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1815. He commanded a corps of the army which in-
vaded Spain and took Madrid in 1823. Died in 1847.

See " Victoires ct Conquetes des Fractals ;" L. DE LOMKNIE,
"M. le Marechal Oudinot, par un Homme de Rien," 1844; T. NOL-
LET-FABHKT, " Histoire de N. C. Oudinot," 1850; "Nouvelle Bio-
graphie Generale."

Oudot, oo'do', (FRANCOIS JULIEN,) a French jurist,
born at Ornans (Doubs) in 1804. He obtained a chair
of civil law in Paris about 1837. Died in 1864.

Oudry, oo'dRe', (JEAN BAPTISTS,) a French artist,
particularly distinguished as a painter of animals, was
born in Paris in 1686. He studied under Largilliere,
and attained considerable skill in portrait and historical
painting, but he subsequently devoted himself exclu-
sively to hunting-scenes and animal pieces. He was
patronized by the King of Denmark and Louis XV. of
France ; and one of his best pictures represents the latter
on horseback with a dozen nobles of his court. Oudry
was also a skilful engraver, and furnished one hundred
and fifty designs for the splendid edition of La Fontaine's
Fables published in 1755. Died in 1755.

Ouel le Bon, the French for HOWEL THE GOOD,
which see.

Oughtred, ot're^d, (WILLIAM,) an English divine and
eminent mathematician, born in Buckinghamshire in
1573. He wrote "The Description and Use of the
Double Horizontal Dyall," " Clavis Mathematica," and
a "Treatise on Trigonometry." He is styled by Fuller
" the prince of mathematicians.' Died in 1660.

Ouida. See DE LA RAME, (LOUISE.)

puless, oo-less', (WALTER WILLIAM,) a British
painter, born at Saint Helier, Jersey, September 21, 1848.
He was educated at Victoria College, in Jersey, and at
the Royal Academy. In 1872 he devoted himself to
portrait-painting, in which he won high distinction.

Oultreman, d', dootR'moN', [Lat OULTREMAN'NUS,]
(HENRI,) a Flemish writer, born at Valenciennes in 1546,
was the author of a " History of the Town and County
of Valenciennes from its Origin to the End of the Six-
teenth Century." Died in 1605.

Oultreman, d', (PIERRE,) a historian, a son of the
preceding, was born at Valenciennes in 1591. He wrote
a " Life of Peter the Hermit," (1632,) and a History
of Baldwin and Henry, Emperors of Constantinople,
(" Constantinopolis Belgica," etc., 1643.) Died in 1656.

Oultremannus. See OULTREMAN.

Oury, oo'ree or oo'ree', (ANNA CAROLINA, nit de
Belleville), a celebrated pianist and composer, born in
Bavaria, of French parentage, in 1806. In 1831 she mar-
ried M. Oury, a violinist, with whom she made a tour of
the European cities. In 1839 the couple settled in Eng-
land. Madame Oury retired in 1866, and died in 1880.

Ousel, (PHILIP.) See OISEL.

Ouseley, ooz'lee, (Sir FREDERICK ARTHUR GORE,)
an English musician, a son of Sir Gore Ouseley, noticed
below, was born in London August 12, 1825. He com-
posed several anthems, and wrote treatises on " Har-
cony," (1869,) "Counterpoint and Fugue," (1869,) etc.
Li 1855 he was appointed professor of music at Oxford.
Died April 6, 1889.

Ouseley, ooz'lee, (GiDEON,) an Irish Methodist min-
ister, born at Dunmore in 1762. He laboured as a mis-
sionary among the Irish. Died in 1839.

Ouseley or Ousely, (Sir GORE,) a diplomatist, born
in Ireland in 1769. He was sent as ambassador to
Persia about 1810, and published "Biographical Notices
of Persian Poets," (1846.) Died in 1844.

Ouseley or Ousely, (Sir WILLIAM,) Viscount Clara-
uont, an Orientalist, brother of the preceding, was born
in 1771. He published "Travels in Various Coun-

tries of the East, more particularly Persia," (1831.)
Died in 1842.

Outhier, oo'te-i', (REGINALD or RENAULD,) a French
astronomer, borrTTn Poligni in 1694. In 1736 he accom-
panied Maupertuis and other savants on a scientific
expedition to Lapland, of which he afterwards published
an interesting account. He was a corresponding mem-
ber of the Academy of Sciences, and member of the
Royal Society of Berlin. Died in 1774.

Outram, oo'tram, (Sir JAMES,) an English general,
born in Derbyshire in 1803, was a son of Benjamin
Outram, an eminent civil engineer, who died in 1805.
He went to India about 1820, served in the war against
Dost Mohammed, and became British resident at Hy-
derabad and Lucknow. In 1856 he was appointed
commander of a successful expedition against Persia.
During the Sepoy mutiny of 1857 he returned to India,
and superseded Havelock as commander of the army
at Lucknow. (See HAVELOCK.) Died in 1863.

Outram, written also Owtram, ( WILLIAM,) a learned
English theologian, born in Derbyshire in 1625. He
became prebendary of Westminster in 1670. He was
versed in rabbinical learning and in the writings of the
Fathers. His chief work is a treatise on sacrifices, "De
Sacrificiis Libri duo," (1677.) Died in 1679.

Ouvarof. See OOVAROF.

Ouvrard, OO'VR!R', (GABRIEL JULIEN,) a French
financier, born near Clisson in 1770. He was a bold
and successful speculator, and enriched himself by his
operations as contractor during the war of the Revo-
lution. He was prosecuted by Napoleon I., and im-
prisoned some years. Died in 1846.

See his autobiographic " Me'moires sur ma Vie," 3 vcls., 1836;
" Biographic Universeile."

Ouvrard, (RENE,) a French ecclesiastic, born at
Chinon about 1620, published treatises on music, the-
ology, and mathematics. He was intimate with Arnauld
and other writers of Port-Royal. Died in 1694.

Ouvrie, oo'vRe-i', (PIERRE JUSTIN,) a French land-
scape-painter, born in Paris in 1806. Died in 1879.

Ouwater, van, v3n ow'wa'ter, (ALBERT,) a Dutch
painter, born at Haarlem in 1444, was one of the first
artists in Holland who painted in oil. Among his mas-
ter-pieces are "The Resurrection of Lazarus" and "The
Descent from the Cross." The latter was warmly
eulogized by Albert Diirer. Died in 1515.

See PILKINGTON, "Dictionary of Painters:" DESCAHPS, "Vies
des Peintres Flaraands, Hollandais," etc.

Ovalle, de, da o-vil'yi, (ALFONSO,) sometimes writ-
ten Ovaglie, a Jesuit, of Spanish extraction, born in
Chili in 1601. He published in 1646 a "Historical Ac-
count of the Kingdom of Chili and the Jesuit Missions
in that Country." Died in 1651.

Ovando, o-van'do, (NICOLAS,) a Spanish officer, and
commander of the order of Alcantara, succeeded Boba-
dilla as governor of Hispaniola in 1501. While his rule
over the Spanish colonists was marked by justice and
kindness, he has incurred lasting reproach by the cruel-
ties he perpetrated on the Indians, a great number of
whom were massacred at Xaragua by his orders. He
also treated Columbus with great injustice, and availed
himself of every opportunity of thwarting his designs.
He was recalled to Spain in 1508, and succeeded by
Diego Columbus, son of the celebrated admiral. Died
in 1518, aged about fifty-eight.

See CHARLBVOIX, " Histoire de Saint-Domingue ;" OVIEDO,
" Cronica de las Indias."

O'ver-all, (JOHN,) a learned English prelate, born in
1559. He rose through several preferments to be Bishop
of Norwich in 1619. His principal work is entitled
"The Convocation-Book," in which he maintains the
divine origin of government. Bishop Overall was es-
teemed the best scholastic divine of his time in England.
He was the friend and correspondent of Grotius and
Gerard Vossius. Died in 1619.

Overbeok, o'ver-beV, (FRIEDRICH.) one of the most
illustrious German painters of the nineteenth century,
was born at Lubeck in 1789. After having studied for
a time at Vienna, in 1810 he visited Rome, where, with
Cornelius, Schnorr, and other German artists, he became
one of the founders of what has been styled the roman-

; gbarj; gasj; G, H, K., guttural; n, nasal; R, trilled; sas t; th as mtkis.

Explanations, p. 23.




o !

He or symbolic school of painting in Germany Amoni
his earliest productions were the frescos at the villa o
the consul-general Bartholdy, representing "Joseph sol.
into Captivity," and "The Seven Years of Famine In
1817 he adorned the villa of Marquis Massimi with five
large frescos taken from Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered.
Hi! magnificent fresco at Assisi, representing "The


Miracle of Roses of Saint Francis," is esteemed his
master-piece in that department. Among his best oil-
paintings are "The Entrance of Christ into Jerusalem,
in the Marienkirche at Lubeck, "Christ on the Mount
of Olives," "The Death of Saint Joseph," and the large
picture in the Stadelschen Institut at Frankfort-on-the-
Main, entitled "The Influence of Christianity in the
^rts jj e has also produced a number of elegant de-
signs among which are " Forty Illustrations from the
Gospels," since engraved by Keller, Bartoccini and
others. Regarding art as the handmaid of religion,
Overbeck has almost exclusively chosen scriptural sub-
jects, and his works are characterized by deep devotional
feeling, simplicity, and touching sweetness of expression.
According to some writers, Overbeck's influence and
reputation in Germany have considerably declined ot

latter time.

Died in 1869.

SeeRACZYNSKl, " Histoiredel'Art Allemandmodenie;" NAGLKR,
Ulgemeines KunsUer-Lcxikon ;" BBOCKHAUS, Conversauons-

the islands in it. He died of fever at Kuka, in Central
Africa, in September, 1852.

Ov'id, [Lat. OVID'IUS ; It. OVIDIO, o-vee'de-o ; Fr.
OVIDE, o'ved',] or, more fully, Pub'lius Ovid'iua
Na'so, a popular Roman poet, was born at Sulmo,
(Sulmona,) about ninety miles east of Rome, in 43 B.C.
He studied rhetoric in Rome under Arellius Fuscus and
Porcius Latro, and made himself master of Greek at
Athens. His poetical genius was manifested in early
youth, and afterwards diverted him from the practice of
law, which, in compliance with his father's will, he began
to study. He held, however, several civil or judicial
offices at Rome, and became one of the Decemviri. He
sought and obtained the acquaintance of Propertius,
Horace, Macer, and other poets. He also enjoyed for a
time the favour of the emperor Augustus. Among his
earliest productions were three books of " Amores."
Before the age of fifty he had published "The Art of
Love," (" Ars Amatoria,") " Medea," a tragedy, and

Heroic Epistles," ("Heroides.") He had also nearly

finished his celebrated '

Metamorphoses," ("Metamor-
hich display great poetical

phoseon Libri XV.,") wl . . _

genius. In the year 8 A.D. he was suddenly banished
by Augustus to Tomi, on the Euxine, near the mouth
of the Danube. The reason assigned for this penal
measure was the publication of his immodest poem
" The Art of Love ;" but this is believed to have been
a mere pretext, as that poem was published about ten
years earlier. Ovid in his later writings alludes to some
offence which he mysteriously conceals, and for which
he admitted that he deserved to suffer. This question
appears to have baffled the ingenuity and curiosity of
scholars. He has been censured for the abject terms



Overbeck, (JOHANNES ADOLF,) a German scholar,
a nephew of Friedrich Overbeck, was born at Antwerp,
March 7, 1826. He took his doctor's degree at Bonn
in 1850, in 1853 became an extraordinary professor at
Leipsic, and in 1859 full professor, and director of the

Archaeological Museum. Among his works are a " Gal-

lery of the Heroic Creations of Greek Art," (1851-53,) | j n which he petitioned Augustus for a pardon, which
"History of Greek Plastic Art," (1857-58,) and "Art- : was inexorably refused. He died at Tomi in 18 A.D.,
Mythology of Greece," (1871-73.) Died in 1895.

Overbeek, van, vfn o'ver-bak', (BONAVENTURE,) a
Dutch painter, born at Amsterdam in 1660. He went
to Rome, and made numerous designs of the antiquities
of that city. Having returned to Holland, he died in
1706, leaving a work entitled " Reliquiae antiquae Urbis

Romae," (1707-09.)

See DESCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc.

Overbury, o'ver-ber-e, (Sir THOMAS,) an English
author and courtier, born at Compton-Scorfen, Warwick-
shire, in 1581. By his talents and learning he acquired
influence with Carr, who became the favourite of James
I. and was created Earl of Somerset. For advising
against the marriage of Carr with the infamous Countess
of Essex, Overbury was committed to the Tower, (1613.)
After a confinement of several months, he was poisoned
by order of Somerset and his wife, who were convicted
of the crime but pardoned. He left a popular poem
called "The Wife," (1614,) and a prose work entitled
" Characters," which is praised for wit and ingenuity.
" ' The Fair and Happy Milkmaid,' often quoted," says
Hallam, "is the best of his characters."

See E. F. RIMBAULT, " Life of Sir Thomas Overbury," 1856 ;
GARDINER, " History of England from 1603 to 1616," ch. li. ; " Re-
trospective Review, vol. ii., (1820.)

O'ver de Iiin'deu, (CoRNELis.) a Frisian writer, born
in 1811. He was a ship-carpenter, and worked in the
royal dock-yards at the Helder. He wrote the famous
" Oera Linda Boek," in the Frisian tongue. This strange
book was a forgery : the author pretended that it was in
part copied in 1256 from ancient documents, and for a
time it attracted a great deal of attention. Over de Lin-
den died in 1875.

Overskov, o'ver-skov^, (THOMAS,) a Danish drama
tist, born at Copenhagen in 1798. He produced nume
rous comedies and operas ; also a " History of the Danish
Theatre," (1854-56.) Died November 7, 1873.

O'ver-stpne, (SAMUEL JONES LOYD,) first BARON, an
English banker, born in London in 1796. He was raised
to the peerage in 1850. He had previously gained some
distinction as a financier. He died November 17, 1883.
Overweg, o'ver-wSc', (ADOLF,) a German traveller,
born at Hamburg in 1822. He was associated with Mr.
Richardson and Dr. Barth in a journey of exploration
to Lake Tchad, in Africa. They left Tripoli in March,
1850, and Overweg, with Dr. Barth, reached Lake Tchac
in 1851. He launched a boat on the lake and visitec

daughter, of the emperor Augustus,
translation of Ovid is " Ovid's Metamor


which was also the year of Livy's death. His " Me-
dea," which some ancient attics esteemed his most
perfect work, is lost. During his exile he wrote, besides
other minor poems, "Twelve Books of Fasti, ' ("Fasto-
rum Libri XII.,") six of which have come down to us.
This is a poetical Roman calendar, and has historical
value as well as literary merit, Ovid was thrice married,
and divorced his first wife and his second. He also loved
and courted a woman of high rank, whom he celebrated
under the fictitious name of Corinna. Some writers
suppose she was Julia the daughter, or Julia the grand-

The best English
rphoses, in Fifteen

Books, translated by the Most Eminent Hands," London,
1717. Among these translators were Dryden, Addison,
Congreve, and Garth.

See MASSON, "Vita P. Ovidii Nasonis," 1708; C. ROSMIMI
Vita di Public Ovidio Naso," 1789: VILLRNAVE, "Vie d'Ond
Paris, 1809 ; BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary.'
Ovide. See OVID.
Ovidio. See OVID.
Ovidius. See OVID.

Oviedo, de, di o-ve-a'oo, (ANDRES,) a Spanish
Jesuit and missionary, born at Ilhescas. He was sent
to Abyssinia about 1556. Died in 1577.

Oviedo y Valdes, de, da o-ve-a'DO e vil-des', (GoN-
SALO FERNANDEZ,) a celebrated Spanish historian, born
at Madrid in 1478, became at an early age one of the
pages at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella. In 1513
he visited the West Indies, where he resided many
years, and obtained, among other important offices, that
of historiographer of the Indies. His principal work is
entitled " General History of the West Indies," (1st vol.,
'535.) which, though containing many errors, displays
extensive learning and has been of great yalue^ to sub-
sequent historians,

The last volume of it remains in
Treatise on the

r _ He also published a

Natural History of the Indies," and wrote a valu
work, which is still in manuscript, entitled " Qum
genas," or Fifty Dialogues. Died in 1557.

See TICKNOR, " History of Spanish Literature," vol. L ; Puns
COTT " History of the Conquest of Mexico," vol. 11. book iv., anf
his " History of Ferdinand and Isabella," vol. l. part I.

Ovington, uv'ing-tgn, ? (JoHN,) an English ecclesi-
astic and traveller, was chaplain to King James II.
1689 he sailed to the East Indies, and spent several years
in Surat He published in 1698 his " Voyage to Surat

fc e.i, 6, u, v, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, !, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, fa: Hr. fall, fit; met; n6t; g66d; mfion:




in the Years 1689-93," etc - which was translated into



O'wen, (DAVID DALE,) brother of Robert Dale, no-
ticed below, was born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, in 1807.
Tn 1848 he was appointed to conduct the geological
survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota. The result
of his observations was published in a quarto volume,
with maps and illustrations, (1852.) He was appointed
in 1857 State geologist of Arkansas. Died in 1860.

O'wen, (GEORGE,) an English physician, born in Wor-
cestershire, took his degree in 1527. He became phv-
Bician to Henry VIII. Died in 1558.

Owen, (JEAN A.,) an English author, born in
Staffordshire in 1841. She lived five years in New
Zealand and travelled widely. She published several
works of travel, fiction, etc., some of them being
"After Shipwreck," (1882,) "Forest, Field, and
Fell," (1892,) " The Story of Hawaii," (1898.)

Owen, [Lat. AUDOE'NUS,] (JOHN,) one of the best
Latin poets of modern times, was born in Caernar-
vonshire, in Wales, about 1560. His " Epigrammata,"
published in 1612, are remarkable for elegance and
correctness of language and caustic wit. They have
been translated into several languages. Died in 1622.

See WOOD, " Athens Oxonienses."

Owen, (JOHN,) an excellent English nonconformist
divine and Puritan, born at Stadham, in Oxfordshire, in
1616, was a son of Henry Owen, a minister. He was
educated at Queen's College, Oxford, which he quitted
about 1637. After that date he was chaplain to Sir
Philip Dormer and to Lord Lovelace. He became a
resident of London in 1641 or 1642, and published his
"Display of Arminianism," (1642.) In the civil war he
was a constant adherent of the popular cause. He mar-
ried early, was presented to the living of Coggeshall
about 1644, and united himself in fellowship with the
Independents. He published " Salus Electorum, San-
guis Jesu ; or the Death of Death in the Death of Christ"
In January, 1649, he preached a sermon before the House
of Commons on the day after the execution of Charles I.
This sermon was characterized by a more liberal and
tolerant spirit than that which prevailed in his time. He
was appointed chaplain to Cromwell in 1649, and Dean
of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1651. He was vice-chan-
cellor of the University of Oxford about five years, 1652-
56. In 1655 he wrote a work against Socinianism, called
"Vindiciae Evangelicae." After the restoration of 1660,
Owen preached in London for a number of years, and
wrote many works, among which are an " Exposition of
the Epistle to the Hebrews," (1668,) a "Discourse on
the Holy Spirit," (1674,) and "The Doctrine of Justifi-
cation," (1677.) Died in 1683.

BURNET, " History of his Own Times :" ALLIBONH, " Dictionary of
Authors:" "North British Review" for November, 1851.

O'wen, (JoHN,) an English divine, born in London
about 1765. He was one of the earliest members, and
the principal secretary during his lifetime, of the Bible
Society. He wrote, among other treatises, " The Chris-
tian Monitor for the Last Days," and a " Vindication
of the Bible Society." Died in 1822.

O'wen, (LEWIS,) a Welsh theologian, born in Merion-
ethshire in 1572. He wrote a book against the Jesuits,
"Speculum Jesuiticum," (1629.)

Owen, (RICHARD,) an English zoologist, anatomist,
and palaeontologist of great eminence, was born at Lan-
caster in 1804. He studied medicine, and entered the
University of Edinburgh in 1824. In 1825 he became
a pupil of John Abernethy, at Saint Bartholomew's
Hospital, London. Through the influence of Abernethy
he was appointed assistant curator of the Hunterian
Museum of the College of Surgeons. He expended
immense labour in the production of a catalogue of this
collection, and succeeded Clift as curator of the museum.
He published an excellent "Memoir on the Pearly Nau-
tilus, (Nautilus Pompilius,") (1832,) and a "Descriptive
and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological Series
of Comparative Anatomy in the Hunterian Museum, "(5

vols., 1833-40.) He married in 1835 a. daughter of Mr.
Clift, above mentioned. About 1836 he succeeded Sir
Charles Bell as Hunterian professor at the Royal Col-
lege of Surgeons, and gave a series of lectures on com-
parative anatomy, which were published in 1843. He
contributed numerous treatises or monographs on phys-
iology and anatomy to the " Transactions of the Zoo-
logical Society" and the "Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and
Physiology." Professor Owen rendered important ser-
vices to palaeontology, and exhibited remarkable skill
in the anatomy and reconstruction of extinct animals,
such as the Cheirotherium, the Glyptodon, Mylodon,
and Plesiosaurus. He discovered a gigantic fossil bird,
the Dinornis. Among his chief works are " Odontog-
raphy," (2 vols., 1840,) a " History of British Fossil
Mammals and Birds," (1846,) and "On the Archetype
and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton," (1848.)
He received the royal medal in 1848, and the Copley
medal of the Royal Society in 1851. In 1856 he ceased
to be Hunterian professor, and became director of the
natural history departments of the British Museum.
He was one of the eight foreign associates of the French
Institute. In addition to the works above named, he
published a treatise "On the Nature of Limbs," (1849,)
"On Parthenogenesis," (1849,) and "On the Anatomy
of Vertebrates," (3 vols., 1866-68.) In 1876 was pub-
lished by the trustees of the British Museum his work
" On the Fossil Reptilia of South Africa," with 70 plates,
and in 1877 appeared his work "On the Fossil Mam-
mals of Australia, and on the Extinct Marsupials of
England," (2 vols., with 132 plates.) He was one of the
first who used the microscope in the investigation of the
structure of animals, and was the first who employed
the word "homology" or " homologue" in comparative
anatomy. He admitted the mutability of species, but
opposed the Darwinian theory of Natural Selection, for
which he substituted his " hypothesis of Derivation."
He says, " Every species changes, in time, by virtue of
inherent tendencies thereto. ' Natural Selection' holds
that no such change can take place without the influence
of altered external circumstances educing or selecting
such change." ("On the Anatomy of Vertebrates," 3d
vol. chap, xl.) He was considered by Humboldt the
greatest anatomist of his age. Died December 18, 1892.
Owen, (RICHARD,) scientist, was born near New
Lanark, Scotland, in 1810, son of the following. He
settled with his father in the communistic town of New
Harmony, Indiana, took part in the Mexican and civil
wars, and became a professor of natural science in the
University of Indiana. He made important researches
in meteorology and magnetism. Died in 1890.

Owen, (ROBERT,) a socialist and philanthropist, born
at Newton, in Wales, in 1771, was a son of poor parents.
He married about 1800 a daughter of David Dale, whc
owned cotton-mills at New Lanark, on the Clyde. Owen
managed these mills for a time with success, and gave
much attention to the comfort of the operatives and the
education of their children. He published in 1812 a
"New View of Society," and afterwards "The Book of
the New Moral World," in which he advocated a modi-
fied system of community of property. About 1824 he
purchased a large tract at New Harmony, Indiana, and
there tested by experiment his socialist theory, which
was entirely unsuccessful. He returned to England in
1827, and continued to propagate his projects of reform
by lectures and writings. His doctrines were adopted
by a large number of people, who were called Owenites.
Died in 1858.

See " Robert Owen and his Social Philosophy," by W. L. SAR
GANT London, 1860: "Life of Robert Owen," (by F. A. PACKARD,)
Philadelphia, 1866; "Biographical Sketches," by H. MARTINKAU
REYBAUD, " fitudes sur les Reformateurs contemporams :

Owen, (ROBERT DALE,) a distinguished political and
iscellaneous writer, son of the preceding, was born at

Glasgow, November 9, 1800. He came at an early
age to America, settled in Indiana, and was elected to
Congress by the Democratic party in 1843.
:harge-d'affaires to Naples in 1853. He published " N

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 199 of 425)