1838.) Died November 30, 1883.

Nil'sson, (CHRISTINE,) a Swedish singer, born near
Wexio, August 3, 1843. She very early gave proof of
vocal talent, and was carefully educated at Halmstad,
Stockholm, and Paris. Her appearance as Astrifia-
menti, in "The Magic Flute," in 1865, was marvel-
lously successful, ana subsequently she sang with great
success throughout Europe and America. She was
married in 1872 to Auguste Rouzaud, who died in
1882, and in 1887 she married the Count de Miranda.

Nina, nee'na, a Sicilian poetess of the latter part ot
the thirteenth century.

Nina, nee'nJ, (LORENZO,) an Italian cardinal, born at
Recanati, May 12, 1812, became a doctor of theology at
Rome, was made a priest in 1835, and became an attache
and adviser in the papal court In 1877 he was created
a cardinal-priest, and was made prefect of the Council by
Leo XIII., and also prefect of the Congregation of Ec-
clesiastical Immunity. He conducted delicate negotia-
tions with various governments, as with Russia, Ger-
many, and Belgium, and held the office of papal secretary
of state. Died June 27, 1885.

Niude, nind, (WILLIAM XAVIER,) D.D., a Methodist
bishop, born in Cortlandville, New York, in 1832. He
graduated at Wesleyan University in 1855, and in 1856
became a preacher. In 1873 he was appointed professor
of practical theology in the Biblical Institute at Evanston,
Illinois, and in 1879 became its president. In 1884 he
was elected a bishop.

Nin'i-an, [Lat. NINIA'NUS, or NYN'IAS,] SAINT, a
British bishop, who converted the Picts living south of
the Grampians. He lived probably in the fourth and
fifth centuries, and is said to have died in Ireland.

Ninnin, ne'nan', (HENRI,) born at Poix, in Cham-
pagne, in 1722, was one of the physicians of Louis XV.
He published a translation of the medical works of
Celsus, (2 vols., 1753.) Died in 1800.

Nino, nen'yo, (ANDRES,) a Spanish navigator, born
about 1475, made a voyage to the Moluccas in 1522.

Nino, (PEDRO ALONZO,) a Spanish navigator, sur-
named EL NEGRO, (" the Black,") born in Andalusia in
1468, was one of the companions of Columbus in his
third voyage. He afterwards sailed as commander of a
caravel, and made several discoveries on and near the
South American coast Died about 1505.

See IRVING, " Life of Columbus."

Nino de Guevara. See GUEVARA, DE.
Ninon. See L'ENCLOS, DE.

Ni'nus, [Gr. Nivoc,] a celebrated ruler of antiquity,
said to have been the founder of the Assyrian monarchy,



i. e, !, a, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, J, short; a, ?, j, p, obscure; far, fall, fit; mjt; not; good; mS6f>



NIOBE



1825



NIXON



flourished about 2048 B.C. After having conquered the
greater part of Asia, he built the city of Nineveh, and at
his death left his kingdom to his warlike queen SEMI-
RAMIS, (which see.)

Ni'p-be, [Gr. N(o/3i?; Fr. NIOBK, neVbi',] a person-
age of classic mythology, said to have been a daughter
of Tantalus, (or, according to some authorities, of Pe-
lops,) and the wife of Amphi'on. She was celebrated
for her numerous and beautiful offspring, and had seven
sons and seven daughters, or, according to some ac-
counts, six of each. The poets relate that she was so
proud of her children that she claimed superiority over
Latona, (Leto,) who had borne onlv two. Apollo and
Diana, (Artemis,) exasperated by her arrogance, slew
all her children. The sons are said to have fallen by
the arrows of Apollo, the daughters by those of Diana.
Nrobe was changed into a stone by her excessive grief.
Her story was a favourite subject of the ancient poets,
and has been commemorated by an admirable group
of statuary, which is now at Florence, and which is
variously ascribed to Praxiteles and Scopas. (See the
" Iliad," book xxiv.)

Niou, ne'oo', (JOSEPH,) a French revolutionist, born
at Rochefort in 1751, was elected to the National Con
vention in 1792, and voted for the death of the king
Died in 1828.

Niphus. See NIFO.

Nisami. See NIZAMEE.

Nisard, ne'zJR', (JEAN MARIE NAPOLEON DESIRE,)
a French critic and litterateur, born at Chatillon-sur-
Seine in 1806. He became associate editor of the
"Journal des Debats" and of "Le National," (1831,)
and was subsequently appointed master of requests in
the council of state, and professor of Latin eloquence in
the College of France, (1844.) He was elected in 1850
to the French Academy, and in 1852 succeeded M. Vil-
lemain in the chair of French eloquence in the Faculty
of Letters. He wrote a number of works on the his-
tory and criticism of literature, the most esteemed of
which is his " History of French Literature," (1844-
61.) Died in 1888. His brother, JEAN MARIE,
(1809-92,) translated Virgil and Horace's "Art of
Poetry."

Nisard, (MARIE LEONARD CHARLES,) brother of the
preceding, was born at Chatillon-sur-Seine in 1808. He
published several original works, and made translations
from Ovid, Martial, and other Latin classics. Among
his works are " Les Ennemis de Voltaire," (1853,) a
" History of Popular Books since the Fifteenth Century,"
(2 vols., 1854,) and " Les Gladiateurs de la Republique
des Lettres au quinzieme, seizieme et dix-septieme Sie
cles," (1860.) Died in 1889.

Nis'bet, (HUME,) traveller and author, was born
at Stirling, Scotland, in 1849. He travelled for years
in Australia and New Guinea, was art-master in Watt
College, Edinburgh, and wrote a number of books on
art, several volumes of poetry, and numerous romances,
also " Egypt," "Travels," " A Colonial Tramp," etc.

Nisroch, nis'rok, or Shal'man, an Assyrian deity,
formed like a man, with wings and with an eagle's
head. He seems to have been the god of wedlock
and of human destiny.

Nis'sel, (FRANZ,) an Austrian dramatist, born at
Vienna in 1831. Of his many plays the most suc-
cessful was " Zauberin am Stein." His style was
grandiose, but his plays possessed much real merit.
A selection of them was published in 1892. Died in
1893.

Nissole, ne'sol', (GUILLAUME,) a French botanist,
bom at Montpellier in 1647. The genus Nissolia was
named in his honour by TourneforL Died in 1734.

Ni'sus, [Gr. Nioof,] in classic mythology, a son of
Pandi'en, and a king of Megara. The poets relate that
Megara was taken by Minos through the treachery
of Scylla, a daughter of Nisus, who died because she
cut off the purple or golden hair on which his life de-
pended.

Nisus, a Trojan warrior and friend of Euryalus, came
to Italy with ^Eneas, and was killed in the war against



Turnus. The story of Nisus and Euryalus forms th
subject of a beautiful episode of Virgil's "^neid,"book
ix., 175-448.

Nithard, ne'tiR', a French historian, born in 790 A.D.,
was the son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charle-
magne. His principal work is a " History of the Dis-
sensions between the Sons of Louis le Debonnaire," (in
Latin.) Died in 853.

See " Histoire lilte"raire de la France," vol. v.

Ni-to'cris, [Gr. Niru/tpif,] a queen of ancient Egypt,
lived before the time of Herodotus, who says she wa
the only female in a list of three hundred and thirty mon-
archs which the Egyptian priests showed to him. She
was celebrated as a heroine in the legends of ancien*

Egypt-
See BUNSEN, " JEgyptens Stelle in der Wehgeschichte."

Nitsch, nltsh, (PAUL FRIEDRICH,) a German arch-
ologist, born at Glauchau in 1754, published a "New
Mythological Dictionary," (1793,) and other learned
works. Died in 1794.

Nitzsch, nltsh, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST BERTHOLD,)
German Protestant theologian, born at Bonn, February
19, 1832. In 1868 he became divinity professor at Gies-
sen. He wrote "The System of Boethius," "Outlines
of the History of Christian Dogma," (1870 et set/.,) etc.

Nitzsch or Nitzch, n!tsh, (GREGOR WILHELM,) a
German philologist and antiquary, born at Wittenberg
in 1790, was a son of Karl Ludwig, noticed below. Ho
became professor of ancient literature at Kiel in 1827,
and professor of archaeology at Leipsic in 1852. He
gained distinction by his speculations on the Homeric
poems. Among his works is " The Epic Poetry of the
Greeks," (2 vols., 1852.) Died in 1861.

Nitzsch, (KARL IMMANUEL,) a German theologian, a
brother of the preceding, was born at Borna, in Saxony,
in 1787. He became professor of theology at Bonn in
1822, and obtained the high office of Obercmsiiterial-
rath in 1843. In 1847 he was appointed preacher to
the University of Berlin. His opinions were liberal.
Died August 21, 1868. His chief works are a "System
der christlichen Lehre" and " Praktische Theologie."

Nitzsch, (KARL LUDWIG,) a German theologian, born
at Wittenberg in 1751, was the father of the preceding.
He was appointed professor of theology at the Univer-
sity of Wittenberg about 1790. He wrote, besides other
works, "On the Salvation of the World," ("Ueber das
Heil der Welt," 1817.) He favoured a compromise or
reconcilement between orthodoxy and rationalism. Died
in 1831.

See HOPPH, " Denkmal des verewigten K. L. Nittsch," 1837.

Nitzsch, (KARL WILHELM,) a German historian, a
son of Gregor Wilhelm Nitzsch, was born at Zerbst,
December 22, 1818. He graduated at Kiel in 1844, in
1858 was called to be professor there, and in 1862 re-
ceived a professorship at Konigsberg. He wrote works
on various periods of Greek, Roman, and German his-
tory. Died in Berlin, June 20, 1880.

XTivelle, ne'vSl', (GABRIEL NICOLAS,) a French Tan-
senist, born in 1687, was the author of " The Cry of the
Faith," and " The Constitution Unigenitus submitted to
the Universal Church." Died in 1761.

Nivelle de la Chaussee. See CHAUSSKE, HE LA.

Nivernais, de, deh ne'vSR'nJ', (Louis JULES Bar-
bon Manciui Mazarini bSu'boN' mox'se'ne' m?-
zS're'ne',) Due, a distinguished French litterateur and
diplomatist, born in Paris in 1716. He was employed
in several important missions, and in 1763 negotiated
the treaty between England and France. He made
translations from the Latin, English, and Italian, and
wrote a number of fables, which are highly esteemed.
He was a member of the French Academy. Did in
1798.

See SAINTE-BEUVE," Causeries du Lundi ;" f. DB NUPCHATKAO.
" Clogedu Ducde Nivernais," prefixed to his "CEurres posthumes, 1
1807 ; ANDRS DUFIN, " filoge du Due de Nivemow," 1840.

Nivers, ne'vaiR', (GUILLAUME GABRIEL,) a French
musician and writer on music, born near Melun in 1617.

NLx'pn, (JOHN,) an American general of the Revo-
lution, born at Framingham, Massachusetts, in 1725.
He distinguished himself at the battles of Ticonderoga,



eas k; 9 as*; g hard; g as/; G, H,K.,guttural; a, nasal; R, trilled; sas*; th as in Mir.



Explanations, p. 23.



NIZA



1826



NOAILLES



Lexington, and Bunker Hill, and rose to be brigadier-
general in 1776. Died in 1815.

Niza, di, de ned'zi, (MARCO,) an Italian missionary,
is said to have first discovered the province of Sonora,
in New Mexico, (1540.)

Nizam-el-Molouk. See NIZAM-EL-MOOLK.

Nizam-el-Moolk, ne-zlm' el m6"61k, written also
Nizam-el-Mulk and Nizam-al-Moulk or -Molook,
a Persian statesman, was grand vizier to the Sultan Alp-
Arslan. He was a distinguished patron of learning, and
founded the College of Bagdad. He wrote a valuable
work containing precepts for government. Died about
1092.

Niz^m -ool-Moolk or Nizam - ul - Mulk, (or
Moulk.) ne-zlm' ool moolk, a general and politician,
born at Delhi, in Hindostan, about 1650. He is said
to have been daring, successful, and treacherous. He
made himself master of the Deccan. Died in 1748.

Nizam-ul-Mulk. See NIZAM-EL-MOOLK and Ni

ZAM-OOL-MOOLK.

Nizamee, Nizami, or Nisami, ne-za'mee, written
also Nidhami, (Aboo -Mohammed -Ibn-Toosuf,
lT)do mo-ham'med iVn yno'sSof or yoo'suf,) a cele
brated Persian poet of the twelfth century. One of his
principal poems furnished the subject of Gozzi's drama
of "Turandot," which was subsequently im'taied by
Schiller. Died in 1180.

Nizami See NIZAMEE.

Nizolius. See NIZZOLI.

Nizzoli, net'so-lee, [Lat NIZO'LIUS,] (MARIO,) an
Italian scholar, and one of the best Latin writers of his
time, was born near M6dena in 1498. His principal
works are "The Ciceronian Treasure," ("Thesaurus
Ciceronianus,") and an essay " On the True Principles
of Philosophising."

Njord or Niord, nyord, (NjSrSr,) [etymology very
uncertain ; some derive it from nordr, " north,"] the god
of winds, and the third in order (after Odin) among
the gods of the Norse mythology. He appears to be a
personification of trade or commerce, and dwells in
Noatun, (no'a-toon',) or "Ship-town." His wife is named
SKADI, (which see.) He is particularly worshipped by
sailors and fishermen. He is very rich, and can give
wealth in abundance to those who invoke him. He
rules the course of the wind, stills the ocean, and
quenches fire. He was originally an inhabitant of Vana-
heim, but was sent by the Vanir as a hostage to th
jEsir, among whom he is now numbered.

See THORPE'S " Northern Mythology," vol. i. ; KKYSBR'S "Re-
ligion of the Northmen;" PBTB*SBN'S " Nordisk Mythologi."

No'ah, [Heb. m ; Gr. Nut; Fr. NOB, no'a',] the son
of Lamech, a patriarch of the tenth generation from
Adam, is supposed to have been born about 2950 B.C.
He was distinguished for his integrity and piety in an
age of almost universal corruption. (Genesis vi. 9 ; II.
Peter ii. 5.) He was six hundred years old when the
great Deluge destroyed all the human race except Noah
and his family, who were saved in the Ark (Genesis vii.,
viiL, and ix.) and entered into a new and everlasting
covenant. He died at the age of nine hundred and fifty.

No'ah, (MoRDECAi MANUEL,) an American journalist
and politician, of Jewish extraction, born in Philadelphia
in 1785. He removed to New York, where he wag
successively editor of "The National Advocate," "The
Enquirer," "Evening Star," and "Sunday Times." He
was appointed consul to Morocco in 1813. He pub-
lished "Travels in England, France, Spain, and the
Barbary States." Died in 1851.

Noaille, no'il' or no't'ye, (JACQUES BARTHBLEMY,)
a French magistrate and revolutionist, of the royalist
party, born at Beaucaire in April, 1758 ; died in 1828.

Noailles, de, deh no'SI' or no'i'ye, ( ADRIEN
MAURICE,) Due, an eminent French general and states-
man, born in Paris in 1678, was the eldest son of Anne
Jules, noticed below. He married Fran9oise d'Aubigne\
a niece of Madame de Maintenon. During the war of
the Spanish succession he served with distinction as
general and diplomatist in Spain from 1705 to 1712.
He was minister of finance from 1715 to 1718. In 1734
he became a marshal of France and commander-in-chief
in a war against the Emperor of Germany. He wrote



"Political and Military Memoirs," (6 vols., 1777.) He
is represented as a man of great talents and many virtues.
Died in 1766.

See MILLOT, "Me'moires du Due de Noailles," 1777; SAINT-
SIMON, "Me'moires:" VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louis XIV;" Mo
RBRI, " Dictionnaire Historique :" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;'
CESSNA, " La Maison de Noailles," 1842.

Noailles, de, (ANNE JULES,) Due, an able French
general, born in 1650, was the eldest son of the first
Duke of Noailles, and father of the preceding. He
commanded in Catalonia between 1689 and 1695, and
gained several advantages over the Spaniards. He ob-
tained the rank of marshal of France in 1693, and became
Viceroy of Catalonia. Died in 1708.

Noailles, de, (FRANCOIS,) a French diplomatist,
brother of Admiral de Noailles, (1504-1562,) was
born in the department of Limousin in 1519. He was
employed by Henry II. in missions to London, Venice,
and Constantinople. Died in 1585.

Noailles, de, (JEAN PAUL FRANCOIS,) Due, sen of
Louis, noticed below, was born in Paris in 1739. He
served in the last campaigns of the Seven Years' war,
was made a knight of the golden fleece, and obtained the
rank of lieutenant-general. He wrote several scientific
treatises, and became a member of the Academy of
Sciences, (1777.) He was the father-in-law of General
La Fayette. Died in 1824.

Noailles, de, (JULES,) Due, a French economist,
born at Paris in 1826. He made the study of indus-
trial economy the work of his life, visited England
and the United States to study their economical condi-
tions, and wrote " De la Decentralisation en Angle-
terre," " Revenu, Capital, et Travail," "Cent ans de
la Kcpublique aux E-tats Unis," etc. Died in 1895.

Noailles, de, (Louis,) Due, born in 1713, was a son
of Adrien Maurice. He was styled Due d'Ayen before
his father's death. He distinguished himself in the
campaigns of Flanders and Germany, and obtained the
rank of marshal in 1775. Died in 1793. When Louis
XV. said that the fermicrs-glnfraux support the state,
the Due de Noailles replied, " Yes, as the rope supports
a man who is hung."

See VOLTAIRE, " Precis du Regrc de L.-uis XV," chap. Ixvit

Noailles, de, (Louis ANTOINE,) a French cardinal,
Dorn in 1651, was a son of the first Duke of Noailles,
and a brother of Anne Jules, noticed above. He suc-
ceeded Harlay as Archbishop of Paris in 1695. In the
controversy which broke out soon after between the
Jesuits and the Jansenists, he endeavoured to act as
mediator ; but he lost the confidence and incurred the
displeasure of both parties. Having refused for a long
time to accept the papal bull Unigenitus, he gave in his
submission to the pope in 1728. Died in 1729.

Noailles, de, (Louis JOSEPH ALEXIS,) son of Louis
Marie, noticed below, was born in Paris in 1783. He
was a zealous adherent of the Bourbons, and fought
against Napoleon in the army of the allies in 1813. At
the Congress of Vienna he was one of the ministers-
Dlenipotentiary of France, and in 1815 was appointed
iiinister of state and a member of the privy council.
Died in 1835.

Noailles, de, (Louis MARIE,) VICOMTE, a French
tatesman, born in 1756, was a son of Marshal de Mou-
chy. As a deputy to the States-General in 1789, he pro-
>osed, on the 4th of August, the suppression of feudal
rights and other privileges of the aristocracy. He mar-
ried the sister of Madame La Fayette. Soon after the
commencement of the reign of terror he emigrated to


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 184 of 425)