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force, he foresaw he would necessarily be exposed. On
his death-bed the admiral expressed entire satisfaction
with the course his son had pursued. He said to him,
among other things, " Let nothing in this world tempt
you to wrong your conscience. Have a care of sin : it
is that which is the sting both of life and death." On
his father's decease, William Penn came into the pos-
session of an estate yielding an annual income of about
fifteen hundred pounds, a sum which was probably equal
to twice or three times the same numerical amount at the
present day. Rarely, if ever, has wealth fallen into better
hands. " There is abundant evidence," says Janney,

i, e, I, o, u, y, long ; 1, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e 5. R, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; nftt; good; moon




" that throughout life he made use of his wealth for the
bene6t of others, rather than to promote his own ease
and indulgence."

The persecution against the Quakers continuing, Penn
published a number of books and tracts in vindication
of the peculiar views of the society, and in defence ol
the great principle that in matters of faith men are ac-
countable to Heaven only, and, provided their moral
conduct is blameless, no human government has a right
to inquire into or exercise any control over the religious
opinions of its subjects. The following are the titles of
some of the most important of these publications : "A
Seasonable Caveat against Popery," (1670,) "The Great
Case of Liberty of Conscience Debated and Defended,"
(1671,) "Truth Rescued from Imposture," (1671,) "The
Spirit of Truth Vindicated," (1672,) "Quakerism a New
Nickname for Old Christianity," etc., " England's Pres-
ent Interest Considered," (1674,) a most able work in
defence of freedom of conscience and the rights of Eng-
lishmen. Several of his smaller works, as well as "The
Great Case of Liberty of Conscience," were written
while he was imprisoned in Newgate in 1671. In 1672,
when Penn was in his twenty-eighth year, he married
Gulielma Maria Springett, daughter of Sir William
Springett, who as a colonel had greatly distinguished
himself in the service of the Parliament, and who died
during the civil wars, at the early age of twenty-three.
His widow was afterwards married to Isaac Penington,
one of the most prominent of the early Quakers. In
1677, William Penn, accompanied by Robert Barclay and
others, made a journey into Holland and Germany, and
risited the princess Elizabeth of the Rhine, the grand-
daughter of James I. and sister of the famous Prince
Rupert. She received them with great kindness. Hav-
ing previously met with Penn, she was not unacquainted
with the religious views of the Quakers, which she
appears to have regarded with much favour.

Penn did not think that it was the duty of a Christian
to withdraw himself wholly from public affairs, but rathei
to strive in every way to promote the freedom, enlight-
enment, and happiness of mankind. The true friends
of liberty everywhere found in him a sympathizer and a
friend. A little previous to the election of 1679, when
the celebrated Algernon Sidney offered himself as a
candidate for Parliament, Penn issued a pamphlet show-
ing the importance of electing to the great legislative
body of the kingdom wise men and such as feared God
and hated covetousness. He not only felt the deepest
interest, but he himself bore a very active part, in the
canvass for Sidney, the representative and devoted
champion of political freedom. Sidney was triumph-
antly elected, in spite of much unfair opposition. But
soon after the assembling of the new Parliament it was
dissolved by the king, and another election became
necessary. Sidney was again duly returned, but he was
prevented from taking his place in Parliament by the
intrigues of the royalist party. It was a bitter disap-
pointment to Penn ; but, in proportion as he lost hope of
freedom in England, he bent his thoughts more earnestly
towards realizing the dream of his youth, the founding
of a new and more perfect commonwealth amid the
forests of North America. In 1675 he had been chosen
umpire to settle a dispute between Edward Byllinge and
John Fenwick (both Quakers) respecting their claims
to a tract of land known as West Jersey. He decided
in favour of Byllinge ; but the latter, having become
much embarrassed in his affairs, in order to satisfy his
creditors gave up to them his interest in the territory.
At the earnest solicitation of Byllinge, Penn was asso-
ciated with the creditors as a joint trustee. Within the
next two or three years several vessels came to West
Jersey, with about eight hundred emigrants, of whom the
greater number were Quakers. Through the influence
of Penn there was adopted a very liberal constitution,
among the provisions of which were the right of free
worship and the right of the people (with only very slight
restrictions) to legislate for themselves. There was to
be no imprisonment for debt: the property of the debtor
being given up to his creditors, he himself was to go
free. Penn had inherited from his father a claim against
the government of .16,000. In 1680 he obtained from

the king, in payment of that claim, an extensive tract of
land immediately west of the river Delaware and north
of Maryland. In the patent given by the king the name
44 Pennsylvania," contrary to Perm's wishes, was applied
to the territory. He had previously suggested Syivania,
on account of its being then a land of forests. Penn
offered twenty guineas to one of the secretaries to have
the name changed, but he vas refused. He even applied
to the king; "for," says he, " I feared lest it should be
looked on as a vanity in me." But the king said it
should remain as it was, the Penn having been added
in honour of the admiral. The patent conferred upon
the people and governor a legislative power, so that
no law could be made nor money raised without the
people's consent, and they could pass what laws they
pleased, provided they did not interfere with the
allegiance which all the colonies owed to the crown.
Aided by the counsels of Algernon Sidney and others,
he drew up a masterly scheme of government, the wis-
dom of which has been amply vindicated by the expe-
rience of two hundred years. The constitution which
Penn gave to his colony will compare advantageously
not merely with the plan of government formed by Locke
for Carolina, but with any of the systems of the wisest
lawgivers that have ever lived. "To understand," says
Dixon, " how much Penn was wiser than his age, . . .
he must be measured not only against unlettered men
like Fox, but against the highest types of learning and
liberality which it afforded. Between John Locke and
William Penn there is a gulf like that which separates
the seventeenth and the nineteenth century. Locke
never escaped from the thraldom of local ideas."

About the beginning of September, 1682, Penn set sail
in the ship Welcome, and on the 27th of October cast
anchor in Delaware Bay, off New Castle. He was re-
ceived by the inhabitants of that town with the greatest
enthusiasm. Soon after he proceeded to the site of
Philadelphia, then covered for the most part with lofty
trees. About the end of November, 1682, was held the
famous treaty with the Indians, under a magnificent
elm-tree, in what is now Kensington. Of this treaty,
Voltaire says it was "the only league between the abo-
rigines and the Christians which was never sworn to
and never broken."

Referring the reader 10 other works for a more particu-
lar account of the early colony, we shall for the future
confine ourselves chiefly to the personal history of Penn.
In 1684, having committed the government to the provin-
cial council, he embarked for England, leaving behind
him in the colony a white population of about 7000 per-
sons. He set sail on the I2th of August, and on the 6th
of October landed in Sussex, within seven miles of his own
house, after an absence from his family of rather more
than two years. He soon after visited the king and the
Duke of York, by both of whom, he says, he was received
very graciously. The first use he made of his influence
at court was to intercede for the persecuted Quakers,
against whom the recent oppressive enactments were at
that time enforced with a merciless rigour. Their con-
scientious scruples against swearing exposed them to
peculiar hardships. When evil-disposed persons charged
them with being disaffected to the government, they
might in many instances have delivered themselves from
the hands of their persecutors by simply taking the oath
of allegiance and supremacy ; but this their religiou*
convictions would not permit them to do.

It is scarcely necessarv here to do more than allude to
the charges made by Macaulay against the character of
Penn, as those charges have already been completely
and unanswerably refuted,* and are now rejected by all
candid and intelligent persons who have taken the trou-
ble to give them a careful examination. But another
accusation, scarcely less formidable, though some'what
vague, has found supporters among men of great intel-
ligence and respectability, namely, that the fact that

For the correctness of this statement, we confidently appeal to all
who have dispassionately and attentively read the evidence in th
case. See, on this subject, DIXON'S "Life of Penn;" W. E. FoE-
STER'S " William Penn and Thomas Babington Maraulay," 1*50: J.
PAGHT'S " New Examen," London, 1861 ; and the " Quarterly Re-
view" for April, 1868.

t as k; 9 as j; g hard; g as/; G. H. K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23. ',




Pent* enjoyed such favour with James II., and that he
continued at court after he had every opportunity of
knowing the character of that monarch, proves him to
have been either lax in principle or deficient in the firm-
ness of true virtue. If this reasoning be correct, then
we ought to applaud the conduct of the early Christian
ascetics, who held that the best mode of preserving
one's soul unspotted and preparing it for heaven, was to
abandon all intercourse with a corrupt world. But the
most virtuous and enlightened men of modern times
have usually taught a very different doctrine, that they
who, without partaking of its sins, mingle with the world
for the purpose of reforming it, are far more praise-
worthy than those who, leaving it to its fate, seek shelter
for their feeble virtue in inactivity and selfish seclusion.
If it shall be clearly shown that while at court Penn was
guilty of a single act inconsistent with the character of
an honest man and a true lover of his country, we shall
then be prepared to abandon his defence ; but if the
whole charge against him limits itself simply to this,
that he had favour and influence with a corrupt and
tyrannical monarch, when it is well known that he often
exerted that influence successfully to restrain the injus-
tice, or to soften the severity, of James, and when there
is not a shadow of evidence that he ever, even in a soli-
tary instance, exerted it for any unworthy purpose, if
this, we repeat, be the whole extent of the charge against
him, we cannot but regard such an accusation as con-
ferring on the accused the highest honour.

It should be remembered that Admiral Penn had
made a dying request to the Duke of York (afterwards
Tames II.) that he would be a friend and protector to
his son. It is but just to say that James, who seems to j
have cherished the warmest regard for the admiral, not
only never forgot his friend's request, but appears to
have observed it with the most scrupulous fidelity. It
was but natural that William Penn should be sincerely
attached to a prince who had been his father's friend
and was to him a generous and faithful guardian. He
doubtless gave James far more credit for liberality and
sincerity than he deserved. But his gratitude and affec-
tion towards a bigoted and, in some respects, an un-
scrupulous prince, appears never for a single moment
to have warped him from the path of rectitude.

It would have been indeed wonderful if, in the vio-
lent party excitements of those times, his character had
wholly escaped suspicion and calumny. But the various
charges made against him are found, on examination, to
be unsupported by a particle of real evidence. To have
absented himself from court at that time, when it was
in his power to do so much, not only for his persecuted
brethren, but for all, of whatever name, who suffered
from unjust laws or from the unjust suspicions of the
government, would have been a most culpable abandon-
ment of duty. Yet the fact that he did not thus absent
himself has been the principal, if not the only, ground
of all the charges which the envious or the misinformed
have circulated against him. During the reign of Charles
II., Penn obtained for himself and his friends many
favours from his sovereign through the mediation of the
Duke of York; but after the accession ol James II. his
influence at court became very great. He removed his
residence to Holland House, at Kensington. " His in-
fluence with the king," says Dixon, "was well known,
and every man with a real grievance found in him a coun-
sellor and afritnd." " If any fault," says the same writer,
in another place, "can be found with his conduct, it is
that his charity was a little too universal, a little too
indiscriminate." As his sympathies were chiefly with
the liberal party, he had often occasion to intercede for
mercy or indulgence to those who were regarded by the
king as his most determined enemies. And, though he
often 'failed in obtaining his request, he appears never to
have omitted an opportunity of interceding when there
was the slightest chance of success. He sometimes
excited the violent anger of James by his zeal in behalf
of the friends of liberty.* But nothing could deter him
from exercising that influence with his sovereign which

For a curious instance of this kind, see Dixo:>'s " Life of Penn '
pp. 139-40.

he believed Providence had given him for the most Im-
portant ends, the promotion of justice and mercy.

In 1686, chiefly through Penn's influence, a proclama-
tion was issued by which more than twelve hundred im-
prisoned Quakers were set at liberty. Another proclama-
tion in 1687 gave liberty of conscience to all, unrestricted
by any tests or penalties. After the accession of William
III., in 1688, Penn, having incurred suspicion on account
of his intimacy with James, was tried before the royal
council for treason ; but, no evidence being found against
him, he was discharged. He was subsequently tried for
conspiracy, and was again honourably acquitted. In the
early part of 1694 he lost his wife Gulielma ; about two
years after he married, as his second wife, Hannah Cal-
lowhill. In 1696 his eldest son, Springett Penn, died
of consumption. He made in 1699 a second visit to
America. But, learning not long after his arrival in the
colony that there was a measure before the House of
Lords for bringing all the proprietary governments under
the crown, he returned to England in 1701. Happily,
the obnoxious measure was soon after abandoned.

In consequence of the bad management and dishonesty
of some of the agents to whom he had intrusted the
care of his property, he sustained great losses, and be-
came so involved as to be unable to pay the claims of
his creditors. He preferred to go to prison rather than
attempt to satisfy certain unjust and extortionate claims
which the very agent who had mismanaged his affairs
brought against him. By the intervention of some of
his friends, a compromise was effected, and he was at
length released. It was a great sorrow to him in his
latter years that, although he had never spared himself
or his means to promote the interests of his colony,
when he desired of the colonial legislature a moderate
loan to relieve him from his difficulties it was refused.
Worn out at length with the incessant labours and cares
of a life spent almost wholly in the service of others, he
died, from the effects of paralysis, in 1718.

For a full account of William Penn's writings, and of
those which relate to him, see Joseph Smith's " Cata-
logue of Friends' Books," vol. ii. pp. 282-326.

*See W. HBPWORTH DIXON, " Biographical History of William
Penn," 1851 ; S. JANNEY, "Life of William Penn," I vol. 8vo, 1853;
T. CLARKSON, "Life of William Penn," 2 vols. 8vo, 1813; J. MAR-
SILLAC. "Vie de G. Penn," 2 vols., 1791; H. VAN Lit., " I.even,
Gevoelens en Lotgevallen van W. Penn," 2 vols., 1826 ; JACOB POST,
" Popular Memoir of W. Penn," 1850; M. L. WEEMS, " Life of W.
Penn," 1829; W. A TELLER, " Lebensbeschreibung des beriihmten
W. Penn," 1779: " Westminster Review" for October, I ^50, (article
" William Penn and Lord Macaulay ;") " The Penn and Logan Cor-
respondence," published by the Pennsylvania Historical Society,


Feu'nant, (THOMAS,) an English naturalist and an-
tiquary, born st Downing, in Flintshire, in 1726. He
published in 1761 the first volume of a large work on
British Zoology, which was translated into Latin and
German and often reprinted. A tour on the continent
in 1765 procured for him the acquaintance of Buffon,
Haller, and Pallas. In 1771 he published a " Synopsis
of Quadrupeds," an enlarged edition of which appeared
in 1781 as a " History of Quadrupeds." This work was
described by Cuvier, about 1823, as " still indispensable."
Among his other works are the " Genera of Birds,"
(1773, unfinished,) a "Second Tour in Scotland and a
Voyage to the Hebrides," (2 vols., 1774-76,) and "Arctic
Zoology," (3 vols., 1784-87,) which Cuvier commends
asprtfieux to naturalists. Died in 1798.

See "The Literary Life of T. Pennant," by himself, 1793; CUVIEI,
" Histoire des Sciences naturelles ;" " Monthly Review" for January
and February, 1772, and September and October, 1801.

Pennecuik or Pennicuick, pen'ne-kuk', ? (ALEX-
ANDER,) a Scottish physician and writer on various
subjects, born in 1652 ; died in 1722.

Fennefather, pen'fa-iher, ? (Sir JOHN LYSAGHT,) a
British general, born in 1800. He served with distinc-
tion as Brigadier in India in 1843. In the Crimean war
he commanded a brigade at the Alma, and a division at
Inkerman, November, 1854. He died in 1872.

Pen'nell, (HENKYCHOLMONDELY chum'le,)an Eng-
lish author, born in 1836. He was early placed in the
civil service, and became a fisheries inspector, and in
1875 was sent out to Egypt as chief of the department commerce. His poetical and literary workj

i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, ii, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon;




include "Puck on Pegasus," (1861,) "Crescent," (1866,)
"Modern Babylon," (1873,) "The Muses of Mayfair,"
(1874,) " Pegasus Resaddled," (1877,) etc. He also wrote
"The Angler-Naturalist," (1864,) "Book of the Pike,"
(1866,) "Fishing Gossip, (1867,) "Modern Practical
Angler," (1873,) and other works.

Pen'nell, (JOSEPH,) an artist-illustrator, bom in
the United States, resident in England. The works
published and illustrated by him are numerous, from
"A Canterbury Pilgrimage," (1885,) to "The Al-
hambra," (1896,) " The Works of Charles Keene,"
(1897,) etc. His wife, ELIZABETH ROBINS, joined
him in authorship.

Pennethorne, pfn'thorn, ? (JAMES,) an English archi-
tect, born at Worcester in 1801, was a pupil of Nash
and Pugin. He designed many public buildings of
London, among which are the Museum of Practical
Geology, the General Record Repository, and an ad-
dition to Somerset House. He was appointed, several
years since, architect and surveyor of her Majesty's
parks, palaces, etc. Died in 1871.


Fermi, pen'nee, (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO,) a celebrated
Italian painter, surnamed IL FATTORE, ("the Steward,")
was born at Florence in 1488. He was in his youth the
steward of Raphael, who was his friend. He aided Ra-
phael in painting the cartoons of the Vatican, and, after
the death of his master, he and Giulio Romano finished
a " Coronation of the Virgin," designed by Raphael. He
excelled in landscapes. Died at Naples in 1528.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters ;" LANZI, " History of
Painting in Italy."

Penni, (LUCA,) a painter and engraver, a brother of
the preceding, was born at Florence about 1500. He
worked for Henry VIII. in England, and with II Rosso
in Paris.

Pennington. See PENINGTON.

Pen'ning-tpn, (WILLIAM,) an American Governor,
born at Newark, New Jersey, in 1797. He was elected
Governor of New Jersey in 1837, and re-elected four or
five times between that year and 1843. He became a
member of Congress in December, 1859, and, after a
long contest, was elected Speaker of the House by the
Republicans in February, 1860. Died in February, 1862.

Fen'njf, (EDWARD,) an English portrait-painter, born
in Cheshire in 1714. He was a professor in the Royal
Academy. Died in 1791.

Pen'rose, (THOMAS,) an English poet, born in Berk-
shire in 1743. He was successively curate of Newbury
and rector of Beckington. Died in 1779. His poems
were published in 1781.

Fen'ry, Fen'rl. or Ap Hen'ry, (JoHN,) a Welsh
religionist, called MARTIN MAR-PRELATE, was born
in 1559. According to Anthony Wood, he became a
Brownist or Anabaptist, and wrote against the Anglican
Church a tract entitled "Martin Mar-Prelate." He wa."
unjustly condemned for sedition or felony, and executed,

in 1593-

See "John Penry, the Pilgrim Martyr," by J. WADDINGTON 1854

Fenthee. See PENTHEUS.
Penthesil^e. See PENTHESILEIA.
Fen-the-sl-le'ia or Pen-tlie-si-ie'a, [Gr. llnitai-
Aeja; Fr. PENTHEsiLEE, pftN'ta'ze'li',] the queen of the
Amazons. According to some traditions, she fought
against the Greeks at the siege of Troy, and was killed
by Achilles, who admired too late her beauty and valour
and lamented her fate.

Fen'theus, [Gr. TlevOevf ; Fr. PENTHEE, poN'ti',] a
mythical person, said to be a son of Echion, and King of
Thebes. He was killed by his mother and other women
because he opposed the worship of Bacchus and ascended
a tree to witness furtively their revels and orgies.

Penthievre, de, deh poN'te'|vR',(Louis JEAN MARIF
DE BOURBON,) Due, a French nobleman, born in 1725,
was a son of the Count of Toulouse. He served as
general at Fontenoy, (1745.) He was noted for his libe-
rality or benevolence. His daughter was the mother of
King Louis Philippe. Died in 1793.

Fenzance, pen-zanss', (JAMES PLAISTED Wilde, t
LORD, an English judge, a brother of Lord Truro, was

born in London, July 12, 1816. He was educated at
Winchester, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, gradu-
ating as A.B. in 1838. In 1839 he was called to the bar
in the Inner Temple, was made a Queen's counsel in
1855, and was knighted in 1880. He was judge of the
court of probate and divorce, 1863-72, was ennobled and
made Baron Penzance in 1869, and in 1875 was appointed
judge of the public worship regulation court and of the
provincial (ecclesiastical) courts. Died in 1899.

Fenzel, pnt'sel, (ABRAHAM JACOB,) a German phi-
lologist, born near Dessau in 1749, was professor of
poetry at Laybach. He translated Strabo's "Geog-
raphy" into German, (1777,) and wrote several treatises.
Died in 1819.

Peon y Contreraa, pi-on' e kon-tra'rls, (JosE,) a
Mexican poet, born in Merida, Yucatan, in January,
1843. He became a physician, and acquired national
fame as an alienist. His dramas are numerous, and
some, like " Hasta el Cielo" and " La Hija del Rey," are
very popular. His " Romances histincos mejicanos"
are marked by rich fancy and brilliant diction.


Pepe, pa' pa, (FLORESTAN,) a Neapolitan general, born
at Squillace in 1780, entered the French service about
1806, served in Spain and Russia, and received the
rank of lieutenant-general from Murat in 1815. Died
it Naples in 1851.

Pepe, (GABRIELLO,) an Italian officer, cousin of the
preceding, was born in 1781. He served in the French
army during the empire. About 1822 he fought a duel
at Florence with Lamartine, who had offended him by
some verses which Pepe regarded as injurious to the
Italian people. Died in 1849.

Pepe, (GuGLiELMO,) a general, born in 1783, was a
brother of Florestan, noticed above. He joined the
French party in 1 799, and obtained the rank of marechal-
de-camp in 1813. In 1820 he was chosen commander-
in-chief by .he insurgents who rose against the King of
Naples. His army was defeated or dispersed by the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 215 of 425)