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tained the rank of lieutenant-general, and commanded
at Vicksburg during the long siege of that place. He
died July 13, 1881.

Pemberton, (MAX,) an English novelist, born at
Birmingham in 1863. He became editor of " Cassell's
Magazine" in 1896. He published "The Diary of a
Scoundrel," (1891,) "The Iron Pirate," (1893,)
"A Gentleman's Gentleman," (1896,) etc.

Pemberton, (T. EDGAR,) an English novelist, born
at Birmingham Heath, July I, 1849. He inherited ex-
tensive business interests. He has published "Charles
Lysaght," (1873,) " Under Pressure," (1874,) " Dickens's
London," (1875,) " A Very Old Question," (1877,) " Born
to Blush Unseen," (1879,) and a number of farces.

Pemble, pem'bel, (WILLIAM,) a learned English Cal-
inistic minister, born in Kent about 1590. His works
were published in 1635. Died in 1623.


Pembroke, EARL OF. See HERBERT.


Pembroke, pern 'brook, (THOMAS,) an English
painter; born in 1702; died in. 1730.

Pena, peh-nl', (PIERRE,) a French botanist of the
sixteenth century, was born at Narbonne, or in the
diocese of Aix. He was intimate with Lobel, to whom
he furnished materials for his work.

Penaloaa, de, dl pin-yj-lo'si, (Don JUAN,) a Spanish
painter, born at Baeza in 1581 ; died in 1636.

Pe-na'tes, [Fr. PENATES, pa'ntt',] the household
gods of the Romans, so called, probably, because their
images were kept in the penetralia, the innermost part
or centre of the house. The number of these gods or
genii was indefinite. The Lares were included among
the Penates, and were sometimes represented as iden-
tical with them. Vesta was regarded as one of the
Penates, which, according to some authors, were per-
sonifications of the powers af nature,

Pencz or Fentz, pents, written also Pena and Feins,
(GREGOR,) a German painter and engraver, was born
at Nuremberg about 1500. Among his master-pieces
are a " Crucifixion," in the gallery at Augsburg, and a
"Judith," in the Pinakothek at Munich. His engravings
are numerous and of great merit Died about 1554.

Pen'der, (Sir JOHN,) a British telegraphic pro-
moter, was born in Dumbartonshire in 1816. He
took an active part in financiering the first Atlantic
cable, and the success of the second cable was largely
due to him. He followed it by organizing other cable
companies, which in time developed into a world
system. Submarine telegraphy was largely indebted
to him for its success. Died in 1896.

Fendleton, pen'del-tpn, (EDMUND,) an eminent
American statesman and judge, born in Virginia in 1721.
He was elected to the General Congress in 1774 and in
1775. In 1776 he was president of the Virginia Con-
Tention, and was the author of the resolutions by which
that body instructed their delegates in Congress to vote
for a declaration of independence. He was appointed
presiding judge of the court of appeals about 1779. He
was president of the convention which met in Virginia
in 1788 to consider the new Constitution of the United
States, and he advocated the adoption of the same. His
ability as a debater was highly extolled by Thomas
Jefferson. Died at Richmond in 1803.

Pendletoo, (GEORGE H.,) an American politician, a
ion of Nathaniel Greene Pendleton, formerly a member
of Congress, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in July, 1825.

He became a lawyer, and was elected a member of the
Senate of Ohio in 1854. He represented the first dis-
trict of Ohio in the National House of Representatives
from December, 1857, till March, 1865. He acted in
Congress with the Democrats who opposed the coercion
of the secessionists, and was nominated as candidate for
Vice-President of the United States by the Democratic
Convention in August, 1864. He received twenty-one
electoral votes out of two hundred and thirty-three,
which was the whole number. About 1867 he began to

j advocate the payment of the public debt in paper money,
"greenbacks." As a candidate for the Presidency he

' received, at the National Democratic Convention, July
8, 1868, one hundred and fifty-six and one-half votes out

5 of three hundred and seventeen, on the eighth ballot.

He was the Democratic candidate for Governor of Ohio
in 1869, but was not elected. In 1885 he was appointed
United States minister to Germany. Died Nov. 24, 1889.
Fe-nel'p-pe, [Gr. Hr/vM^ri or IlEVfXoTT; ; Fr. PENE-
LOPE, pa'ni'lop',] the wife of Ulysses, King of Ithaca, and
a cousin of Helen, was renowned for conjugal fidelity.
During the long absence of her husband she evaded
the importunity of her suitors by a promise to decide
which she would accept when she had finished a shroud
for the aged Laertes. She ravelled at night what she
had woven by day, and thus postponed the decision
until the return of Ulysses. She was the mother of

Pen'gelly, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., F.G.S., an Eng-
lish geologist, was bom in 1812, and became a school-
master at Torquay. He won fame in anthropology
by his admirable explorations of the Brixham Cave
and Kent's Hole. Died in 1894.

Fenguilly 1'Haridon, de, den piN'ge'ye' li're'doN',
(OCTAVE,) a painter, born in Paris in 1811 ; died in 1870.
Penhouet, peh-noo'i/, (ARMAND Louis BON MAU-
DET,) a French antiquary, born in Bretagne in 1764.
He wrote " Researches on Bretagne," (1814,) and other
works. Died in 1839.

Penicaud, pa'ne'kS', (PIERRE.) a French enamellei
and painter on glass, born in 1515, worked at Limoges.

I He was an able artist

Pen'ick, (CHARLES CLIFTON,) D.D., an American

j bishop, born in Charlotte county, Virginia, December 9,

i 1843, was educated at Hampden-Sidney College, served

1 from 1861 to 1865 as an officer of the Confederate army,
graduated at the theological seminary near Alexandria,
was ordained a priest of the Episcopal Church in 1870,
and in 1877 was consecrated Bishop of Cape Palmas, in
Liberia. He resigned the episcopate in 1883.

Pen'ing-tpn, (ISAAC,) an eminent minister of the
Society of Friends, was born about 1618. His father
was lord mayor of London and a member of the Long
Parliament. He married Mary, the widow of Sir Wil-
liam Springett, (whose daughter became the wife of
William Penn,) and resided at Chalfont, Bucks. During
the reign of Charles II. he was imprisoned six times
for his religious principles. " He grew rich and fruitful
in all heavenly treasure," says William Penn, "full of
love, faith, mercy, patience, and long-suffering. Insomuch
that I may say he was one of a thousand ; zealous, yet
tender, wise, yet humble. . . . One that ever loved power
and life more than words." Died in 1679. He left " Let-
ters" and other writings, which are highly prized.

Peun, (GRANVILLE,) an English author, born in Phila-
delphia in 1761, was a son of Thomas Penn, and a
grandson of William Penn. He was a clerk in the
British war office. Among his works are " Remarks
on the Eastern Origin of Mankind and of the Arts of
Cultivated Life," and a " Life of Admiral Penn,"
(1833.) Died in 1844.

Penn, (JOHN,) an American patriot, and a signer of
the Declaration of Independence, was born in Caroline
county, Virginia, in 1741. Having removed in 177410
North Carolina, he was elected in 1775 to the Conti-
nental Congress. Died in 1788.

Penn, (JOHN,) F.R.S., an English mechanical engi-
neer, born at Greenwich in 1805, was the inventor and
constructor of well-approved steam-engines for ships.
Died at Lee, September 23, 1878.

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon :




Penn, (Sir WILLIAM,) an able English admiral, fathei
of William Penn, was born at Bristol in 1621. He
became a rear-admiral about 1644, obtained the rank
of admiral in 1653, and commanded the fleet which
co-operated with Venables in the capture of Jamaica
from the Spaniards in 1655. He promoted the restora-
tion of Charles II. In 1660 he was appointed governor
of Kinsale. He was commander-in-chief, under the
Duke of York, of the fleet which gained a victory over
the Dutch in 1665. He retired from the service in 1669,
nd died at Wanstead, Essex, in 1670.

See GRANVILLH PENN, " Memorials of the Life of Admiral Sir
William Penn," 1833.

Penn, (WILLIAM,) the founder of Pennsylvania, and
one of the most illustrious of Christian philanthropists.
was born in London on the I4th of October, 1644. He
was the eldest son of Captain (afterwards Admiral) Penn
and Margaret, the daughter of John Jasper, a merchant
of Rotterdam. At an early age he was sent to the Chig-
well School, in Essex. While here, before he was eleven
years old, his mind was deeply impressed with the im-
portance of religion, and he believed that he was even
then divinely called to consecrate his life to the service
of God. When about fifteen, he was sent to Christ
Church, Oxford, where he became acquainted with John
Locke, afterwards so distinguished as the author of the
"Essay on the Human Understanding." While at the
university, Penn appears to have applied himself dili-
gently to his studies, and to have made rapid progress
not only in the classics but likewise in several of the
modern languages. He is said also to have devoted
much of his attention to theology and history. Nor did
he neglect the cultivation of his physical powers. With
a handsome person, in which were united strength and
grace, he appears to have been well fitted to excel in
those out-door exercises which were then and are still
in vogue among the students of Oxford. He was, we
are told, a skilful boatman as well as an adventurous
sportsman. But, while he was thus applying himself
with youthful zeal to the pursuits deemed appropriate to
young gentlemen of his condition, a new influence arose,
which was destined to change entirely the current of his
future life. Thomas Loe, who had formerly belonged
to the university, but now one of the new sect of Friends
or Quakers, preached at Oxford. The views which he
promulgated made a powerful impression on the mind
of Penn. He, with several other students who had
beheld with displeasure the recent attempt to intro-
duce into the university certain forms and observances
which they considered to be little better than papistical
mummeries, absented themselves from the established
worship, and began to hold meetings among themselves,
conducting their devotional exercises in their own way.
Thereupon they were fined by the heads of the college
for nonconformity ; but this, instead of deterring them
from the course they had taken, only added fuel to their
real. It happened soon after that an order came down
from the king that the surplice should be worn by the
students, according to the custom of former times. This
so exasperated some of them, among whom Penn appears
to have taken a leading part, that they not only refused
to wear the surplice themselves, but, falling upon those
who appeared in surplices, they forcibly tore off from
them the offensive badge. For this flagrant and open
riolation of the laws of the university, Penn and sev-
eral of his associates were expelled.

This disgrace was a bitter mortification to the admiral,
a worldly and ambitious man, who had built the greatest
hopes on his eldest and favourite son. When William
returned home, his father received him with cold and
stern disapprobation. His son, although for the time
carried away with a fanatical zeal, was perfectly sincere,
tnd, finding his conduct not disapproved by some men
of note who were jealous of what they considered the
encroachments of popery, would not admit that he had
done wrong in resisting the authority of the king with
respect to the surplice. His father, having tried in vain
10 reclaim him by argument, proceeded next, like one
accustomed to arbitrary power, to blows, and at last, it
is said, turned him out-of-doors. It was not long, how-
ever, before the admiral, who really loved his son and

was proud of his abilities, began to relent ; and at the
intercession of his mother, an amiable and excellent
woman, William was forgiven and recalled.

With a view to dissipate his son's religious impres-
sions, the admiral at length resolved to send him to
France, in company with some other young gentlemen of
rank who were about to set out on a tour across the con-
tinent. At Paris he was introduced to a brilliant circle,
including some of the most distinguished young noble-
men of England, and was presented to the king, Louis
XIV., at whose court he is said to have been a frequent
and welcome guest During his stay in the French
capital, as he was returning one night from a party, a
man, who seems to have been a total stranger, under
some imaginary affront, drew his rapier upon him, and,
in an angry tone, bade him defend himself. Penn expos-
tulated with him, but in vain ; so that at last, to protect
himself, he was fain to use his sword. His hot-headed
antagonist was quickly disarmed ; but, instead of taking
any advantage of his vanquished foeman, he courteously
returned him his rapier, much to the surprise, it appears,
of the bystanders, who naturally enough supposed that
he would have used the opportunity thus afforded to
take ample revenge upon one who had so causelessly
attacked hkn.

After leaving Paris he spent several months at Saumur,
reading the works of the Fathers and studying theology
under the instruction of Moses Amyrault, one of the
ablest and most learned of the French Protestant di-
vines. He afterwards commenced a tour through Italy,
but on reaching Turin he received a letter from his
father, recalling him to England, that he might take
charge of the affairs of the family while the admiral was
engaged abroad in the war against Holland. The ap-
pearance of young Penn on his return from his conti-
nental tour was well calculated to fill a father's heart
with joy and pride. He had grown into a tall, graceful,
and handsome man, with a countenance of singular gen-
tleness and sweetness, yet expressing both intelligence
and resolution. His sojourn in the gayest and most
brilliant capital of Europe appears to have completely
effaced those serious impressions which, in his father's
judgment, were so unsuited to a youth of his rank and
accomplishments. All the hopes which the admiral
had formerly cherished of the future distinction of his
son were now revived. That his son might not relapse
into his former seriousness, he resolved to keep him
constantly employed. With this view, he had him entered
at Lincoln's Inn as a student of law.

In the early part of 1665, Admiral Penn, accompanied
by the Duke of York, then lord high admiral of Eng-
land, gained a decisive victory over the Dutch, com-
manded by Admiral Opdara. The duke had the good
sense to intrust all the important movements of the
fleet to the direction of Admiral Penn, who had the title
of Great Captain Commander. The plague having broken
out in London, it appears to have affected William Penn,
as it did thousands of others, and to have awakened in
his mind the most serious thoughts. His father, fearing
lest he should lose the fruit of all his former care,
resolved to send his son with letters to the gay and
brilliant court of the Duke of Ormond, Viceroy of Ire-
land, with whom Admiral Penn was on terms of intimate
friendship. Soon after his son's arrival, a mutiny occurred
among the troops at Carrickfergus. Penn volunteered his
services in reducing them to obedience, and, in the siege
that followed, won by his courage and coolness general
applause ; and the viceroy himself wrote to the admiral,
expressing his great satisfaction with young Penn's con-
duct, at the same time proposing that he should join the
army. He himself was at first so much elated by the
distinction he had acquired, that he resolved to become
a soldier, and, under the influence of this new ambition,
caused himself to be painted in military costume. "It
is," says Dixon, " a curious fact that the only genuine
portrait of the great apostle of peace existing represents
him armed and accoutred as a soldier." The admiral,
however, disapproving his son's project, sent him to
take charge of the large estates which he possessed in
the south of Ireland. While on business at Cork, Wil-
liam Penn had an opportunity of again hearing Thomai

t ai k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, ti,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as s; th as in thii. ( J^=See Explanations, p. 23.




Loe, by whose preaching he had been so strongly im-
pressed some years before. His early convictions were
revived ; and from that time he felt it to be his impera-
tive duty, in defiance of ridicule and persecution, to
join his lot with the despised Quakers. Being at a
meeting at Cork in 1667, he was arrested, with several
other Quakers, and taken to prison. While here, he
wrote to the Earl of Orrery, setting forth the injustice
of his imprisonment and advocating universal toleration
in faith and worship. On receiving his letter, Lord Or-
rery gave an order for his immediate release. A rumour
that Penn had become a Quaker reached his father. He
immediately ordered him home. When the admiral, on
seeing his son, observed that he was still dressed like a
gentleman, that he wore lace, plume, and rapier, he felt
reassured, and began to hope that he had been misin-
formed. But these hopes were soon dispelled. His son
candidly acknowledged to him that his religious convic-
tions had undergone a radical change, and that he was
now a Quaker. The disappointment and vexation of the
admiral were extreme. Yet, in the hope of winning
back his son, he made use of every argument, and even
condescended to entreat and implore ; but all in vain.
The refusal of his son to Bncover in the presence of his
superiors in rank was especially mortifying to him.* Al-
though his arguments and entreaties had proved alike
unavailing, he was unwilling to abandon all hope. As a
last resort, he proposed a compromise : he would yield
to the scruples and wishes of his son in every other re-
spect, if the latter would only consent to take off his hat
in his father's presence and in that of the king and the
Duke of York. William asked time to consider this
proposition. After some time spent in reflection and
earnest prayer, he announced to his father that he was
unable to comply with his wishes. Thereupon the in-
dignant admiral again expelled him from the house. For
some months he was dependent upon the hospitality of
his friends, and upon such pecuniary aid as his mother
could from time to time find an opportunity of sending
him. At length his father relented so far as to allow
him to return home ; but he still refused to see or hold
any intercourse with him. About this time (1668) Wil-
liam Penn first began to preach and to write in defence
of the new doctrines which he had embraced. His first
work, entitled " Truth Exalted," was addressed to kings,
priests, and people, whom he earnestly exhorted to re-
examine the foundation of their faith and worship, and
to inquire how far they were built upon the authority of
God, or whether they did not rest in a great measure on
the mere notions of men. A number of publications,
mostly controversial, followed. One of these, entitled
"The Sandy Foundation Shaken," attracted much at-
tention. Pepys considered it too good to be the pro-
duction of so young a man. In this work Penn had
attempted, among other things, to refute "the Notion
of one God subsisting in three distinct and separate
Persons." For this " heresy" he was apprehended and
sent to the Tower, where he was kept in solitary con
finement for more than eight months. While in the
Tower, a report reached him that the Bishop of London
had resolved that he should recant, or die in prison.
Penn replied, with the spirit of a martyr and a hero,
" that his prison should be his grave before he would re-
nounce his just opinions ; for that he owed his conscience
to no man." During his confinement in the Tower he
composed " No Cross, No Crown," perhaps the most
popular of all his larger works. He also wrote to Lord
Arlington, then principal secretary of state, on the in-
justice and absurdity of attempting to coerce men's
religious opinions. Learning that the views advanced
in his " Sandy Foundation Shaken" had been misrepre-
sented, he wrote "Innocency with her Open Face," in
which he showed that to deny the existence in the God-
head of "three DISTINCT and SEPARATE persons" did
not necessarily involve a denial of Christ's eternal
divinity, which he acknowledged to the fullest extent.
In this Penn took substantially the same ground as was
afterwards taken by Barclay and many other of the lead-

* For a brief explanation of the views of the Quakers with reaped
to taking off the hat, and some other of their prominent peculiarities,
tee the article on GEORGE Fox.

ing Quakers. They felt that in speaking of the great
and awful mysteries of the Divine nature there was I
sort of presumption in going beyond the words of the
Holy Scriptures. They accordingly rejected the term
"Trinity," as not found in the Scriptures, and, on still
stronger grounds, as they conceived, they refused to
accept the doctrine of "three distinct and separate
persons" in the Godhead, as being neither expressed
nor necessarily implied in the language of inspiration.
The manly behaviour of his son while in prison ap-
pears to have strongly excited the respect and sympathy
of the admiral. He used his influence at court, and,
after a time, William Penn was set at liberty.

In 1669, at the desire of his father, who intimated hi
wishes to his son through Lady Penn, William went
again to Ireland, to take charge of the estates belonging
to the admiral in that island. He remained there about
eight months, when he was recalled on account of his
father's failing health. His sister Margaret had been
married, and his younger brother Richard was then
travelling in Italy. Feeling that his days were drawing
to a close, the admiral was anxious to be reconciled to
his eldest son, who appears, before the recent disagree-
ment, to have always been his favourite. As soon as
William returned to England, the reconciliation took
place, to the joy of all parties, especially of his mother.
In August of the same year, William Penn preached at
a meeting in Grace Church Street, where he and William
Mead were arrested by warrants from the mayor of Lon-
don. "The trial which followed was," says Dixon,
" perhaps the most important trial that ever took place
in England. Penn stood before his judges, in this cele-
brated scene, not so much as a Quaker pleading for th
rights of conscience, as an Englishman contending for
the ancient and imprescriptible liberties of his race."
The jury having brought in a verdict favourable to the
prisoners, the recorder said they should be locked up,
without meat, drink, fire, and tobacco, "till we have a
verdict the court will accept, or you shall starve for it*
Though repeatedly menaced with starvation and othei
cruelties, such as slitting their noses, (a barbarous but
not uncommon punishment for offenders in those days,)
the jury still persisted in their verdict. They were kept
for two days and nights without food, drink, or fire ; but
this, as well as the threats of the court, proving in-
effectual, they were at last fined for their obstinacy, and,
on refusing to pay their fines, were sent to prison. " For
centuries," says Dixon, " it had remained an unsettled
question of law, whether the jury had or had not a right
so far to exercise its own discretion as to bring in a ver-
dict contrary to the sense of the court." This important
question was now to be decided. Bushel and his fellow-
jurors, at Penn's suggestion, brought an action against
the mayor and recorder for unjust imprisonment The
case was brought before the court of common pleas, con-
sisting of twelve judges, and decided ail-but unanimously
in favour of the jurymen, who were accordingly set at
liberty and left their prison in triumph. Although Penn
and Mead had been declared not guilty by the verdict
of the jury, yet they were still detained in prison, be-
cause they refused to pay the fines which the mayor and
recorder had arbitrarily and most unjustly imposed on
them for contempt of court. At length, as the admiral,
from his increasing illness, became more and more anx-
ious to have his son with him, he sent privately and paid
the fines both for him and his friend. He also sent a
dying request to the Duke of York that he would be a
friend to his son in the trials and sufferings to which,
while the persecuting laws of England continued in

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 214 of 425)