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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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In 1847 he became Vicar-General of the diocese of Buf-
falo. In 1850 he was consecrated as Bishop of Hartford.
He was lost at sea, on the steamer Pacific, in 1856.

O'Reilly, (JOHN BOYLE,) LL.D., an Irish- American
poet and journalist, born at Castle Dowth, county of
Meath, Ireland, June 25, 1844. In June, 1866, he was
tried in Dublin, convicted of high treason, and sentenced
to imprisonment for life, but the sentence was commuted
to twenty years of penal servitude. In 1869 he escaped
from West Australia to the United States, went to Bos-
ton, and became editor and joint proprietor of " The
Pilot." His principal books are " Songs from the
Southern Seas," (1872,) " Songs, Legends, and Ballads,"
(1876,) " Moondyne," (1877,) and " Statues in the Block,"
(iSSi.) Died August 10, 1890.

O'Rell. (MAX.) See BLOUET, (PAUL.)

Orellana, o-r?l-ya'na, (FRANCISCO,) a celebrated navi-
gator, born at Truxillo, in Spain, in the sixteenth centurv.
In 1531 he set sail with the brothers Pizarro for Peru
Having heard from the natives of a country in the east
producing gold, silver, and spices, he set out in 1540, in
company with Gonsalez Pizarro, on an exploring expe-
dition. After following the course of the Napo, a branch
of the Maranon. for about two hundred leagues, their
provisions failed, and Orellana was directed to proceed
down the river, obtain supplies, and return immediately.
Instead of this, he continued his course along the main
stream, though suffering severely from famine and from
the attacks of the Indians. In August, 1541, he reached
the mouth of the Maranon, to which he gave the name
of Amazon, from the warlike women whom he states he
encountered on its shores. On his return to Spain he
obtained from Charles V. letters patent for colonizing
the country he had discovered ; but soon after reaching
the Amazon, in 1549, he was attacked with fever, and
died in 1550.

See A. VON HUMBOLDT, " Voyages aux Regions rfquinoxiales du
oouveau Continent."

Orelli, o-rel'lee, (JOHANN CASPAR,) a distinguished
Swiss critic and scholar, born at Zurich in 1787. In
1819 he became professor of eloquence and hermeneutics
in his native city. He published excellent editions of
Cicero, (8 vols., 1826-37,) Horace, (2 vols., 1844,)
Tacitus, (2 vols., 1846-48,) and other Roman classics.
In conjunction with Baiter, he published an edition of
Plato, (4 vols., 1839-41.) His "Onomasticon Tulli-
inum," (3 vols., 1837,) containing a life of Cicero, a



lexicon of proper names, several indexes, etc., is a work
of great value for the history of the period in which
Cicero lived. Died in 1849.

See " Lebensabriss von J. C. von OreUi," Zurich, 1851 ; " Nou-
velle Biographic Ge"ne>ale."

Oresme, o'rim', (NICOLAS,) a learned French prelate,
was a native of Normandy. He was appointed suc-
cessively grand master of the College of Navarre, and
Bishop of Lisieux, (l3'/7.) He translated the "Ethics"
and " Politics" of Aristotle into French, and published
several scientific treatises. Died in 1382.

Oreste. See ORESTES.

O-res'tes, [Gr. 'Opcarr/c; Fr. ORESTE, o'rSst',] a son
of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, was an intimate friend
of Pvlades. The poets relate that he avenged the death
of his father by killing his own mother and jEgisthus ;
that after this act he became insane, and was tormented
by the Furies ; that he consulted the oracle of Delphi,
and was told that hj might be relieved if he would
go to Tauris and bring away the image of Diana ; that
he and Pylades went to Tauris, where they were taken
captives, and would have been sacrificed, but they were
saved by Iphigenia, who was a sister of Orestes and
was the priestess of Diana at Tauris. With her aid,
he succeeded in his enterprise, and afterwards became
King of Mycenae.



See EURIPIDES, "Orestes;" SOPHOCLES, " Electra ;"
" Eumenides."

Orestes, [Fr. ORESTE, c'rest 7 ,] a Roman commander,
who became secretary to Attila, King of the Huns, about
446. Having deposed the emperor Julius Nepos, (475
A.D.,) he assumed the chief power, as Regent of Italy, in
the name of his infant son, Romulus Augustulus. Being
besieged soon after in Pavia by Odoacer, he was made
prisoner and put to death in August, 476 A.D.

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Orfanel, oR-fa-nel', (JACINTO,) a Spanish missionary,
born at Jana in 1578. He laboured in Japan about
fifteen years, and wrote an account of the progress of
Christianity in that country, (1633.) He was put to
death by the Japanese in 1622.

Orfeo. See ORPHEUS.

Orfiyre, oR'fe'ri', or Orfiyreus, oRf-fe-ra'us, (Jo-
HANN ERNST ELIAS,) a German mechanician, born at
Zittau in 1680. His proper name was BESSLER. Died
in 1745.

Orfila, or'fe-la, [Fr. pron. oR'feni',] (MATHIEU JO-
SEPH BONAVENTURE,) an eminent physician and chem-
ist, born at Mahon, in the island of Minorca, in 1787.
Having been made a French citizen in 1818, he was ap-
pointed professor of medical jurisprudence and toxicology
in the Faculty of Medicine in Paris in 1819. In 1823 ha
obtained the chair of chemistry in the same institution,
which he continued to occupy for thirty years. He was
created successively by Louis Philippe grand officer of
the legion of honour, dean of the Medical Faculty, and
member of the Council of Hospitals. Among his most
important works are his " Treatise on Poisons, ot
General Toxicology," (1813 ; 4th edition, 2 vols., 1843,)
" Elements of Chemistry applied to Medicine and the
Arts," (2 vols., 1817-43,) "Treatise on Juridical Exhu-
mations," (2 vols., 1830,) and "Treatise on Medical
Jurisprudence," (4 vols., 1847.) Orfila was an accom-
plished and popular lecturer, and enjoyed the highest
reputation as a writer on toxicology and legal medicine.
He died in 1853, leaving large sums to the Academy of
Medicine and the School of Pharmacy, for the promo-
tion of science. He was the principal founder of the
anatomical museum in Paris called the Musee Orfila.

See MENiiRE, " NeVrologie : M. Orfila," 1853; SACHAILB, " L
Me'decins de Paris;" " Nouvelle Biographic Gline'rale ;" " Monthly
Review," vol. Ixxxv., 1818, (Appendix.)

Orford, EARL OF. See WALPOLE, (ROBERT,) WAL-
POLE, (HORACE,) and RUSSELL, (EDWARD.)

Or-get'o-rir, a rich and powerful chief of the Helvetii,
whose intrigues are recorded in Csesar's " Commenta-
ries," book i. He aspired to the sovereign power, and
persuaded the Helvetii to emigrate to Gaul. A judicial
process was instituted against hirr for his ambitious
projects ; but before the decision he died, as was sup-
posed, by his own hand, about 62 B.C.



c as &: c as i: g hard; g as/; G, H, n,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

"7



(J^^See Explanations, p. 23.)



ORIANI



1858



ORLEANS



Oriani, o-re-J'nee, (BARNABA,) an eminent Italian
astronomer, born near Milan in 1752. Having visited
London in 1786, he made the acquaintance of Herschel,
with whom he afterwards maintained a regular corre-
spondence. On his return, he assisted Reggio and De
Cesaris in measuring an arc of the meridian and exe-
cuting the triangulation for a new map of Italy. When
the astronomer Piazzi, in 1801, discovered Ceres, which
he mistook for a comet, Oriani, by calculating its orbit,
recognized it as a planet; and he was the first to deter-
mine the orbit of Uranus. After Napoleon was crowned
at Milan, he created Oriani a count, and senator of the
kingdom of Italy, and one of the first members of the
Italian Institute. Among his principal works are " Tables
of Uranus," (1785,) "Theory of the Planet Mercury,"
(1798,) and " Spherical Trigonometry," (1806.) The last-
named is esteemed one of the most admirable treatises
of the kind. Oriani was a member of the Institute of
France and the Royal Society of London. Died in 1832.
See A. GABBA, "Elogio di Oriani," 1834: " Nouvelle Biograohie
Ge'ne'rale."

Oribase. See ORIBASIUS.

Oribasius, or-e-ba'she^s, [Fr. ORIBASE, c'reTDtz',] a
celebrated physician, was a native of Sardis, in Lydia,
or of Pergamus. He enjoyed the friendship of the em-
peror Julian, who made him his physician and in 361
A.D. appointed him quaestor of Constantinople. On the
death of Julian, (363,) Oribasius was banished by Valen-
tinian and Valens, but was recalled about 370 on account
of his medical skill. Of his principal work, entitled
" Medicinalia Collecta," (in seventy books,) less than half
is extant It was written at the request of the emperor,
and, though principally a compilation from Galen and
other physicians, contains some important original mat-
ter. It is also highly valued for its explanations of many
passages in Galen's writings, and for the extracts it con-
tains from works not extant Oribasius was the first who
described the salivary glands ; he also advanced new ideas
on dietetics and gymnastics. Died about 400 A.D.

See FRHIND, "History of Physics;" HALI.ER, "Bibliotheca
Medica;" FABRICIUS, "Bibliotheca Grzca ;" "Nouvelle Biographic
Generale."

Oricellarius. See RUCELLAI.
Orichovius. See ORZECHOWSKI.
O'ri-ent, [Lat ORIEN'TIUS,] SAINT, a Latin poet, who
became Bishop of Auch (Augusta) about 410 A.D. He
wrote a Latin poem, entitled " Commonitorium," which
has been printed. Died in 439 A.D.

Oriente, do, do o-re-en'ti, (FERNAO ALVAREZ,) a
Portuguese poet, born in Goa about 1550.
See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe."
Orientius. See ORIENT.

Orl-gen, IGr. Qp<yevi?c; Lat ORIG'ENES; 7r. ORI-
GENE, o're'zh&n',] one of the most remarkable, eloquent,
nd influential of the early Christian writers styled the
Fathers, was born in Egypt about 186 A.D. He was the
son of Leonides, a Christian martyr of Alexandria, and
bore the additional name of ADAMANTIUS. He was a
pupil of Clement of Alexandria, and became versed in
grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, music, and philoso-
phy. At the age of eighteen he was appointed by Bishop
Demetrius to the office of catechist, the duties of which
he performed with zeal and self-denial. He became
very ascetic in his course of life, and mortified himself
by a form of self-mutilation which he supposed to be
recommended in Matthew xix. 12. Having learned the
Hebrew language, he devoted himself to biblical studies.
While passing through Palestine on a journey, about
228 or 230, he was ordained a presbyter at Caesarea.
This is said to have aroused the jealousy of Deme-
trius, Bishop of Alexandria, who excommunicated him
and induced the Bishop of Rome and of other churches
to concur in this sentence. In 231 Origen removed to
Caesarea, where he acquired a high reputation as a
preacher and commentator on Scripture.

That he might be better qualified to make proselytes,
he studied the Greek philosophy, of which he adopted
the more noble and beautiful dogmas, and attempted to
harmonize Platonism with Christianity. He made an
Innovation (which many think dangerous) in the mode
of interpreting Scripture. His desire to find a mystical
sense led him frequently into a neglect of the historical



sense. In 235 he sought refuge from persecution in
Cappadocia. He compiled about this time a valuable
edition of the Old Testament, entitled " Hexapla," which
exhibits in six columns the Hebrew text and various
Greek versions. Fragments of the " Hexapla" have been
preserved in the writings of the Fathers. He afterwards
wrote an able defence of Christianity against Celsus,
an Epicurean philosopher, which is still extant Decius
having renewed the persecution of the Christians in 250
A.D., Origen was imprisoned and subjected to torture,
but survived, and was released a short time before his
death, which occurred at Tyre in 253. The greater part
of his numerous works are lost His opinions gave
rise to a great controversy long after his death. He held
the doctrine of the universal restoration of sinners, and
was charged with teaching the heretical notions which,
after his time, prevailed under the name of Arianism.
His defenders affirmed that the passages on which this
charge was founded had been interpolated in his works.
About the end of the fifth century, Origenism prevailed
in Egypt and Syria ; but it was condemned by the Council
of Constantinople, in 553 A.D.

See EUSEBIUS, "Ecclesiastical History;" NEANDER, "History
of the Church;" HUET, " Origeniana ;" E. R. REDEPENNING,
"Origenes, DarsteUung seines Lebens und seiner Lehre," 2 vols.,
1841-46; RtNGBERG, " Vita Origenis Adamantii," 1702; KARSTEN,
" Dissertatio de Origene," 1824; G. THOMASIUS, "Origenes Beitrag
zur Dogmengeschichte," etc, 1837; FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Graeca;
DR. HOBFER, article in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Crigen, a Platonic philosopher, was a disciple and
friend of Porphyry, and predecessor of Plotinus in the
chair of philosophy. He lived in the first half of the
third century.

Origene. See ORIGEN.

Origenes. See ORIGEN.

Origny, d', do'ren'ye', (ABRAHAM JEAN BAPTISTE
ANTOINE,) a French writer, born at Rheims in 1734.
He published " Dictionnaire des Origines," (6 vols.,
1776-78.) Died in 1798.

Origny, d', (PIERRE ADAM,) a French historian and
antiquary, born at Rheims in 1697. His principal works
are entitled " Ancient Egypt" and " Chronology of the
Kings of the Egyptian Empire." Died in 1774.

O-ri'on, [Gr. 'Opiuv ; It. ORIONE, o-re-o'ni,] a cele-
brated giant and hunter of classic mythology, was a son
i A Hyrieus. He loved Merope, a daughter of GJnopion,
and once, when intoxicated, offered violence to her. Her
father resented this act by depriving him of his eyes.
He was befriended by Vulcan, was guided by Cedalion
to the Sun-God, and recovered his sight He was killed
by Diana, whose motive is variously represented, and
was placed among the stars.

Orion, a Greek grammarian of Thebes, in Egypt,
lived abor.t 450 A.D. He composed a "Lexicon Etvmo-
logicum," which was published by Sturz in 1820.

Orlandi, or-Un'dee, (PELLEGRINO ANTONIO,) an Ital
ian litterateur, born at Bologna in 1660. He published
a "Dictionary of Artists," (1704,) and a "History of
Bolognese Writers," (1714.) Died in 1727.

Orlandin. See ORLANDINI.

Orlando di Lasso. See LASSO, DL

Orlandus Lassus. See LASSO, DL

Orlay, van, (BERNARD.) See ORLEY.

Orleans, (CHARLES,) DUKE OF. See CHARLES o'Ua-
LEANS.

Orle-ans, DUKE OF, [Fr. Due D'ORLEANS, duk

doR'la'oN',] (FERDINAND PHILIPPE LOUIS CHARLES
HENRI,) a French prince-royal, born at Palermo in
1810, was the eldest son of King Louis Philippe. He
was educated at the College Henri IV., and in 1832
received a medal for his services to patients who had
the cholera in the hospital. In 1837 he married Helena
uf Mecklenburg. He served with the rank of general fn
Algeria in several campaigns between 1835 and 1840. He
was thrown from his carriage and killed, near Neuilly, in
July, 1842. He left two sons, the Count of Paris and the
Due de Chartres.

See ADRIEN PASCAL, "Vie militaire, politique et privie du Due
d'CrMans," 1^42 ; JULES JANIN, " Le Prince royal," 1842 ; LINDALL,
' Biographic du Due d'OrlcSans." 1842 ; J. MENDELSSOHN, " Ferdi-
Band Philipp Herzog von Orleans," 1842; "Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale."

Orleans, MAID OF. See JOAN OF ARC.



a. e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good;



ORLEANS



1859



ORLEY



Origans, d', (GASTON JEAN BAPTISTE DE FRANCE,
Due, a younger son of Henry IV. and Marie de Medicis,
was born at Fontainebleau in 1608. He was created
Due d'Orleans in 1626, and married Mademoiselle de
Montpensier. In 1630 he vras appointed lieutenant-
general of the kingdom. He quarrelled with Richelieu,
by whom, according to Voltaire, he was persecuted. In
1632 he raised an army against the king, Louis XIII.,
and was supported by the Duke of Montmorency. The
latter having been defeated in battle, Gaston made peace
with the court, and was pardoned ; but, when he learned
that Montmorency was punished with death, he left
France in anger. In 1642 he engaged in a conspiracy
with Cinq-Mars and others against Richelieu, who
detected the plot and induced Gaston ;o betray his
accomplices or give evidence against them. At the
death of Louis XIII., (1643,) Gaston was appointed
lieutenant-general, and he commanded in several cam-
paigns against the Spaniards. He took Gravelines in
1644, and Courtrai in 1646. In the civil war of the
Fronde (1648-52) he displayed his usual inconstancy,
and supported both sides by turns. He died, without
male issue, in 1660.

Orleans, d',(HELENE LOUISE ELISABETH,) DUCHESSE,
born at Ludwigslust in 1814, was a daughter of Frederick
Lewis, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She
married the prince-royal of France in 1837. After the
abdication of Louis Philippe, February, 1848, she pre-
sented herself, with her minor son, the Count of Paris,
before the Chamber of Deputies, and made an unsuccess-
ful effort to obtain the regency. She died at Richmond,
in England, in 1858.

Orleans, d', (HENRI,) PRINCE, son of the Due de
Chartres, was born in 1867. The law of exile of
members of the royal family excluding him from
France, he became, after 1887, an active traveller,
traversing India, exploring Thibet with Bonvalot,
and travelling in Arabia, Madagascar, Tonkin, and
Abyssinia. He published " Six Months in India,
Tiger Shooting," and, in collaboration with Bonva-
lot, " From Paris to Tonkin, across Unknown Thibet."
His explorations and discoveries won him high honour
from the geographical societies of France and other
countries.



Orleans, d', (Louis.) See

Orleans, d', (Louis,) Due, the second son of Charles
V. of France, and the head of the first house of Orleans,
was born in 1371. He married Valentina Visconti, a
daughter of the Duke of Milan. After his brother,
Charles VI., was rendered by insanity incapable of reign-
ing, the kingdom was divided into two factions, of which
the Duke of Orleans and the Duke of Burgundy were
the rival chiefs. In 1407 the former was assassinated in
Paris by Jean Sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy. A civil
war followed between the Burgundians and Armagnacs,
the latter of whom were partisans of the house of Orleans.
Louis of Orleans left two sons, Charles and Jean. (See
CHARLES D'ORL^ANS, and DUNOIS.) Louis, third Duke
of Orleans, the son of Charles just named, became king,
as Louis XII.

See ANSELME, " Histoire ge'nealogique de la Maison de France
aux Dues d'Orle'ans."

Orleans, d', (Louis,) Due, a son of Philippe, (1674-
1723,) noticed below, was born in 1703, and was noted
for his Christian virtues. He retired to a monastery in
1742, devoted much time to literature, and died in 1752,
leaving his title to his son, noticed in the next article.

Orleans, d', (Louis PHILIPPE,) Due, a grandson of
the regent d'Orleans, and son of the preceding, was
born in Paris in 1725. He was the grandfather of Louis
Philippe, King of the French. He served with distinc-
tion at Dettingen in 1743, was made lieutenant-general
in 1744, and fought at Fontenoy and at Hastenbeck in
1757. He died in 1785, leaving a son, Louis Philippe
Joseph, surnamed Egalite.

Orleans, d', (Louis PHILIPPE JOSEPH,) Due, sur-
named EGALITE, born at Saint-Cloud in 1747, was the
son of the preceding, ana was the first prince of the
blood. He was styled the Due de Chartres during the
life of his father, and married the daughter of the Due



de Penthievre. His fortune was immense. He courted
popularity with success, and became alienated from the
royal family, who appear to have treated him ill. He
signalized his courage in a sea-fight against the English
near Ushant in 1778. His Palais Royal in Paris became
the focus of the ideas which caused the Revolution, and
he came to be regarded as the chief of the popular party.
In 1789 he was elected to the States-General, and, with
the minority of the noblesse, joined the Tiers-Etat. The
insurgents of July assumed the colours of his livery,
red, white, and blue. Some historians afBrm that he
instigated the attacks on the royal palace, and aspired
to the throne. Lamartine defends him from this charge,
but admits that he remains an enigma to posterity.
"Through lack of audacity or of ambition," says he,
" the Duke of Orleans never took the attitude of the role
that opinion assigned to him. He respected or he de-
spised the throne. Either of these sentiments exalts him
in the eyes of history." His popularity declined. Wish-
ing to be reconciled to the king, he went to court in 1791,
but was insulted by the courtiers. He then allied him-
self with Danton for the subversion of the monarchy,
renounced his title, assumed the name of EGALITI, and
voted for the death of the king. By order of the Con-
vention, he was imprisoned at Marseilles in April, 1793,
and in November of that year he was executed at Paris
by the Jacobins, apparently without any just grounds.
His son, Louis Philippe, became King of the French.

See A. DUCOIN, "Etudes reVolutiopnaires : Philippe d'Orle'ans
Egalite 1 ," 1845; F. BACKHAUS, "Ludwig Philipp Joseph Orleans,"
etc., 1843 ; W. COOKE TAYLOR, " Memoirs of the House of Orleans,"
1849 : THJERS. " History pt the French Revolution ;" EASCHHT
" Histoire de Philippe EgalM."

Orleans, d', (MARIE.) See MARIE I/ORLEANS.

Orleans, d', ( PHILIPPE,) Due, the founder of the
present house of Orleans, was born in 1640. He was
the only brother of Louis XIV., and a nephew of Gas-
ton, Duke of Orleans, whose title he received in 1660.
He married Henrietta, daughter of Charles I. of Eng-
land, in 1661. In 1672 he joined the army, and distin-
guished himself in several campaigns against the Dutch.
He defeated the Prince of Orange (afterwards William
III.) at the battle of Cassel, in 1677. His daughter
'Marie Louise became the queen of Charles II. of Spain.
He died in 1701, leaving his title to his son, Philippe,
Regent of France.

See SAINT-SIMON, " Me"moires :" VOLTAIRE. " Siecle de Louis
XIV ;" W. COOKE TAYLOR, " Memoirs of the House of Orleans,"
3 voU , 1849.

Orleans, d', (PHILIPPE,) Due, Regent of France, a
son of the preceding, was born at Saint-Cloud in 1674.
He received at his birth the title of Due de Chartres.
He was endowed with superior talents, and made ouch
progress in learning ; but his heart was corrupted by his
tutor, the Abbe' Dubois. He entered the army at the
age of seventeen, and displayed courage and skill at
Steenkerke and Neerwinden. In 1706 he was appointed
commander of the army of Italy, and was defeated at
Turin by Prince Eugene. He had better success in
Spain in 1707 and 1708. At the death of Louis XIV.,
in 1715, the Duke of Orleans became regent, with nearly
absolute power, and in many respects reversed the policy
of the government. His regency, though less despotic
than the reign of Louis XIV., was a period of great
profligacy in politics and morals. (See Louis XV.)
The regent himself set the example of irreligion and
licentiousness. He died in December 1723.

See L. B. NEEL, "Histoire de Louis, Due d'Orle'ans," 1753;
SAINT-SIMON, " Me'moires ;" LA MOTTR, " Vie du Due d'Orle'ans,"



Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Orleans, d', (PIERRE JOSEPH.) See DORL^ANS.

Orley or Orlay, van, vin oR'li, (BERNARD,) also
called BARENT OF BRUSSELS, an eminent Flemish painter,
born in 1490. He studied at Rome under Raphael, in
several of whose works he had a part. On his return to
Brussels he was employed by Charles V. to execute a
number of models for tapestry, which were chiefly
hunting-scenes and landscapes of remarkable beautv
Among his best historical pieces are a " Holy Family,"



as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this. (jgpSee Explanations, p. 2JJ



OR LEY



1860



ORMOND



a "Last Judgment," and "The Saviour Lamented by
his Friends." Died about 1560.

See DESCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands," etc. ; MICHIELS,
"Histoire de la Peinture Flamande," 1845; WEYERMAN, "De

Schilderkonst der Nederlanders."

Orley or Orlay, van, (RICHARD,) a Flemish painter,
born at Brussels in 1652, was also an engraver. His
design is said to be correct. Died at Brussels in 1732.
His brother JAN, born about 1656, was a historical
painter and engraver.

Orlof, Orlov, or Orlow, oR-loP, (ALEXIS,) COUNT, a
Russian admiral, born about 1736. He was remarkable
for his large stature, personal strength, and audacity.
In 1762 he was an accomplice in the conspiracy which
made Catherine autocrat of Russia in place of her hus-
band, Peter III., whom he strangled with his own hands.
He became an admiral, though he had not served in the
marine, and commanded a naval expedition sent against
the Turks, who were defeated by the Russians at Chesme
in 1770. It is said that he ordered a Russian frigate to


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 195 of 425)