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nobleman, distinguished himself by his hostility to the
Jesuits and to the union of the Greek and Roman
Churches. He endeavoured at the Synod of Thorn to
effect a union with the Protestants of Poland. He pub
lished in 1581 the old Slavonian translation of the Bible
called by his name. Died in 1608.

Oatrog, ( CONSTANTINE VASILII, ) was created by
Sigismund, King of Poland, grand commander of Lithu-
ania, and in 1514 obtained a brilliant victory over the
Russians at Orsza.

Ostrovaky or Ostrowski, os-trofskee, (A. N.,) a
popular Russian dramatist of the present age. He
began his literary career about 1850. His works were
published in 4 vols., 1859-67. Died in 1882.

Os'wald, (FELIX LEOPOLD,) a Belgian author,
was born at Namur in 1845. He graduated at Brussels
in 1865, went to Mexico with the Belgian volunteers
in 1866, and acted as correspondent of French and
English journals 1878-97, residing in the United States.
He wrote various works of travel and natural history,
including ' ' Summerland Sketches, " " Days and Nights
in the Tropics," etc.

Os'wald, SAINT, King of Northumbria, born in 604
or 605 A.D. He defeated Cadwalla, King of Wales, and
was killed in a battle against Penda, King of Mercia, in
642 A.D.

Os-y-man'dy-as, an ancient Egyptian king, to whom
the Memnonium and other magnificent structures of
Thebes are attributed, is supposed to have flourished
about 2000 B.C. His name, according to Strabo, is only
a variation of Ismandes. He is also famed for his con-
quests over the Bactrians, and his exploits were repre-
sented on the walls of an immense temple which he built
at Thebes. This edifice, which was esteemed one of the
most beautiful of antiquity, contained the first library of
which we have any account

Ot-a-cill-a Se-ve'ra, (MARCIA,) wife of the Roman
emoeror M. Julius Philipous, lived about 250 A.D.

O'tey, (JAMES HERVEY,) D.D., an American bishop,
born at Liberty, Virginia, January 27, iSoo, graduated at
the University of North Carolina in 1820, in 1827 was
ordained a priest of the Episcopal Church, and in 1834
was consecrated Bishop of Tennessee, the first of the
title. Died April 23, 1863.

Otfried, ot'fRet, ( I, at. OTFRI'DUS,] a learned German
monk of the ninth century, supposed to have been a
native of Franconia. His poetical version of the Gospels,
published about 868, is regarded as one of the most
valuable monuments of the old German language.

Otfridus. See OTFRIED.

Other. See OTTAR.

Othman, (Sultans of Turkey.) See OSMAN.

Othman-Ibn-Affan, oth'mln' Ib'n affan', the third
of the caliphs who succeeded Mohammed, was a distant
relative and a devoted follower of the prophet. He
was invested with the caliphate in 644 A.D. He made
extensive conquests in Persia, Africa, and the island of
Cyprus, but he rendered himself unpopular by the favours
he lavished upon his relatives and friends. Through
the intrigues of Ayeshah, widow of the prophet, and a
number of disaffected nobles, a conspiracy was formed
against his life, and he perished by the hand of Mo-
hammed, son of the caliph Aboo-Bekr, in 656 A.D. Oth-
man was married successively to two daughters of the
prophet Mohammed.

Othman-Ibn-Yahya-Alkaiaee, (-Alcaisi,)'-

man' ib'n ya'he-a al-ki'see, a Spanish Arab of distin-
guished talents and learning, was born at Malaga in the
thirteenth century, and rose to be governor of that city.
He wrote treatises " De Haereditate" and " De Mensuris
Hispanis," and a work entitled " Grammatical Ques-
tions," ("Quzsita Grammatical') Died in 1334.

O'tho, [Fr. OTHON, o'tAN',] (MARCUS SALVIUS,) Em-
peror of Rome, born about 32 A.D., was descended from
a patrician family. He was for a time an intimate asso-
ciate of Nero, until the attachment of the latter for Pop-
paea, Otho's wife, caused a rupture between them. He
supported Galba in his revolt against Nero, in 68 A.D.,
but, disappointed that the former did not appoint him
his successor, he conspired with the guards, took the
life of Galba, and assumed the supreme power. He soon
after marched against Caecina, a general of Vitellius,
who had been proclaimed emperor by the legions in
Germany. His army having been totally defeated near
Bebriacum, Otho destroyed himself in April, 69 A.D.,
and was succeeded by Vitellius. Otho was a man of
profligate character.

See PLUTARCH, "Life of Otho;" MERIVAI.E, "The Romans
under the Empire ;" SUBTONIUS, "Otho;" W. E. WEBKR, "Kaiser
M. Salvius Otho," 1815 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

O'tho [Fr. OTHON, o't6N' ; Ger. OT'TO] I_, THE
GREAT, son of Henry I., was born in 912 A.D., and suc-
ceeded his father as Emperor of Germany in 936. Soon
after his accession he was involved in a protracted war
with Boleslaw, Duke of Bohemia, whom he compelled to
acknowledge his supremacy, (950.) He repressed the
arrogance of the feudal barons, founded numerous bish-
oprics, and was zealous in his efforts to propagate Chris-
tianity. He defeated Harold, King of the Danes, whom
he obliged to be baptized and to become tributary to
Germany. In 951 he went to the assistance of the Ital-
ians against the usurper Berengarius, who had murdered
King Lotharius and imprisoned Adelaide, his queen,
whom Otho married the same year. He was crowned
emperor at Rome by Pope John XII. in 962, and as-
sumed the title of Caesar. The pope, having soon after
conspired with the enemies of Otho, was deposed by him,
and Leo VIII. elected in his place. In 972 his son,
Otho II., whom he had previously caused to be crowned
at Rome, married the princess Theophania, daughter of
Nicephorus Phocas, Emperor of the East Otho died
in 973. " He deserves," says Sismondi, " more than
Charlemagne the name of Great, because his reign had
a much more salutary influence on the nations whom he
subjected." Other historians, however, have expressed
a different opinion.

See VEHSE, " Leben Otto des Grossen," 1829; BOEHMBR, "Re
jesta Ottonum ;" " Nouvelle Biographic G^neYale."

Otho (Otto) U., Emperor of Germany, born in 955,
succeeded his father, Otho I., in 973. King Lothaire
of France, having renewed his pretensions to Lorraine,
was opposed and signally defeated by Otho. In 980 he
concluded a treaty by which the investiture of Lower
Lorraine was given to Charles, the brother of Lothaire,
on condition of his doing homage to the German em-
peror. He afterwards attempted the conquest of Cala-
Dria and Apulia, but was defeated in 982 by the combined
forces of the Greeks and Saracens. He died in 983,
and was succeeded by his son, Otho III.

See DIETMAR, "Chronicon;" "Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale."
Otho (Otto) TTT, Emperor of Germany, son of the
preceding, was three years of age at his father's death.
He was crowned at Rome by Pope Gregory V. in 996.
While he was engaged in a war with the Slavi, Crescen-
:ius, a Roman patrician, deposed Gregory V. and elected
in his stead a Greek under the name of John XVI. Otho
advanced into Italy, (998,) defeated Crescentius and put
lim to death, and restored the former pope. He died,
without issue, in 1002, and was succeeded by Henry II
of Bavaria.

See RICHER, "Chronicon;" F. D. RING. " Kaieer Otto III.:"
BOEHMEK, " Re gesta Ottonum ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale. *

Otho (Otto) IV., Emperor of Germany, born about
1174, was the son of Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria,
and Matilda, daughter of Henry II. of England. He was

a,e, 1,0, u,y, long, '4,6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 5, li, y,tAert; a, e, 1,9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mjt; nftt; gdod; moon-




educated at the court of his uncle, Richard Cceur-de-
Lion, whom he assisted in his wars against Philip
Augustus of France. In 1197 he was chosen emperor
by a portion of the electors, while others declared for
Philip, Duke of Suabia, which gave rise to a ten years'
war. Pope Innocent III. having favoured the preten-
sions of Otho, he was crowned at Rome in 1209, and in
return for this favour conceded to the papal see the right
of investiture. Otho soon quarrelled with the pope, at
whose instigation many German princes and prelates
revolted in 1212 and elected Frederick of Hohenstaufen
as emperor. Otho was defeated at the great battle of
Bouvines, in 1214, by Philip Augustus of France. He
died in 1218.

O'tho or Ot'to, King of Greece, born in 1815, was
a son of Lewis I., King of Bavaria. He was elected
king by the Greeks in 1832, and their choice was con-
firmed by a treaty between France, England, and Russia.
He married Amalia, a daughter of the Grand Duke of
Oldenburg, in 1836. His reign was unpopular, and was
disturbed by insurrections. He abdicated in October,
1862. Died in 1867.

See " Blackwood's Magazine" for October, 1834, and November,

O'tho, (Lucius SALVIUS,) a Roman commander, the
father of the emperor Otho, was a favourite of Tiberius.
He was consul in 33 A.D., and afterwards proconsul in
Africa. He detected a conspiracy against the life of

Otho, o'to, (VENIUS,) a Dutch painter, born at Ley-
den in 1556, was one of the instructors of Rubens. He
worked some years at Rome. Died in 1634.

Otho OF BRANDENBURG, a German poet, and Mar-
grave of Brandenburg, was called OTHO WITH THE
ARROW. Died in 1304.

Otho (or Otto) von Freisingen, o'to fon fRi'zing'en,
one of the early German chroniclers, was the son of
Leopold IV., Margrave of Austria, and Agnes, daughter
of the emperor Henry IV. In 1137 he was appointed
Bishop of Freisingen by his half-brother, the emperor
Conrad III. He was the author of a " Chronicle of the
World from the Creation to his Own Time," in seven
books. The first part is chiefly a compilation from other
historians, but the last contains information of great
value relative to German history, being drawn from the
most authentic sources. He also wrote a " History of
the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa." Died in 1158.

Othon. See OTHO.

O'tis, (ELWEI.L STEPHEN,) an American general,
was born at Frederick City, Maryland, in 1838. During
the civil war he served in the Union army, and after
the war was made lieutenant-colonel of regulars, rising
to brigadier-general in 1893. He was appointed major-
general of volunteers in May, 1898, and sent to the
Philippines, taking principal command on the de-
parture of General Merritt for Paris. He served as
military governor and commander-in-chief during the
rebellion, until the spring of 1900, when he resigned,
and was promoted major-general in the United States

O'tis, (HARRISON GRAY,) an American statesman and
orator, born in Boston in October, 1765, was a nephew
of James, noticed below, and a son of Samuel Allyne
Otis. He graduated at Harvard College in 1783, prac-
tised law in Boston, and was elected a member of Con-
gress in 1796. He became a leader of the Federal party,
and was highly distinguished for his graceful eloquence.
He was president of the senate of Massachusetts for
several years between 1805 and 1812, was a member ol
the Hartford Convention in 1814, and was a Senator of
the United States from 1817 to 1822. In 1820 he made
a speech in the Senate against the extension of slavery.
He retired from public life in 1832. Died in Boston in
October, 1848.

Otis, ( JAMES,) a celebrated American orator and
patriot, born at West Barnstable, in Massachusetts,
en the 5th of February, 1725, was a son of James Otis,
a judge and lawyer. He graduated at Harvard College
in 1743, studied law, and became a resident of Boston

about 1750. He was profoundly versed in classical litera-
ture, and in 1760 published an able work entitled " Rudi-
ments of Latin Prosody, with a Dissertation on Letters,"
etc. He acquired distinction in 1761 by an argument
against the writs of assistance for which the officers of
the customs had applied. Referring to this speech, John
Adams said, "Otis was a flame of fire : with a prompti-
tude of classical allusions, a depth of research, a rapid
Bummary of historical events and dates, a profusion ot
legal authorities, a prophetic glance of his eyes into
futurity, and a rapid torrent of impetuous eloquence
he hurried away all before him. American independence
was then and there born. Every man of an immense,
crowded audience appeared to me to go away, as I did,
ready to take up arms against writs of assistance." The
judges suspended or evaded the decision of the question.
He was elected a member of the legislature in 1762, and
became the leader of the popular party. He was a dele-
gate to the Congress which met at New York in 1765,
and which was called " the Stamp-Act Congress." He
wrote several pamphlets in defence of the colonies against
the arbitrary measures of the British ministry. In Sep-
tember, 1769, he was assaulted by several ruffians of the
opposite party, and received a severe wound in the head,
in consequence of which he became partially deranged,
or permanently disqualified for usefulness. A man named
Robinson was sentenced to pay ^2000 for this assault,
but the fine was remitted by Otis. He had married Ruth
Cunningham, of Boston. He was killed by lightning at
Andover in May, 1783.

See WILLIAM TUDOR, " Life of James Otis," 1823 : FRANCIS
BOWHN, " Life of James Otis," in SPARKS'S "American Biography,"
vol. ii., ad series; " North American Review" for April, 1823.

Otranto, DUKE OF. See FOUCKE.

Ott, ot, (JOHANN BAPTIST,) a Swiss Orientalist and
antiquary, born in 1661. He became professor of He-
brew at Zurich about 1702, and wrote several antiquarian

Ott, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a Swiss divine and Orien-
talist, the father of the preceding, was born in the canton
of Zurich in 1617. He became professor of eloquence
and Hebrew at Zurich about 1654. He wrote a number
of works on theology, etc. Died in 1682.

Ottar, ot'tar, written also Other and Ohther, a Nor-
wegian traveller, who flourished in the ninth century,
visited the court of Alfred, King of England. Having
given to that monarch an account of his voyages to the
Arctic regions, it was inserted by him in his Anglo-
Saxon version of Orosius. This narrative possesses
great interest, as giving the earliest information respect-
ing those countries.

Otter, ot'ter, (JOHAN,) a Swedish philologist, born at
Christianstadt in 1707. After a residence of ten years
in Asia and Turkey, he was appointed interpreter for the
Oriental tongues at the Royal Library in Paris, and in
1746 was made professor of Arabic. He published
" Travels in Turkey and Persia." Died in 1748.

Otterbein, ot'ter-bin', (PHILIP WILLIAM,) bom at
Dillenburg, Germany, in 1726, emigrated in 1752 to
Pennsylvania, where he founded the Church of the
United Brethren in Christ. Died in 1813.

Otthoboni, ot'to-bo'nee, (Cardinal PIETRO,) a
nephew of Pope Alexander VIII., was born in 1668,
and elevated to the purple in 1690. He is known as a
munificent patron of art and music, and the possessor
of a unique library, a portion of which, after his death
la 1740, was purchased for the Vatican.

Ottin, o'tiN', (AucusTE Louis MARIE,) a French
sculpto:, born in Paris in 1811. He gained the grand
prize, and a medal of the first class. Died in 1890.

Ottinger. See OETTINGER.

Ott'ley, (WILLIAM YOUNG,) an English artist, con
noisseur, and able writer on art, born in 1771. He re-
sided for many years in Italy, where he made a large and
choice collection of paintings and engravings. After his
return he published a superb work entitled "The Italian
School of Design ; being Fac-Similes of Original Draw-
ings by Eminent Italian Painters and Sculptors," (3 vols.,
1808-23.) In 1833 he became keeper of the prints in
the British Museum. He was a Fellow of the Royal
Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. Among his

as; cas.r; gAarJ; gas/';G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasin//>. (JjJ^"See Explanations, p. 23.)




chief works is " An Inquiry into the Origin and Early
History of Engraving on Copper and on Wood," (2
vols., 1816.) Died in 1836.

Ottmer, ot'mer, (KARL THEODOR,) an eminent Ger-
man architect, born at Brunswick in 1800. In 1824 he
completed the new theatre at Berlin, and a few years
later the Academy of Singing in the same place. His
greatest work is the palace of William, Duke of Bruns-
wick, finished in 1837, an edifice of great size and re-
markable elegance, at Brunswick. Died in 1843.

Otto, the German for OTHO, which see.

Ot'to, (CARL,) a Danish medical writer, born in Saint
Thomas, West Indies, in 1795. He became professor
of pharmacy at Copenhagen in 1840. Died in 1879.

Ot'to, (EVERARD,) a German jurist, born at Hamm
in 1685. He published "Treasury of Roman Law,"
("Thesaurus Juris Roman), " 4 vols., 1725-29.) Died
at Bremen in 1756.

Otto, (FRIEDRICH JULIAN,) a German savant, born in
Saxony in 1809. He was appointed successively pro-
fessor of chemistry (1835) and member of the College
of Health at Brunswick, (1836.) He published a " Manual
for the Rational Practice of Agriculture," (1849-50,) and
several chemical works. Died January 12, 1870.

Otto, o'to', (Louis GUILLAUME,) Comte de Mosloy,
(mo'lwa',) a distinguished diplomatist, born in the
duchy of Baden in 1754. Having studied at Strasburg,
he accompanied the French minister Luzerne to the
United States in 1779. After his return he was sent, in
1800, as minister-plenipotentiary to London, and in 1809
was appointed by Napoleon to negotiate his marriage
with the archduchess Maria Louisa, having previously
been made Count of Mosloy and grand officer of the
legion of honour. In 1813 he became minister of state.
Died in 1817.

See THIEKS, "History of the Consulate and the Empire."

Ot'to-Pe'ters, (-pa'ters,) (LouiSE,) a German author-
ess, was born at Meissen, March 26, 1819, and in 1858 was
married to August Peters, an author. She wrote many
novels, often of an ultra-republican and revolutionary
character. Died March 13, 1895.

Ottocar, ot'to-kaR', (Ottokar,) H., King of Bohemia,
was a son of Wenceslas I., and began to reign in 1253.
He obtained Austria and Styria by marriige, and extended
his dominions from the Baltic to the Adriatic. His
ambition to be emperor involved him in a war with
Rudolph of Hapsburg. He was killed in battle in 1278.

Ottokar or Ottocar, ot'to-kaR', [Lat. OTTOCA'RUS,]
German poet and chronicler, born in Styria about
1250. He wrote, between 1300 and 1316, a rhymed
chronicle of Austria and Styria.

See T. JACOBI, "De Ottocaro Chronico Austriaco."

Ottokar, (AMADEUS,) the assumed name of GEORG

Ottokar von Horneck. See HORNECK, VON.

Ot'way, (Sir ROBERT,) an English admiral, born in
1772 ; died in 1846.

Otway, (THOMAS,) a celebrated English dramatist,
born in Sussex in 1651. Having been unsuccessful as
an actor, he applied himself to dramatic writing, and in
1675 published his tragedy of " Alcibiades." This was
soon followed by "Don Carlos," which was received
with great favour. In 1677 he obtained from the Earl
M Plymouth a situation as cornet of dragoons in the
trmy of Flanders ; but, soon becoming dissatisfied with
military life, he again gave his attention to the drama.
In 1680 the tragedy of "The Orphan" appeared, and in
1682 his "Venice Preserved." These two are charac-
terized by Hallam as " having a deep pathos, a dramatic
eloquence rapid and flowing, and sometimes very grace-
ful poetry ;" and he adds, " The ' Venice Preserved' is
more frequently represented than any tragedy after those
of Shakspeare." Among Otway's other plays we may
cite "Caius Marius,"and a comedy called "The Soldier's
Fortune." He also translated and remodelled the " Titus
and Berenice" of Racine, and Moliere's "Fourberies de
Scapin." He died in 1685, in a state of extreme desti-
tution ; and some accounts state that his death was
caused by hunger.

See JMHNSON, " Lives of the Poets," and " Life of Otway," pre-
fixed to the edition of his works, 1813.

Oudaen, ow'dan, (JOACHIM,) a Dutch tragedian, born
in 1628; died in 1692. His best-known plays are "Jo-
hanna Gray" (1648) and " Konradyn," (1649.)

Oudenaerde. See AUDENAERDE.

Oudendorp, van, vin ow'den-doRp', (FRANS,) an
eminent Dutch philologist, born at Leyden in 1696, was
for many years professor of history and rhetoric in his
native city. He published excellent editions of Julius
Obsequens, Lucan, Suetonius, and other classics, and
was the author of a treatise " On the Use of Ancient
Inscriptions." Died in 1761.

Oudet, oo'dj', (JACQUES JOSEPH,) a French officer,
born at Meynal in 1773, was a zealous republican. He
was an active member of the secret society called Phila-
delphes. He was killed at Wagram in 1809.

See NODIBR, " Histoire des Sociiies secretes," 1814.

Oudin, oo'daN', (CASIMIR,) a French bibliographer,
born at Mezieres in 1638. He published a " Commen-
tary on Ancient Ecclesiastical Writers," and several
other works. Died in 1717.

Oudin, (FRANCOIS,) a learned French Jesuit, born in
Champagne in 1673. He wrote a number of elegant
Latin poems, and theological and biographical treatises.
Died in 1752.

Oudini, oo'de'nl', (EUGENE ANDRfi,) an eminent
French sculptor and engraver of medals, born in Paris
in 1810. He gained the grand prize of Rome in 1831, a
medal of the first class in 1839 for engraving, and a
medal of the first class for sculpture in 1843. Among
his engraved works is a medal entitled the " Apotheosis
of Napoleon I." Died in 1887.

Oudinet, oo'de'n^', (MARC ANTOINE,) a French an-
tiquary, born at Rheims in 1643, was appointed keeper
of the medals in the Royal Cabinet in Paris. In 1701
he became a member of the Academy of Inscriptions.
He published several valuable treatises on medals. Died
in 1712.

Oudinot, oo'dee'no', (ACHILLE FRANQOIS,) a Franco-
American painter, born at Damigny, (Orne,) April 18,
1820. He was educated at the communal college of
Alenon. He studied architecture and designing, by
means of which he maintained himself in later years
while carrying on his studies in painting. He served in
the revolution of 1848, and in the Franco-German war,
1870-71. Under the Commune he was conservator of
the museums of the Louvre. He designed and con-
structed the admirable Daubigny studio, and made
many of its interior decorations and paintings. He also
won distinction as a glass-painter, and received several
medals, chiefly foreign. In 1876 he came to the United
States, and settled in Hoston as an American citizen.
He painted many evening-, forest-, and river-scenes, and
exerted an excellent influence as a teacher, but subse-
quently returned to Paris. Died about 1890.

Oudinot, oo'de'no', (CHARLES NICOLAS VICTOR,)
Due de Reggio, a general, a son of the following, was
born at Bar-le-Duc in 1791. He served as captain in
the Russian campaign, (1812,) and became a tnarechal-
de-camp in 1822. He commanded the French army sent
in 1849 to Rome to protect the pope against his subjects.
Having occupied the city after a short siege, July, 1849,
he returned to France. He opposed Louis Napoleon in
the coup d'itat of December 2, 1851, after which he was
not employed in public service. Died in 1863.

Oudinot, (NICOLAS CHARLES,) Due de Reggio, (r&'-
zho',) a distinguished French general, was born at Bar-
sur-Ornain in 1767. He obtained the rank of colonel
in 1793, and resisted about 10,000 Austrians with one
regiment for eight hours in 1794. For this service he
was raised to the rank of a general of brigade. He
took Treves in 1794, and received five wounds in an
action near Mannheim in October, 1795. In 1799 he
became a general of division, and chief of the staff in
the army of Massena, under whom he served at the
siege of Genoa, in 1800. Having received command of
ten battalions of grenadiers in 1805, he performed a
prominent part in the capture of Vienna, and took a
bridge over the Danube which was defended by about
one hundred and eighty pieces of cannon. He rendered
important services at Austerlitz in 1805, and gained a
victory at Ostrolenka in 1807. At the battle of Fried-

i. e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, J, short; a, e, j, 9. obscure; far, fall, fat; met; nfit; fiootl; mon




land, June, 1807, he resisted for a number of hours an
army of about 75,000 Russians, and gave time to the
rest of the French army to gain the victory. He main-
tained his reputation in 1809 at Landshut, Lobau, Vienna,
and Wagram. He was raised to the rank of marshal
of France in July, 1809, and received the title of Due
de Reggio in the same year. In 1813 he served at Lut-
rcn and Bautzen, and was defeated by Bernadotte at
Gross-Beeren. During the Hundred Days he adhered
to Louis XVIII., who gave him a high command in

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 198 of 425)