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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Harvard in 1856, was admitted to the bar, and be- i
came a prominent lawyer. He was appointed
attorney-general by President Cleveland in 1893, an( ^
secretary of state in 1895, ar >d was tne active agent in
the question concerning the Guiana-Venezuela boun-
dary, signing the arbitration treaty with Great Britain
in 1896.

Olof. See OLAF.

Olozaga, (Don SALUSTIANO,) a Spanish statesman,
born at Logrono about 1803. He became an active
member of the Cortes, was made prime minister in
1843, and was appointed president of the council of
state in 1870. Died September 26, 1873.

Olschlager. See OLEARIUS.

Olshausen, ols'how'zen, (HERMANN,) a German Prot-
estant theologian, born at Oldeslohe in 1796. In 1827
he was appointed professor of theology at Konigsberg.
He published a "Biblical Commentary on all the New
Testament," (4 vols., 1830-40,) which has been highly
commended, and other religious treatises. Died af
Erlangen in 1839.

Olshausen. (JUSTUS,) a German Orientalist, born a
Holstein in 1800. He was chosen a member of the
Academy of Sciences at Copenhagen in 1845, ar "d be-
came professor of Oriental languages at Konigsberg
in 1853. He published a work entitled "The Pehlevi
Legends on the Coins of the Last Sassanides," (1843.)
Died in 1882.

Olshausen, (THEODOR,) a brother of the preceding,
was born at Gliickstadt in 1802. In 1830 he founded at
Kiel a patriotic journal, entitled the " Correspondenz-
blatt," in which he advocated the independence of Hol-
stein. In 1848 he was a deputy to the Assembly, and
in 1849 established the "North German Free Press" at
Hamburg. He was exiled in 1851 by the Danish gov-
ernment. Died at Hamburg, March 20, 1869.

Olug- (or Oloog-) Beg, o'loog beg, written also
Ooloogh-, Oulough-, and Ulugh-Beg, (Meer'za Mo-
ham'med,) an eminent Mongol astronomer, a grandson
of Tamerlane, and King of Transoxana, was born in
1394. He began to reign in 1446, and was killed by his
son in 1459.

O-lyb'rI-us, (ANicius,) a Roman emperoi He be- t
came consul in 464 A.D., and married Placidia, the widow
of Valentinian III. Through the influence of Genseric



or Ricimer, he succeeded Anthemius, who was killed in
472. He died in the same year.

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Olympe. See OLYMPUS.

O-lym'pI-as, [Gr. 'OA/naf,] Queen of Macedon,
was a daughter of Neoptolemus, King of Epirus. She
was married about 357 B.C. to Philip II. of Macedon,
and became the mother of Alexander the Great. She
is said to have been a woman of violent temper. Philip
soon became alienated from her, and divoiced her. Aftei
the accession of her son Alexander, she put to death
Cleopatra, the second wife of Philip. She was put to
death by Cassander in 316 B.C.

See PLUTARCH, "Vita Alexandri."

Olympiodore. See OLYMPIODORUS.

O-lym-pI-o-do'rus, [Gr. 'OAiyimoitapor ; Fr. OLYM-
PIODORE, o'laN'pe'o'doR',] a Greek historian, born at
Thebes, in Egypt, wrote a " Chronicle" of his time, from
407 10425 A.D., being a continuation of that of Eunapius.
There are fragments of this work extant in the " Myrio-
biblon ' of Photius.

Olympiodorus H., called THE YOUNGER, a Peripa-
tetic philosopher, supposed to have flourished in the
sixth century, was a native of Alexandria. His chief work
is a Commentary on the " Meteorologica" of Aristotle.

Olympiodorus III., a Platonic philosopher, born in
Alexandria, is said to have lived in the sixth century.
He wrote commentaries on the " Phaedon," the " Phile-
bus," the " Gorgias," and the " First Alcibiades" of
Plato ; also a " Life of Plato." As an interpreter of
Plato he is much esteemed.

Olympiodorus, a Greek commentator on the Scrip-
tures, was a deacon of Alexandria, and lived probably in
the first half of the sixth century.

Olympus, (the habitation of the Grecian gods.) See
ZEUS.

O-lym'pus, [Gr. 'Otofmo( ; Fr. OLYMPE, o'iaMp',] a
celebrated Greek or Phrygian musician, supposed to
have lived about 650 B.C. He naturalized in Greece the
music of the flute, and invented the system or genus of
music called enharmonic.

See MULLER, " History of Greek Literature :" PLUTARCH, " De
Musica."

Olzofskl or Olzowski, ol-zofskee, (ANDREW,) a
Polish prelate, born about 1618. He wrote several
political treatises. After the election of Sobieski (1674)
he was appointed Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate
of Poland. Died in 1678.

Omaiadae. See OMEYYADES.

Omai'des. See OMEYYADES.

Omajjaden. See OMEYYADES.

Omajjah or Omajja. See OMEYYAH.

Omalius d'Halloy, d', do'mfle'Us' dt'lwa', (JEAN
BAPTISTE JULIEN,) a Belgian geologist, born at Liege in
1783, published several works on geology. Died in
1875.

O'man, (CHARLES WILLIAM,) a British his-
torian, born at Mozufferpoor, India, in 1860. Among
his works are " History of Greece," (1888,) " War-
wick, the King Maker," (1891,) " History of Europe,
476-918," (1893,) "History of the Art of War in
the Middle Ages," (1898,) etc.

O'mar (or O'mer) I., written also Oomur or Umar,
oo'rnar,' ( Aboo-Hafsah-Ibn-ool-Khatab or Abu-
Hafsah-Ibnul-Khattab, a'boo haPsah Ib'noSl Kat-
tib',) the second caliph or successor of Mohammed the
Prophet, was a cousin in the third degree to Abdallah,
the father of that legislator. After he had attempted to
kill Mohammed, Omar was converted to tslamism, about
615 A.D. He succeeded Aboo-Bekr in the vear6H- His
army took Damascus in 635, defeated the Greeks at Yar
moo'k or Yermuk, and besieged Jerusalem. This city in
637 or 638 was surrendered to Omar, who treated the
Christians with great lenity. On the site of Solomon's
temple he built the magnificent mosque which bears his
name. About 638 he completed the conquest of Syria
and of Persia, (see YEZDEJERD,) and founded the city of
Koofah. Amroo, one of Omar's generals, subdued Egypt
in 640 or 641, and consumed by fire the great library at



as/; <;asi; %hard; gas/'G, H,K,guttural; K,nasal; R, trilled; s as z; thasinMu. (jgf=See Explanations, p. 23.;



OMAR



1852



OMPHALE



Alexandria, after the caliph had decided, ae we are told,
that "if the books accord with the Koran, they are un-
lecessary ; and if they are contrary to the Koran, they
are pernicious, and should be destroyed." He was assas-
sinated by a Persian slave, Firooz, in his capital, Medina,
in 644 A.D., at the age of sixty-three, and was succeeeded
by Othman. Omar is praised for wisdom, justice, and
moderation, and is said to have contributed more to the
progress of his religion than Mohammed himself. His
name is greatly venerated by the orthodox sect of Mos-
lems, called Sunnites.

See SIMON OCKLEY, " History of the Saracens," 1708-18: Gis-
BON, " History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,"
vol. ix. ; IRVING. "Mahomet and his Successors;" WEIL, " Ge-
ichichte der Khalifen," vol. i. chap. ii. ; ABOOLFSDA, "Annales
Moslemici :" O. VON PLATEN, " Geschichte der Todtung dey Cha-
Ufen Omar;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"ra!e."

Omar (or Omer) IT, the eighth caliph of the Omeyyade
dynasty, was the son of Abd-el-Azeez, (Abdelaztz,) and
the nephew of Abd-el-Malek. He was also a great-grand-
son of Omar I., whom he resembled in his virtues. He
succeeded his cousin Solyman in 717 A.D. He suppressed
the maledictions which in former reigns were pronounced
in the mosques against the descendants of Alee. The
princes of his own race, fearing that he should bequeath
the empire to one of the race of Alee, poisoned him in
720 A.D.

Omar, a Moorish physician, born at C6rdova in 990
A.D., was celebrated for his skill in surgery, and was also
a profound mathematician. Died in 1080.

Omar, an eminent physician, astronomer, and mathe-
matician, supposed to have been a native of Hadramaut,
in Arabia. He settled in Spain, where he died in 1071.

Omar, ( Al-Mutawakkel-Billah, al moo-:a-wak'kel
Wl'lah,) the last king of Badajoz of the Beni-al-Aftas,
began his reign in 1082 A.D. In conjunction with his
ally, Yoosuf, King of Morocco, he gained a signal victory
over the Christian army at Zalaca in 1086 A.D. Yoosuf
soon after made war upon Omar, took him prisoner, and
had him put to death about 1090, after having promised
to spare his life.

Omar-Ibu-Hafsoon, (or -Hafssun,) o'mar ib'n hif
toon', a famous Moorish chieftain, was a native of Ronda,
In Spain. In 859 A.D. he headed a rebel army, with
which he laid waste the kingdom of C6rdova and other
parts of the empire. After having for a long time main-
tained himself against Mohammed, King of C6rdova, he
was totally defeated by him at Aybar in 882, and died
in 883 A.D.

Omar Khayyam, khi-yam', i.e., "Omar the Tent-
maker," a Persian author and mathematician, (named in
full GHIYATH-UD-DEEN ABULFATH OMAR BIN IBRA-
HEEM AL Khayyamee,) was born at Nishapoor about
1025. He was a friend of Nizim-ul-Moolk, and of Has-
san, who founded the sect of Assassins. He was the
writer of a treatise on algebra, and the founder of the
Seljook era in chronology, but is especially noted as the
author of " Rubaiyat," a collection of some five hundred
poetical epigrams, full of wit, pessimism, and philosophic
mysticism. In 1883 E. H. Whinfield published the text
with an English translation. Edward Fitzgerald's trans-
lation (of which an American edition has admirable
illustrations by E. Vedder) is well known. Omar died
at his native town in 1123.

O'mar (or O'mer) Pasha, (pi'shl',) Dey of Algiers,
began to reign in April, 1815, after a revolution in which
his predecessor had been killed. In 1816 the English
admiral Exmouth, after failing in his efforts to procure the
abolition of slavery in Algiers by negotiation, bombarded
that city with success. Omar was forced to submit to
the treaty dictated by the victor. In September, 1817,
he was killed by his own mutinous troops.

Omar (or Omer) Pasha, o'mer pa'sha', (MICHAEL
Lat'tas,) a Turkish commander, born in Croatia about
1805. About 1828 he removed to Turkey, changed his
name to Omer, and adopted the Moslem religion. He
became a colonel in the army in 1839, and a pasha about
1845. He suppressed a revolt in Bosnia in 1850-51.
When the Crimean war broke out, he was appointed
commander-in-chief of the Turkish army. He defeated
the Russians at Oltenitza, November, 1853, and at Kalafat



in 1854. In the early part of 1855 he led an army to the
Crimea and formed a junction with the Anglo-French
army at Sebastopol. In 1868 he suppressed a formidable
insurrection in Crete. Died in 1871.

O'Meara, o-ma'ra, (BARRY EDWARD,) the favourite
physician of Napoleon at Saint Helena, was born in Ire-
land about 1780. Being on board the Bellerophon when
the emperor was made prisoner, the latter requested that
O'Meara might accompany him as his surgeon. He re-
mained in Saint Helena till 1818, when he was recalled.
In 1822 he published his "Napoleon in Exile; or, A
Voice from Saint Helena," which had great popularity,
and, though not entirely impartial, it is esteemed a valu-
able contribution to Napoleon's history. Died in 1836.

See LAS CASAS, "Memorial de Sainte-UeUene ;" "Monthly Ke
view" for July, 1823.

Omeiadae. See OMEYYADES.

Omer. See OMAR.

Omero. the Italian for HOMER, which see.

Omeyyadea or Omeyyada, o-ma'yadz, [Fr. pi on.
o'mS'yid',] sing. Omeyyade or Ome'iade, o-ma'yad ;
written less correctly Ommaiades and Ommyiadea,
[Ger. OMEJJADEN, o-mt-ya'den, or OMAJJADEN, o-ma-
ya'den ; Lat. OMEI'AD,* or OMAl'iAD-e,] the name
of a famous dynasty of caliphs, founded (660 A.D.) by
Moaweeyeh, the great-grandson of Omeyyah, (or Umey-
yah,) who was cousin-german to Abd-el-Moot'alib, the
grandfather of Mohammed ; whence the Omeyyade
princes are commonly styled " Benee- (Rent-) Omeyyah,"
(i.e. "Sons, or descendants, of Omeyyah.") The imme-
diate successors of MoSweeyeh continued to reign at
Darrascus until 749 A.D., when their power was over-
thrown, and all the princes of the house of Omeyyah, (it
is said,) except two, were put to death by order of
Abool-Abbas-Abdallah, (surnamed As-Seffah, or "the
shedder of blood,") the founder of the new dynasty of
Abbassides. Of the two Omeyyade princes who escaped
the vengeance of As-Seffah, one fled to a remote part
of Arabia; the other, named Abd-er-Rahman-lbn-Moa-
weeyeh, went first to Egypt, thence to Spain, and estab-
lished at C6rdova (756 A.D.) a dynasty which was destined
to rival in splendour and magnificence that of the Ab-
basside caliphs in the East The power and glory of
the Benee-Omeyyah in Spain culminated in the reign of
Abd-er-Rahman I., who was the first of his line who
assumed the title of caliph ; but they began soon after to
decline, and they may be said to have terminated with
the reign of Hisham II., in 1013.

Omeyyah, o-ma'yah, written also Omeyyeh, Om-
maya, TJmeyyah, and in various other modes, was a
cousin of Mohammed's grandfather, Abd-el-M6"6t'alib.
His great-grandson, Moaweeyeh, was the first caliph of
the illustrious dynasty of the Benee-Omeyyah. (See
OMEYYADES.)

Ommaidea. See OMEYYADES.

Ommajjaden, (more correctly, Omajjaden.) Sej
OMEYYADES.

Ommaya. See OMEYYAH.

Ommeganck, om'meh-gank', (BALTHASAR PAUL,) a
distinguished landscape-painter, born at Antwerp in
1755. He also excelled in painting animals, particularly
sheep. He was a corresponding member of the Academy
of Fine Arts in Paris, and chevalier of the order of the
Belgic Lion. Died in 1826.

See A. VOISIH, " Eloge du Peinrre B. P. Ommeganck," 1826.

Ommiadea or Ommiadae. See OMEYYADES

Ommiyadea or Ommy'iades. See OMEYYADES.

Ommiyah. See OMEYYAH.

O'mond, (GEORGE WILLIAM,) a Scotch author,
born in Perthshire in 1846. He became a barrister,
and published some legal works, also "The Barton
House Conspiracy," "The Story of Maurice Le-
strange," " Fletcher of Snultoun,' t etc.

Om'pha-le, [Gr. "O^ci/j),] a queen of Lydia, cele-
brated for her connection with the story of Hercules.
She is said to have been mistress of the kingdom after
the death of Tmolus, her husband. According to the
fable, Hercules sold himself as a slave to Omphale,
assumed the female attire, and assisted her servants in
spinning.



i, e, i, 6, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, ?, short: a. e, i, o, obscure; far, ail, fit; mSt; not; good; moon ;



OMRI



'853



OORT



Om'ri, [Heb. 'I'D;',] King of Israel, began to reign
about 930 B.C. He reigned eleven years, and founded
the capital city of Samaria. He was succeeded by his
son Ahab.

Onar. See NORVI.

O-na'tas, [Gr. 'Oinraf,] an eminent Greek sculptor
and painter, born at ^Egina, was the son of Micon, and
flourished about 460 B.C. Among his best works were
statues of Apollo, Hercules, and Mercury, and a picture
of the expedition of the Argives against Thebes. His
ikill as a sculptor is highly extolled by Pausanias.

Ouck'eu, (JOHANN GERHARD,) a German minister,
born at Varel, in Oldenburg, January 26, 1800. He re-
moved to England, whence in 1823 he returned to Ger-
many as an Independent minister and preacher. In 1834
he became a Baptist. He laboured for many years ir
propagating the Baptist faith in Germany with great
success. Died at Zurich, January 2, 1884.

Ondegardo, de, di on-da-gaR'oc, (POLO,) a Spanish
Jesuit and historian of the sixteenth century, was the
author of historical memoirs of Peru, entitled " Rela-
ciones," which are still in manuscript.

On'der-donk, ( BENJAMIN T.,) born in the city of New
Vork in 1791, became Episcopal Bishop of Eastern New
York about 1830, and was suspended for disgraceful
conduct in 1845. Died in 1861.

Onderdonk, (HENRY USTICK,) D.D., an American
bishop, a brother of Dr. B. T. Onderdonk, already no-
ticed, was born in New Vork city, March 16, 1789.
He at first became a physician, but in 1816 was made
a priest of the Episcopal Church. In 1827 he was
consecrated Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania, and in
1836 succeeded Bishop White as diocesan. From
1844 to 1856 he was suspended from episcopal
functions on the charge of intemperance. He was
the author of various theological and religious works,
and of some good hymns and poems. Died in Phila-
delphia, December 6, 1858.

O'Neail, o-neel', (JOHN BELTON,) LL.D., an Ameri-
can jurist, born near Bush River, South Carolina, in
1793, rose through various offices to be chief justice of
his native State. He became in 1841 president of the
State Temperance Society. He wrote " Biographical
Sketches of the Bench and Bar of South Carolina," and
other works. Died December 27, 1863.

O'Neil, o-neel', (HENRY,) an English historical and
genre painter, born about 1818. Among his works are
" By the Rivers of Babylon," " A Scene from Hamlet,"
"Eastward Ho! August, 1857," "Home Again! 1858,"
and " Mary Stuart's Farewell to France." Died in 1880.

O'Neill, (HUGH,) Earl of Tyrone, an Irish chieftain,
who in 1587 received the earldom as lineal heir to
Con, the first earl, to whom, however, his relationship
was doubtful. In 1593 he was acknowledged as "The
O'Neill." He formed an alliance with the O'Donnells
and made war upon the English. The pope sent him
a crown of peacocks' feathers. O'Neill outwitted and
outgeneralled the Earl of Essex, but in 1601 he was
compelled to surrender to Mountjoy. He was, however,
pardoned, and retained the earldom. Being accused of
treason, he left the country in 1607, and died at Rome in
1616. He was the last of the great Celtic chieftains or
princes of Ireland, and his death was followed by the
" Plantation of Ulster" and the ruin of the Catholic
cause in the North of Ireland.

O'Neill, or O'Neal, (SHAN, SHANE, or JOHN,) an
Irish chieftain, sun and lawful heir of Con O'Neill, Earl
of Tyrone. Con, however, declared his supposed ille-
gitimate son Matthew his heir. But the O'Neill sept
in 1559 chose Shan as the true O'Neill. From that time
till his death, Ulster was the scene of almost continual
warfare and excess. Shan always acknowledged Queen
Elizabeth, but everywhere fought the Scots and the
O'Donnells, displaying great energy and ability. He was
finally overmatched by Sidney, was hunted from place to
place, and was at last murdered by the O'Donnells, June

2, 1567-

Onesicrite. See ONF.SICRITUS.

On-e-sic'rI-tus, [Gr. 'Ow?akpm>f ; Fr. ONESICRITE,
o'na'ze'kRiH',] a Greek historian, lived about 350-330



B.C., and was a disciple of Diogenes the Cynic. He fol-
lowed Alexander the Great in his expedition to Asia,
and was chief pilot of the fleet which descended the
Indus. He wrote a " History of Alexander," which is
lost. He was censured by Aulus Gellius and other
ancient critics for mixing fables with his narrative.

See Vossius, "De Historicis Grzcis :" ERSCH und GRUBBR,
"Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" SUIDAS, " Onesicritus. "

Ongaro, on-ga'ro, (ANTONIO,) an Italian poet, born
at Padua or Adria about 1569. He wrote " Alceo," a
pastoral or piscatorial poem, in which he substituted
fishermen for shepherds. Died in 1599.

Onk'e-los, a learned Chaldee writer, of uncertain
era, supposed to have been a native of Babylon and
contemporary with Gamaliel. He was the author of a
Targum, or Chaldee paraphrase of the Pentateuch,
which is highly esteemed for its accuracy.

Onomacrite. See ONOMACRITOS.

On-o-mac'rI-tos, [Gr. 'Ovo/idxpiTof ; Fr. ONOMA-
CRITE, o'no'mS'kRet',] a celebrated Greek poet and sooth-
sayer, lived in the sixth century B.C. He was banished
by Hipparchus frSm Athens for having falsified or inter-
polated the oracles of Musaeus for political purposes.
He is supposed by some writers to have been the author
of much that is attributed to Orpheus.

See EICHHOFF, " Commentatio de Onomacrito," 1840: K. O.
MULLER, " History of Greek Literature."

On-o-mar'chus, [Gr. 'Ovofiapxof ; Fr. ONOMARQUE,



o'no'ma'Rk',] a general of the Phocians in the Sacred
war. He obtained the chief command in 353 B.C., and
seized the sacred treasures of Delphi. He defeated



Philip of Macedon in two battles, but was defeated and
killed by that king in 352 B.C.

Onomarque. See ONOMARCHUS.

On-o-san'der, [Gr. 'Ovoaavipos ; Fr. ONOSANDRE,
o'no'zdNdR',] one of the principal military writers of
antiquity, lived at Rome under the reigns of Claudius
and Nero. He was the author of a treatise on tactics,
entitled " Strategeticos," (written in Greek,) which has
been translated into Latin, French, and Italian. He
was a Platonic philosopher, and wrote a commentary on
the " Republic" of Plato, which is not extant.

See SCHOELL, " Histoire de la Litte'rature Grecque."

Onoaandre. See ONOSANDER.

Ons-en-Bray, (Louis LEON PAJOT.) See PAJOT.

Onsenoort, van, vSn on'seh-noRt', (ANTOON GE-
RAARD,) a Dutch surgeor and oculist, born at Utrecht
in 1782. He wrote several professional works. Died
in 1841.

See F. CUNIER, "Notice sur A. G. van Onsenoort," 1842.

Onslow, (ARTHUR,) an English statesman, born
about 1690. He was chosen Speaker of the House of
Commons in 1727. "During thirty-three years," says
Lord Mahon, "he filled that chair with higher merit,
probably, than any one either before or after him, with
unequalled impartiality, dignity, and courtesy." He re-
tired from the chair and from public life in 1761. Died
in 1768. His son was created Earl Onslow about 1800.

Onslow, (GEORGE,) an eminent musician and com-
poser, born at Clermont, in France, in 1784, was de-
scended from an English family of rank. His works
include symphonies, duets, quintets, sonatas, and operas.
His opera " Le Colporteur" was performed with great
success. Died in 1853.

See FiTis, " Biographic Universelle des Musiciens;" "Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Onslow, (Sir RICHARD,) an English admiral, born in
1741. He served with distinction against the Dutch, as
vice-admiral, in 1797. Died in 1817.

Onuphrius. See PANVINIUS.

Ooloogh-Beg. See OLUG-BEG.

Ooniur. See OMAR.

Oorkhan or Urkhan, oor'kSn', written also Orkhan,
(sometimes surnamed GHAZEE or GHAZY, ga'zee,) a
Turkish Sultan, was the son of Osman (Othman) I., the
founder of the present Turkish dynasty. He began to
reign at Prusa in 1326, and made extensive conquests
from the Greeks in Asia Minor. He is said to have had
superior military and political talents. He died in 1360,
leaving the throne to his son Amurath (or Moorad,) I.

Oort, van, (ADAM.) See NOORT, VAN.



as *. 9 as s; g hard: g as/; G, H, K, guttural ; N, nasal: R, trilled; s as z; th as in this,



Explanations, p. 2V



OOST



1854



OPPEDE



Oost, van, vSn ost, (JACOB,) THE ELDER, one of the
most admired painters of the Flemish school, was born
at Bruges in 1600. He studied at Rome, and formed
his style on the model of Annibal Caracci. His works
are numerous, and are principally on sacred subjects.
Among his master-pieces are a " Descent from the
Cross," a " Nativity," " Virgin and Child, with Saints,"
and "The Descent of the Holy Ghost on the Virgin
and Apostles." His copies of Rubens and Van Dyck
are so perfect as to deceive the most skilful connoisseurs.
Died in 1671.

See DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands," etc. ; "Nouvelle
Biographic Generale."

Oost, van, (JACOB,) THE YOUNGER, son of the pre-
ceding, was born about 1637. He studied under his
father, and afterwards visited Italy and France, where
he resided many years. He was esteemed one of the
best portrait-painters of his time, and also executed his-
torical works of great merit, one of which, the " Martyr-
dom of Saint Barbara," is regarded as his master-piece.
Died in 1713.

Oosterwyck, van, vSn os'ter-wik', (MARIA,) a
Dutch painter of flowers and fruit, born near Delft in
1630. She is placed in the first rank of painters of the
subjects above named. Died in 1693-

Oosterzee, van, vSn os'ter-za, (JAN JAKOB,) a Dutch
theologian, born at Rotterdam, April I, 1817. Educated
at Utrecht, he became in 1844 chief pastor at Rotterdam,
where he acquired great fame as a preacher and scholar.
In 1862 he accepted a professorship of divinity at Utrecht.
Among his works are a "Life of Jesus," (1863-65,) "The
Theology of the New Testament," (1869,) "Christian
Dogmatics," (1874), "Practical Theology," (1877-78,)
etc. Most of these works have been translated into Eng-
lish. Van Oosterzee was of the orthodox school. Died
in 1882.

Oovarof, oo-vi'rof, (SERGEI SEMENOVITCH,) COUNT,
a Russian statesman, born at Moscow in 1785. His
great work was done as minister of education, in which
capacity he founded many schools, and laid a foundation
for the scientific knowledge of the Asiatic languages of
the empire. He wrote on philology and criticism, and on
literary and political topics. Died at Moscow in Sep-
tember, 1855.

Oovarof Ouvarof, or Uwarow, oo-vi'rof, written
also Ouvarov, (THEODORE,) a Russian general, born
about 1770. He distinguished himself at the battle of
Borodino. Died in 1824.

Operman, o'per-man', COUNT, a German general and


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 193 of 425)