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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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i. e, T, o, ii, y, long; 4, e, o, same, less prolonged ; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mft; not; gSod ; moon:



PANVINIUS



1887



PAPILLON



medals, and was patronized by Cardinal Farnese. Among
his numerous treatises are " Festivals and Triumphs of
the Romans," ("Fasti et Triumph! Romanorum," 1557,)
"On the Roman Republic," ("De Republica Romana,"
1581,) and "On the Circus Games," (" De Ludis Cir-
censibus," 1600.) He was one of the first who applied
criticism to history, and confirmed his statements by
medals, inscriptions, etc. Died at Palermo in 1568.

See D. W. MOLLBR, " Disputatio circularis de Onuphrio Pan-
inio," 1697; MAPPBI, " Verona illustra ;" NICERON, "Memoires."

Fanvinius. See PANVINIO.

Pa-ny'a-sis, [Gr. Tlavvaoic,] a Greek poet of the fifth
century B.C., was, according to Suidas, an uncle of He-
rodotus. He wrote an epic poem entitled " Heraclea,"
which is not extant In the Alexandrian canon he was
ranked among the great epic poets. Died about 460 B.C.

See ERSCH und GRUBBR, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" MULLBR,
"Histoire de la Litterature Grecque ;" FUNCKE, "Dissertatio de
Panyasidis Vita ac Poesi," 1837.

Panzacchia, pan-zlk'ke-S, (MARIA ELENA,) an Ital-
ian painter, born at Bologna in 1668 ; died in 1709.

Panzer, pant'ser, (FRIEDRICH,) a German antiquary,
born in Bavaria in 1794. He wrote "The Traditions
and Customs of Bavaria," (2 vols., 1848-55.) Died in
1854.

Panzer, (GEORG WOLFGANG,) an eminent German
bibliographer, born at Sulzbach in 1729. He preached
at Nuremberg, to which he removed in 1760. His most
important work is one in Latin, entitled "Annals of
Typography from the Origin of Printing to 1536," (n
vols., 1793-1803,) which is said to be the most complete
treatise on that subject. Died in 1804.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie;" MBUSBL,
" Gelehrtes Deutschland."

Paoli, pa'o-lee, almost pow'lee, (GlAClNTO,) a Cor-
sican general, born at Bastia in 1702. He commanded
with success against the Genoese about 1734, and after-
wards opposed the French until 1739, when tie was com-
pelled to submit. He retired to Naples, where he died
in 1768.

Paoli, (PAOLO ANTONIO,) an Italian antiquary, born
at Lucca about 1720, was a nephew of Sebastiano.
Among his works is an account of the ruins of Pxstum,
(1784.) Died about 1790.

Paoli, (SEBASTIANO,) a learned Italian antiquary and
monk, born near Lucca in 1684. He wrote, besides
many other treatises, "On the Poetry of the Greek and
Latin Fathers in the First Century," (1714,) and "On
the Diplomatic Code of the Order of Malta," (" Codice
diplomatico dell'Ordine di Malta," 2 vols., 1733-37.)
Died in 1751.

Paoli, di, de pa'o-lee, (PASQUALE,) a celebrated Cor-
sican general, born at Rostino in 1726, was a son of
Giacinto, (noticed above,) who took him to Naples in
1740. In 1755 he was chosen general-in chief of the Cor-
sicans, who had revolted against the Genoese. He gained
many victories, rendered himself master of nearly all the
island, and organized a government with a representative
system. In 1768 the Genoese, baffled in their efforts to
reduce Corsica, ceded it to the French, whose army
Paoli defeated twice in that year. He was defeated in
a decisive battle at Ponte Nuovo in 1769, and retired to
England. In 1789 he was recalled from exile by the
National Assembly, and received from Louis XVI. the
title of lieutenant-general, with the command of Corsica.
He assumed an attitude of hostility to the dominant
party in France in 1793, and became an ally or partisan
of the English, to whom he transferred the sovereignty
of the island in 1794. Having been deprived of his
command by the British, he left Corsica in 1795 or 1796.
He died near London in 1807.

See BOTTA, " Storia d'ltalia ;" BOSWELL, " Journal of a Tour to
Corsica;" ARRIGHI, "Vie de Pascal Paoli;" POMPEI, "Etat de la
Corse," 1821 ; KARL L. KLOSE, " Leben P. Paoli's," 1853; " Nou-
relle Biographic G^nerale."

Paolini, pow-lee'nee, (PIETRO or LUCA PIETRO,) an
Italian painter, born at Lucca in 1603. He painted
religious subjects. Died in 1681.

See LANZI, " History of Painting," etc.

Paolo, the Italian for PAUL, which see.
Paolo Sarpi. See SARPI.



Paolo Veronese. See CAGLIARI.

Paolucci, pow-loot'chee, (SiGiSMONDO,) an llaiian
poet, born in Umbria about 1510. He wrote canzoni,
which were admired, and celebrated the African expe-
dition of Charles V. in " The African Nights," (" Le Notti
d'Africa," 1535.) Died in 1590.

Paon, du, dii pif6N', sometimes called Le Paon, a
French painter of battles, born near Paris about 1740.
He was a pupil and rival of Casanova, whom he ex-
celled in design and in fidelity as an imitator of nature.
Died in 1785.

Papa, del, del pa'pl, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian medical
writer, born at Empoli in 1649. He was physician to
the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Died in 1735.

Papacino. See ANTON I, D'.

Papadopoli, pa-pa-dop'o-lee, (NiccoL6 COMNENO,)
a learned priest, born in Candia in 1655. He became
in 1688 professor of canon law at Padua, and wrote a
" History of the University of Padua," (2 vols., 1726.)
Died in 1740.

Pape, pa'peh, (JoHANN GEORG WILHELM,) a German
philologist, born at Culm, January 3, 1807. In 1837 he
became professor in a gymnasium in Berlin. He pub-
lished an "Etymological Greek Dictionary," (1836,) a
much larger Greek dictionary, (3 vols., 1842 ; afterwards
enlarged,) and a "German-Greek Dictionary," (1845.)
Died February 23, 1854.

Pape, de la, deh 13 p3p, (Gui,) a French jurist, born
at Lyons about 1400; died about 1475.

Papebroch, pa'peh-bRoK', or Papebroeck, pa'peh-
bRook', (DANIEL,) a learned Flemish Jesuit, born at
Antwerp in 1628. He compiled a number of volumes
of the " Acta Sanctorum" commenced by Bollandis.
Died in 1714.

Papebroeck. See PAPEBROCH.

Pape-Carpantier, pap-kaR'po.N'te-a', (MARIE,) an
eminent French educator, born at La Fleche (Sarthe) in
1815. She published " Preludes," (in verse,) " Les Con-
seils," " L'Enseignement pratique," " Le?ons de Choses,"
"Lectures," and other excellent works on education.
She was founder of the " ficole normale pour les Direc-
trices des Salles d'Asile," of which for twenty-five years
she was the president. Died in 1878.

Papencordt, pa'pen-koRf, (FELIX,) a German his-
torian, born at Paderborn in 1811. Among his works
are a " History of the Domination of the Vandals in
Africa," (1837,) and a " Life of Cola di Rienzo," (1841.)
Died in 1841.

Papendrecht, van, vin pl'pen-dReKt', (CORNELIS
PAUL HOYNCK,) a Dutch historian and priest, born at
Dort in 1686. He wrote a " History of the Church of
Utrecht," (1725,) and " Analecta Belgica," (3 vols., 1743.)
Died in 1753.

Papety, ptp'te', (DOMINIQUE Louis FERftoL,) a
French painter, born at Marseilles in 1815. He gained
the grand prize in 1836. Among his works is "Dream
of Happiness," (" Reve de Bonheur.") Died in 1849.

Papi, pi'pee, (LAZZARO,) an Italian historian and
translator, born near Lucca in 1763. He translated
" Paradise Lost" into Italian. Died in 1834.

Fa'pl-as, [Gr. Hamaf,] SAINT, was Bishop of Hie-
rapolis, in Phrygia, ii the second century. He wrote an
"Exposition of the Words of the Lord," which is not
extant According to Irenaeus, he had seen and heard
the apostle John. Several writers state that he suffered
martyrdom in 163 A.D.

See SMITH, " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography," etc

Papillon, pJ'pe'yoN', (JEAN,) a French engraver,
born at Rouen in 1639; died in 1710. His son JEAN,
born at Saint-Quentin in 1661, was a skilful engraver
and designer. He especially excelled in designing horses.
Died in 1723.

Papillon, (TEAN MICHEL,) an eminent engraver on
wood, born in'Paris in 1698, was a nephew of the pre-
ceding. He published a " Treatise on Wood-Engraving,"
(1766.) Died in 1776.

Papillon, (PHILIBERT,) a French biographer and
priest, born at Dijon in 1666. He wrote a good work
on Burgundian authors, " Bibliotheque des Auteurs de
Bourgogne," (2 vols., 1742.) Died in 1738.



eas*; 9as.r; ghard: gas/; G,H,K,VtturaI; it, nasal; R, trilled; sasz: thasinrtir. (J^=See Explanations, p.



PAPILLON



1888



PARACELSUS



Papillon, (THOMAS,) a French jurist, born in 1514,
gained distinction as a writer on law. Died in 1596.

Papin, pap'in, [Fr. pron. pi'piN',] (DENIS,) a French
natural philosopher, born at Blois in 1647. He was the
associate of Robert Boyle in scientific experiments in
England, and was chosen a Fdlow of the Royal Society
in 1681. He invented an apparatus for softening bones,
called " Papin's Digester," and is ranked among the
inventors of the steam-engine. "Papin," says F. Arago,
" first conceived the fdea of a steam-engine with a piston."
To escape persecution as a Protestant, he went into exile
in 1685, and obtained a chair of mathematics at Marburg.
Died about 1712.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Papin, (ISAAC,) a French theologian, born at Blois in
1657, was a nephew of Claude Pajon, and was educated
as a Protestant. He wrote " Essays on Theology,"
(1687,) which subjected him to the enmity of Jurieu.
In 1690 he joined the Roman Catholic Church. Died
in 1709.

Papineau, pi'pe-no', (Louis JOSEPH,) a Canadian
revolutionist, bom near Montreal in 1787. In 1814 he
represented Montreal in the Canadian Parliament, and
in 1815 became Speaker of the House. He was a leader
of the liberal or radical party, which revolted in 1837.
After the defeat and dispersion of the insurgents, he
took refuge in the United States. Died in 1871.

Fapini, pa-pee'nee, (GuiDO,) an Italian violinist and
composer for his instrument, born at Camagiore, near
Florence, in 1847. He has performed in the principal
Italian cities, in London, and in Paris.

Pa-pinl-an, [Lat. >MIL'IUS PAPINIA'NUS ; Fr. PA-
PINIEN, pi'pe'ne-aN',1 a celebrated Roman jurist, born
about the middle of the second century. He was advo-
catusfisci in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, and after the
accession of Severus was libcllorum magisttr and preto-
rian prefect, (203 A.D.) He was put to death, by order
of Caracalla, in 212, probably because he had condemned
the execution of Geta. The Digest contains extracts
from his " Quaestiones," " Responsa," and " Defini-
tiones." He was considered by some persons as the
greatest jurist of antiquity. He had a high reputation
for integrity.

See EVBRHARD OTTO, " Papinianua," etc., 1718 ; ERSCH and
GRUBER. "AUgemeine Encyklopaedie :" G. L. MENCKB, " Papini-
tnus," 1715.

Papinianus. See PAPINIAN.
Papinien. See PAPINIAN.
Fapire-Masson. See MASSON, (JEAN PAPIRE.)
Pa-plrl-us, (JUSTUS,) a Roman jurist, lived in the
reign of Marcus Aurelius. The Digest contains extracts
from his " Constitutions."

Papirius, (SEXTUS,) the author of a supposed collec-
tion of the " Leges Regiae," (laws enacted during the
reigns of the Roman kings,) which was called " Jus Pa-
pinanum." He is said to have lived in the time of
Tarquinius Superbus. Nothing certain is known about
his compilation.

See PYPERS, " Dissertatio de Papirio," 1825.
Pa-plr'I-ua Cras'sus, (Lucius,) a Roman commander,
was appointed dictator in 339 B.C., to conduct the war
against the Latins, and was twice elected consul, 336
and 330 B.C.

Pa-plrt-ug Cur'sor, (Lucius,) a famous Roman
general, whom Livy represents as one of the ablest men
of his time. He was appointed dictator to conduct the
war against the Samnites, in 332 B.C. Fabius Maximus,
who was master of the horse, in the absence of his chief
and in disobedience to his orders, attacked and defeated
the enemy. For this offence Papirius ordered him to be
punished with death ; but Fabius appealed to the people,
and was pardoned or acquitted. Papirius prosecuted
the war with success until the Samnites sued for peace.
He was elected consul about 320, and soon after defeated
the Samnites at Luceria. In 313 he was chosen consul
for the fifth time, and in 308 B.C. was made dictator for
another war against the Samnites, over whom he gained
a signal victory. History is silent respecting the sub-
sequent events of his life. His son, of the same name,
was elected consul in 293, and again in 272 B.C. He
defeated the Samnites.



Papirius Massonus. See MASSON, (PAPIRE.)

Papon, pS'poN', (JEAN PIERRE,) a French historian
and priest, born near Nice in 1734. He wrote a "His-
:ory of Provence." (4 vols., 1777-86,) which is com-
mended, and a " History of the French Revolution from
1789 to the iSth Brumaire, 1799," (6 vols., 1815.) Died
n 1803.

Pappenheim, pap'pen-him', (EUGENIE,) an Austrian
soprano-singer. She appeared successfully in the prin-
cipal German cities, in London, and in the United States.
She later became a member of the German theatre at
Pesth.

Pappenheim, von, fon pap'pen-him', (GOTTFRIED
HEINRICH,) COUNT, a celebrated German general, born
at Pappenheim in 1594, was a zealous Roman Catholic.
After he had served with distinction in the army of
Bavaria, and received several wounds at Prague, (1620,)
he entered the service of the emperor, about 1630, aa
Seld-marshal. The victory of the Imperialists at Magde-
burg (1631) is ascribed to him. He commanded a corp*
under Wallenstein in 1632, and was killed at the battle
of Lutzen, in November of that year.

See F8RSTER, " Wallensteins Briefe;" SCHILLER, "History of
the Thirty Years' War."

Pap'pus, [Gr. namrof,] an eminent Greek geometer
of Alexandria, flourished about 380 or 400 A.D. He left
a work entitled "Mathematical Collections," (Moflifpa-

al twayuyai,) which is extant, and of which Com-
mandlno published a Latin version in 1588. Pappus
first gave the example of the quadrature of a curved
surface. He also furnishes important information of
the analytic methods of the ancients. He wrote other
works, which are lost

See MONT UCLA, " Histoire do Mathe'matiques :" " Nourelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Pappus, pap'pus, (JOHANN,) a Lutheran minister and
writer, born at Lindau, on Lake Constance, in 1549. He
preached at Strasburg. Died in 1610.

Paquot, pi'ko', (JtAN NOEL,) a Flemish biographer,
born at Florennes in 1722, was a priest and a professor
of Hebrew. Mis chief work is " Memoirs towards the
Literary History of the Low Countries," ("Me'moires
pour servir a 1'Histoire litteraire des Pays-Bas," 18
vols., 1763-70,) which contains biographies of Dutch and
Flemish authors. Died in 1803.

PI'ra, called also BAB, King of Armenia, was the son
and heir of Arsaces III., who was deposed by Sapor,
King of Persia. By the aid of the Romans, Para ob-
tained the throne about 365 A.D. He was killed by the
order of the Roman emperor Valens about 375 A.D.

Para du Phanjas, pS'ri' dii foN'zhis', (FRANC.OIS.) a
Frnck Jesuit and philosopher, born in Dauphin^ in
1724. He published "Elements of Metaphysics, Sacred
and Profane," (1767,) and " Principes du Calcul et de la
Geometric," (1773.) Died in 1797.

Paraboscp, pS-Ra-bos'ko, (GIROLAMO,) an Italian
poet and musician, born at Piacenza. He was author of
"Progne," a tragedy, (1548,) several comedies, and tales
entitled "Diversions," ("I Diporti," 1552.) His works
were received with favour. Died at Venice in 1557.

Paracelse. See PAXACELSUS.

Par-a-oel'sus, [Fr. PARACELSE, pt'rJ'selss',] (Pm-
LIPPUS 'AUREOLUS THEOPHRASTUS BOMBASTUS von
Hohenheim fon ho'en-Mm',) a famous alchemist and
charlatan, supposed to have been born at Einsiedeln, in
Switzerland, in 1493. In his youth he acquired a pro-
ficiency in the jargon of alchemists, magicians, and
quacks, whom he consulted in nearly every part of
Europe. Having performed some famous cures, he was
appointed professor of medicine at Bale in 1526. He
there burned the works of Galen, styled himself the mor.
arch of medicine, and pretended to have discovered a
medicine capable of prolonging life indefinitely, (called
the Elixir of Life.) He became intemperate, and in 1527
or 1528 resumed a vagabond life. In his medical prac-
tice he introduced mercury and opium into general use.
He died poor, at Saltzburg, in 1541. He had published
but little in his lifetime. After his death many volumes
ascribed to him appeared at various times between 1575
and 1658. His medical reputation is founded on the
importance which he gave to pharmaceutical chemistry.



a, e. T. o, u, y, long: i, e. 6, same, less prolonged; a. e, I, o, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, ohifiire: far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon'



PAR A DIN



1889



PAREJA



His dogmatic and fantastic pseudo-philosophy found
many admirers, especially in Germany.

See M B. LESSING, " Paracelsus; sein Lebenund Denken," Ber-
lin 1839 : FRANCK, "Sur la Vie el les Cents de Paracelse;" MARX,
"Zur Wiirdigung des Theo. von Hohenheim," 1842; HOHFER,
" Histoire de la Chirme :" BREMBR, " Dissertatio de Vita Paracelsi,
1836: " Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

Paradin, pfrfdaN', (GuiLLAUME,) a French priest
and historian, born near Chalons about 1510. Among
his works are a " History of his own Time," (1550,) and
"Annals of Burgundy," (1566.) Died in 1590.
Paradia de Moncrif. See MONCRIF.
Paradis de Raymoudis, pfrj'de' deh rl'mdN'dess',
(JEAN ZACHARIE,) a French moralist, born at Bourg-en-
Bresse in 1746. He wrote a "Treatise on Morality and
Happiness," (2 vols., 1784.) Died in 1800.

Paradis, von, fon pi'Ra'de', (MARIE THERESE,) a
German pianist, organist, and composer, born in Vienna
in I7W She was blind from childhood. Died in 1824.
Paradifli, pa-ri-dee'see, (AcosriNO,) COUNT, an Ital-
ian poet and prose writer, born at Vignola in 1736.
He was professor of civil economy and of history at
Modena. He wrote vcrsi sciolti, (" blank verse,") which
were received with favour, and an excellent " Eulogy on
Montecuccoli," (1776,) in prose. He translated some
tragedies of Voltaire into Italian. Died in 1783.
See SCHBDONI, " Elogio del Conte A. Paradisi," 1789.
Paradiai, (GIOVANNI,) COUNT, a son of the preceding,
was born at Reggio in 1760. Bonaparte appointed him
a director of the Cisalpine republic in 1797, and council-
lor of state in 1804. He presided over the Italian senate
from 1809 to 1814. Died in 1826.
FaradoL See PREVOST-PARADOL.
Paraeua. See PARB.

Paramo, de, da pa'ra-mo, (Luis,) a Spanish theo
logian, born near Toledo about 1545. He wrote "On
the Origin and Progress of the Inquisition," (1598,) said
to be one of the most curious works on that subject

Parana, de, da pa-ra-na', (HoNpRio HERMETO CAR-
NEIRO LEAo.) MARQUIS, a Brazilian minister of state,
born at Jacahy, January n, 1801. He was a leader of
the conservative party, and became president of the
council in 1853. Died in 1856.

Far-a-an-ra'ma, [Hindoo pron. pur'a-s66-ra'ma and
pur'a-soo-rlm', fro'm the Sanscrit p&rfeu or pdrdshu, an
"axe," and r&mH, one "who delights in,"] in the Hindoo
mythology, the name of the sixth avatar of Vishnu. He
was born as the son of Jamadagni. His mission appears
to have been to subdue or destroy the Kshatriya (or
warrior) race, who had become arrogant through their
unlimited power. He seems to have used his terrible
battle-axe with considerable effect, as some of the ac-
counts represent the whole earth as filled with the blooc
of his enemies.

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon;" WILSON, "Sanscrit Dictionary.'

Paravey, de, deh pfrjrvi', (CHARLES HIPPOLYTE,'
a French Orientalist, born in Ardennes in 1787. He
wrote several works on Oriental antiquities. Died 1871

Paravia, pi-ra-vee'a, (PiETRO ALESSANDRO,) an Ital
ian littfratfur, born in Dalmatia in 1797. He becanv
professor of eloquence at Turin in 1832. He gainec
distinction by articles on national literature in the jour
nals, by a version of the " Letters of Pliny the Younger,'
(1830,) and other works. Died in 1857.

Parcse, par'se, or Moirae, moi're, [Fr. LES PARQUES
11 piRk,] the Fates of classic mythology, were said to
be daughters of Night, (Nox.) According to Hesiod
they were daughters of Jupiter and Themis, and were
named CLOTHO, LACHESIS, and ATROPOS. Homer rec
ognizes one Fate, (Afoira,) who spins out the thread ol
human life and destiny. Other mythographers feignec
that Clotho held the distaff, Lachesis spun the threac
of each person's life, and Atropos cut it off, as expressed
in the following hexameter line :

" Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net et Atropos occat."

Farcellea, ptR'seV, (JAN,) an able Dutch painter o
marine views, was born at Leyden in 1597. He painte
storms at sea and shipwrecks with great success an.
rapidity. He died at Leyerdorp in 1641. His son
JULIUS, born aboat 1628, was a skilful marine painter
and nearly equalled his father.



Farcieux, de. See DEPARCIEUX.
Pardesaus, piR'd4'su', JEAN MARIE,) a French
urist, born at Blo ; s in 1772. He sat in the Corps
^gislatif from 1807 to 181 1. He published a " Treatise
on Servitudes," (1806,) which has passed through eight
or more editions, a capital work entitled " Lectures on
Commercial Law," (4 vols., 1813-37,) and an important
Collection of Maritime Laws anterior to the Eighteenth
Century," (6 vols., 1828-45.) Died in 1853.
See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'niirale."
Pardiea, ptR'de', (!GNACE GASTON,) an able French
geometer, born at Pau in 1636. He lectured at the
College of Louis le Grand, in Paris, and corresponded
with Sir Isaac Newton. Among his works are " Elements
of Geometry," (1671,) and "Statics, or the Science of
Moving Forces," (1673.) Died in 1673.
See BAYLH, " Historical and Critical Dictionary."
Par'do, (MANUEL,) a Peruvian president, was a dis-
tinguished lawyer and political economist, filled many
offices, including that of minister of finance, and was
chosen President in 1872 as leader of the "civilian," or
progressive, party. The tragedy of the brief dictator-
ship of Gutierrez, the murder by the latter of President
Balta, and his own death at the hands of an infuriated
mob, (July, 1872.) formed the prelude to Pardo's inaugu-
ration, August 2. He favoured public improvements
with a lavish hand, and suppressed two revolutions
headed by Pierola. Retiring from office at the expiration
of his term in 1876, he was chosen President of the
Senate. He was assassinated at the door of the Senate-
nouse, November 16, 1878, by a sergeant of the Lima
;arrison.

Par'doe, (JULIA,) an English authoress, born at
Beverley, Yorkshire, about 1808. After a visit to Por-
tugal, she produced a successful work entitled "TraiU
and Traditions of Portugal." Among her other popula
works are "The City of the Sultan," (1836,) "The Ro-
mance of the Harem," (1839,) " The City of the Maygar,"
(1840,) and novels, entitled " Reginald Lyle," and "The
Jealous Wife," (1855.) Died in 1862.
See the " Edinburgh Review" for October, 1851.
Par'dpn, (GEORGE FREDERICK,) an English author,
born in London in 1824. He was bred a printer, but
became an editor of newspapers and books. He also
wrote many tales, chiefly for the young, books on sports
and games, guide-books, etc. Died at Canterbury,
August 5, 1884.

Pare, par're, [Fr. pron. prri'; Lat PARJE'US,] (AM-
BROISE,) an excellent French surgeon, born at Laval
(Mayenne) in 1509, (or in 1517, according to some
authorities,) is styled "the Father of French surgery."
His parents were poor, and his education was defective.
Having studied in Paris, he became a surgeon in the
army in 1536, and surgeon-in-ordinary to Henry II. in
1552. He reformed the treatment of gun-shot wounds,
which previously were cauterized with boiling oil, and
substituted the 'ligature of arteries for cauterization.
He served Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III., as
chief surgeon. Brantome says that during the Massacre
of Saint Bartholomew the king sent for Pare 1 (who was
a Protestant) and kept him in his own room for safety.
He wrote many professional works, which are highly
esteemed. The best edition is that of Malgaigne, (3
vols., 1840.) Died in 1590.

See VIMONT, " Eloge de Pare\" 1814 : WILLAUMK, " Rechereho
biographiques sur A. Pare.'' 1838; "Retrospective Review," 18*7:
" Nouvelle Biographic Giainle."
Faredes. See GARCIA DE PAREDES.
Paredea, pa-ra'dfe, (MARIANO,) a Mexican general,
born about 1790. He fought against Santa Anna in 1844,
and was elected President of Mexico in June, 1845. In
August, 1846, he was driven from power by Santa Anna
and Bravo. Died in 1849.

Pareja, de, da pa-ra'Hl, (JUAN,) an eminent Spanish
painter, born at Seville about 1608, was a pupil of Velas-
quez, whom he served as a slave in his youth. According
to some writers, he was born in the West Indies. Having
acquired skill by secret study and practice, he was libe-
rated by Velasquez. He painted portraits with success.
His master-piece is "The Calling of Saint Matthew."
Died in 1670.



as/&- casx; gAarJ: gas;"/ G, H, Vi, gitttural : K,nasal; K,trilltd: sasz; th as in this.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 205 of 425)