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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Austrians in 1821, and he escaped to England. In
1848 King Ferdinand, constrained by public opinion,
gave him command of an army sent to aid the people
of Lombardy. He wrote a " History of the Revo-
lutions and Wars of Italy in 1847-49," (i8<:o.) Died
in 1855.

Pepin. See PEPYN, (MARTIN.)

Pepin, pep'in or pip'in, [Fr. pron. peh-paN', | a son
of Louis le D^bonnaire, was born about 802 A.D., and
was made King of Aquitania about 817. He joined his
brothers Lothaire and Louis in a revolt against his father
in 830. He died in 838 A.D., leaving a son Pepin, who
contested the succession with Charles the Bald and was

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Pepin, King of Italy, a son of Charlemagne, was born
in 776 A.D., and crowned by the pope in 781. He died
in 810, leaving a son Bernard.

Pepin, peh-paN', (ALPHONSE,) a French historical
and political writer, born in Paris. Among his works
is "Two Years of Rule," ("Deux Ans de Regne," 1830-
32.) Died in 1842.

Pepin le Bref, peh-paN' leh bReT, King of the Franks,
was a son of Charles Martel, at whose death he obtained
Neustria and Burgundy. Having propitiated the favour
of the pope, he confined the "iminal king. Childeric III.,
in a monastery in 751 A.D., and usurped the throne. He
assisted the pope in a war against the Lombards, and
waged war with success against the Saxons. He died in
768 A.D., and was succeeded by his son, Charlemagne.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Fran?ais ;" " Nouvelle Biographic

Pepin le Gros, peh-paN' leh gRo, or Fepin d'Hev
ristal, (di'res'tal',) an ambitious French nobleman, be-
came Duke of Austrasia in the reign of Dagobert II.
About 680 A.D. he assumed royal power as mayor of
the palace, and defeated Thierri III., King of Neustria.
He permitted Thierri to retain the title of king, and
the latter was the first of a succession of rois fainlants,
("do-nothing kings.") Pepin died in 714 A.D., and
was succeeded by his son, Charles Martel.

Fepoli, pa'po-lee or p5p'o-lee, (ALESSANDRO ERCOLE,)

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n Italian littlrateur, born at Venice in 1757. He pub-
lished a number of dramas, or dramatic essays, entitled
"Efforts of Italy," ("Tentativi dell'Italia," 6 vols., 1788.)
Died in 1796.

Italian statesman, born at Bologna, November 6, 1825.
His mother was a daughter of Murat, and of Caroline,
sister of Napoleon I. Pepoli in 1844 married his cousin
Frederica Wilhelmina, Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigma-
ringen. He was a Liberal member of the papal govern-
ment, and in 1864 his influence with his relatives the
Hohenzollerns and the Bonapartes did much to smooth
over the difficulties which beset the new Italian kingdom.
Died March 26, 1881.

an American Baptist clergyman, born at Ware, Massa-
chusetts, February 5, 1833, graduated at Amherst Col-
lege in 1857, and at the Newton Theological School in
1860, held a Baptist pastorate, 1860-65, was professor
of church history at Newton, 1865-67, professor of the-
ology at the Crozer Seminary 1868-82, president of
Colby University 1882-89, ar "d professor of Biblical
literature there after 1892. His principal work is
" Outlines of Theology."

Pepper, (GEORGE S.,) an American philanthropist,
was born at Philadelphia in 1808. He spent his life
in managing a great estate left him by his father, and
on his death bequeathed the greater part of it, amount-
ing to several million dollars, to various institutions, I
including one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for
the establishment of a public library in Philadelphia.
Died in 1890.

Pepper, (WILLIAM,) M.D., LL.D., an American phy-
sician, born in Philadelphia, August 21, 1843, son f a
distinguished physician of the same name. He gradu-
ated in arts at the University of Pennsylvania in 1862,
and in medicine in 1864. In 1876 he became a professor
of clinical medicine in the same institution. In 1880 he
was made provost of the University, resigning in 1894.
He was very influential in extending the scope and
adding to the endowment of the University. He was
actively connected with the Public Library of Phila-
delphia, the Commercial Museum, and other insti-
tutions. He published "System of Medicine by
American Authors," (5 vols., 1885-86,) etc. Died in

Fep'per-ell, (Sir WILLIAM,) an American general,
born in Maine in 1696, commanded at the siege of
Louisburg, in 1745. He was made a baronet for his
services, and in 1759 was appointed lieutenant-general.
Died in 1759.

Sec PARSONS, " Life of Sir \V. Pepperell," 1856.

Pepusch, pa'p6"6sh, (JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German
musical composer and writer, born at Berlin in 1667.
He settled in England about 1700, and received from
the University of Oxford the degree of doctor in music.
He was also chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society. His
"Treatise on Harmony" (1731) still enjoys a high repu-
tation. Died in 1752.

Fepyn, pa-pin', sometimes written Pepin, (MARTIN,)
a Flemish painter, born at Antwerp about 1570. He
worked at Rome for some years, and painted religious
subjects. His works are highly praised. Died at Rome
in 1641.


Pepys, pps, (Lady CHARLOTTE MARIA,) a daughter
of Lord-Chancellor Cottenham, is the author of " Quiet
Moments," "Female Influence," and other works.

Pepys, (SAMUEL,) an English gentleman, gossip, and
connoisseur, celebrated as the writer of a diary, was
born in 1632, and educated at Cambridge. He was
appointed clerk of the acts of the navy in 1660, and
retained this important position until 1673. His official
duties brought him into the favourable notice of the
Duke of York, who was lord high admiral. He was
secretary to the admiralty for about four years, ending
at the revolution, (1688.) In 1684 he was elected presi-
dent of the Royal Society. He was well versed in naval
affairs, and was a connoisseur in the fine arts. His

reputation is founded on his " Memoirs, comprising a
Diary from 1659 to :669," which was published in 1825.
Died in 1703.

See " Edinburgh Review" for November, 1835, and October,
1849: " Blackwood's Magazine" for October, 1849.

Pepys, (WILLIAM HASELDINE,) F.R.S., an English
chemist and philosopher, born in London in 1775. He
was one of the founders of the Askesian Society, and
an active member of the London Institution and of
the Geological Society. His skill in the construction
of chemical apparatus contributed to the progress of
science. He was associated with William Allen in
successful researches on respiration, and was a friend
of Sir Humphry Davy. Died in 1856.

Peranda, pi-rjn'da, (SANTO,) a Venetian painter,
born at Venice in 1566, was a pupil of Jacopo Palma.
He learned to design correctly at Rome, and painted
many good portraits. Among his best works are "The
Children of Niobe," and a " Descent from the Cross."
Died in 1638.

Perard-Castel, peh'rfR' kis'tjl', (FRANgois,) a
French canonist, born at Vire in 1647 ; died in 1687.

Perau, peh-ro', (GABRIEL Louis CALABRE,)a French
biographer and editor, born in Paris in 1700. He edited
the works of Bossuet, (20 vols., 1743-53,) and continued
the " Lives of Illustrious Men of France," begun by
D'Auvigny, to which Perau added thirteen volumes,
(1754-60.) Died in 1767.


Per'ce-val, (JOHN,) Earl of Egmont, was born at
Barton, Yorkshire, in 1683. He was one of the princi-
pal founders of a colony planted in Georgia about 1732.
He wrote several small works. Died in 1748.

Perceval, (JOHN,) second Earl of Egmont, a son of
the preceding, was born in 1711. He entered the House
of Lords, with the title of Lord Lovel and Holland, in
1762, and was first lord of the admiralty from 1763 to
1766. He wrote a successful pamphlet named " Faction
detected by the Evidence of Facts." Died in 1770.

Perceval, (SPENCER,) a minister of state, born in
London in 1 762, was a son of the preceding. He studied
law, and practised with success on the Midland circuit
Having been returned to- Parliament in 1796, he became
a supporter of Mr. Pitt, and an able speaker. He wai
appointed solicitor-general in 1801, and attorney-general
in 1802. At the death of Pitt (1806) he went out of
office. He became chancellor of the exchequer in 1807,
and first lord of the treasury (prime minister) at the
death of the Duke of Portland, (1809.) He opposed
reform and liberal measures, and pursued the foreign
policy of Pitt. On the nth of May, 1812, he was as-
sassinated with a pistol in the lobby of the House of
Commons by John Bellingham, a merchant, who had
resolved to kill some member of the ministry because
they had rejected or neglected a private claim which he
had preferred.

See "Autobiography of William Jerdan," vol. L chap. xvv.L ;
CHARLES V. WILLIAMS. "Life of the Right Hon. S. Perceval"
1812: HENRI DE LASALLO, " Essai biographique sur M. Percevaj,"

Percheron, p4Rsh'r6N', (ACHILLE REMY,) a French
naturalist, born in Paris in 1797. He published several
works on entomology. Died June 3, 1869.

Percier, peVse-4', (CHARLES,) a distinguished French
architect, born in 1764, in Paris, was a pupil of Gisors.
At the age of twenty-two he gained a prize, which enabled
him to pursue his studies at Rome. He formed a friend-
ship with the architect Fontaine, with whom he was
constantly associated in his professional labours ur.til
his death. They were employed by Bonaparte to restore
and complete the palaces of the Tuileries and the Louvre.
Among their works are the triumphal arch of the Car-
rousel, and the northern wing of the court of the Tuile-
ries. By their skill and taste in design they produced
in their art a reformation similar to that which David
effected in painting. They published some excellent
works, among which is " The Palaces, Mansions, and
other Modern Edifices designed at Rome," (1798.) (See
FONTAINE, PIERRE FRANC.OIS.) Percier died in 1838.

Per'cl-val, (JAMES GATES,) an eminent American
poet and scholar, born at Berlin, Connecticut, in 1795.

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He graduated at Yale College in 1815, and, having sub-
sequently studied medicine, took the degree of M.D. in
1823. He published in 1822 his " Prometheus," a poem
in the Spenserian stanza, also two volumes of miscella-
neous poetry and prose. He was appointed in 1824
professor of chemistry in the Military Academy at West !
Point. In 1827 he was employed by Dr. Webster to
revise the manuscript of his 'large Dictionary, and in
1835 was appointed conjointly with Professor C. U.
Shepard to make a geological survey of Connecticut, a
report of which he published in 1842. He brought out
in 1843 "The Dream of a Day, and other Poems." He
was appointed in 1854 State Geologist of Wisconsin;
but while preparing his second report his health declined,
and he died in May, 1856. He had published in 1833
an excellent translation of Malte-Brun's " Geography."

See " Life and Letters of James G. Percival," by J. H. WARD,
1860; " North American Review" for January, 1822, (by EDWARD
EVHRETT,) April, 1826. and July, 1860.

Per'ct-val, (THOMAS,) a popular English medical and
moral writer, born at Warrington in 1740. He settled
in 1767 at Manchester, where he practised with success,
and founded the " Manchester Philosophical Society"
about 1780. He wrote, besides other works, "Essays,!
Medical and Experimental," (3 vols., 1767-78,) "A|
Father's Instructions, consisting of Moral Tales," etc.,
(1788,) and "Medical Ethics," (1803.) He was a dis-
senter from the Anglican Church. Died in 1804.

See " Life of T. Percival," by his son, prefixed to his works, 1807.


Per'cy, the name of an ancient and noble English
famil'y, descended from William de Percy, who, in the
reign of William the Conqueror, possessed several
manors in the counties of Lincoln and York. He was
probably a Norman. In the reign of Edward I. a HENRY
DE PERCY acquired Alnwick and other estates in North-
umberland. Another HENRY DE PERCY, in the reign of
Edward III., married Mary Plantagenet, a great-grand-
daughter of King Henry III., and had two sons, Henry,
Earl of Northumberland, and Thomas, Earl of Worces-
ter. HENRY PERCY, surnamed HOTSPUR, a son of Henry
last named, rebelled against Henry IV., and was killed
at the battle of Shrewsbury, (1403.) A son of Hotspur
was restored to the earldom, fought for the house of
Lancaster, and fell at Saint Alban's, in 1455, leaving
several sons, who were killed in the war of the Roses.
In the reign of Elizabeth a Percy, Earl of Northumber-
land, was executed for rebellion, (1572.)

Percy, peVse', (PIERRE FRANCOIS,) BARON, an emi-
nent French surgeon, born in Franche-Comte in 1754.
He became about 1792 surgeon-in-chief of the armies
of the Rhine and the Moselle, and organized in concert
with Larrey a corps mobile of surgeons with ambulances.
Attached to the grand army, he served in all the cam-
paigns of the empire, except those of Russia and Saxony.
He was professor in the Faculty of Medicine, Paris, and
wrote several able treatises on surgery. Died in 1825.

See A. F. SILVHSTRH, "Notice biographique sur Percy," 1825;
" Histoire de la Vie de Percy," by his nephew LAURENT, 1827 ;
" Biographic Me"dicale."

Percy, (THOMAS,) an Englishman of noble family,
was one of the leading conspirators in the famous Gun-
nowder Plot, (1604-05.) He was executed in the early
part of 1606.

Percy, (THOMAS,) an eminent English scholar and
writer, was born in Shropshire in 1728. He became
vicar of Easton Maudit in 1756, chaplain to the king in
1769, Dean of Carlisle in 1778, and Bishop of Dromore,
Ireland, in 1782. His reputation is founded on an in-
teresting work, entitled " Reliques of Ancient English
Poetry," (1765,) which has enjoyed a great popularity.
He translated from the French Mallet's "Northern
Antiquities," (1770.) Among his works are a "Key
to the New Testament," (1765,) and "The Hermit of
Warkworth," a poem, (1770.) Died in 1811. He was
a friend of Dr. Johnson.

PerczeL, peRt'sel, (MoRiCZ,) a distinguished Hunga-
rian general, born at Tolna in 1814. He gained several
victories over the Austrians in 1848, but after the defeat
of Temesvar he took refuge in Turkey, and afterwards
settled in the island of Jersey. In 1867 he returned to
Hungary and became a member of Parliament at Vienna.

Per-dic'cas [Gr. ncpdi/otacj I., King of Macedon, was,
according to Herodotus, the founder of the Macedonian
monarchy. He is supposed to have lived about 750 B.c

Perdiccas H., King of Macedon, was the son and
successor of Alexander I. He waged war against the
Athenians. Died about 413 B.C.

Perdiccas HI., a son of Amyntas II. of Macedon,
began to reign about 364 B.C. He was killed in battle
against the Illyrians in 359, and was succeeded by his
brother, Philip II.

Perdiccas, [Gr. IlfpA'/c/cac,] a prominent Macedonian
general, who commanded a division of the army of
Alexander the Great in his invasion of Asia, was a son
of Orontes. It is reported that Alexander, on his death-
bed, gave his royal signet to Perdiccas, as if to designate
him for the office of regent. Having obtained command
of the household troops who guarded the young king,
he exercised the power of regent, or chief minister, and,
to secure the succession of Roxana's son, put her rival
Statira to death. He also put to death his rival Me-
leager. He failed in a matrimonial intrigue in relation
to Cleopatra, a sister of Alexander, and became the
enemy of Antigonus and Antipater, who formed with
Ptolemy a coalition against him. Perdiccas found an
able adherent or ally in Eumenes, (who opposed Antip-
ater and Antigonus in Asia Minor,) and marched against
Ptolemy in Egypt. He met with a reverse near the
Nile, and was killed by his own soldiers in 321 B.C.

Per'dix, [Gr. IIcpdt|,] a nephew, or, as some say, a
sister, of Daedalus, was regarded as the inventor of the
saw, the compasses, and other implements. According
to the fable, Perdix was changed into a partridge.

Pereda, de, da pa-ra'Da, (ANTONIO,) an eminent
Spanish painter, born at Valladolid in 1599. He painted
history and genre with success, and was patronized
by the Duke of Olivarez. He excelled in colouring.
Among his works is a picture of " Human Vanity."
Died in 1669.

Pereda, de, (Josi MARIA,) a Spanish novelist,
was born near Santander in 1834. He has been en-
titled " the modern Cervantes," and has written
"Sotileza," (1888,) "D. Gonzalo Gonzalez de la
Gonzalera," (1889,) "La Montalvez," (1891,) etc.

Pere&xe, de, deh pi'ra'feks', (HARDOUIN DE BEAU-
MONT,) a French historian, born at Beaumont in 1605.
He was appointed preceptor to Louis XIV. in 1642,
succeeded Balzac in the French Academy in 1654, and
wrote a " History of Henry IV.," (1661,) which, says
M. Weiss, will assure him a durable reputation. He
became Archbishop of Paris in 1662, and required the
Port-Royalists to subscribe the formulary of Pope Alex-
ander VII. Died in December, 1670, or January, 1671.

See " Gallia Christiana," tome vii

Peregrine (or Peregrini) da Cesena, pi-ra-gRee'-
no (or pa-ri-gRee'nee) dl cha-sa'na, a celebrated Italian
engraver and worker in niello, flourished about 1500 or
1520. Little is known of his life. Nagler gives a list
of many prints ascribed to him.

P6r-e-gri'nus Pro'te-us, a Greek Cynic philosopher,
notorious for his vices and licentious life, was born at
Parium, on the Hellespont, and lived in the reign of
the Antonines. He committed suicide by fire at the
Olympic games, in 165 A.D.

See " De Morte Peregrini," by LUCIAN, (who witnessed his death.)

Pereira, pi-ra^e-ra, (BARTHOLOMEW) a Portuguese
epic poet, flourished about 1640, and wrote "Paciecis."

Pereira, [Fr. PEREIRE, peh-riR',] (JACOB RODRI-
GUEZ,) a Spaniard, born in Estremadura in 1715, is
called the first instructor of deaf-mutes. He removed
to Bordeaux about 1742, and exhibited a pupil before
the king, who granted him a pension in 1751. Died
in 1780.

Pereira, pe-ree'ra or pa-ra'ra, (JONATHAN,) an Eng-
lish physician and pharmacologist, born in London in
1804. He published an excellent work entitled "
ments of Materia Medica and Therapeutics," (2 vols.,
1839,) regarded as the most comprehensive and com-
plete treatise on materia medica in the English language,
and a treatise "On Food and Diet," (1842.) which is
highly commended. In 1846 he was appointed assistant

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physician to the London Hospital. He became full phy-
sician to the same hospital in 1851. Died in 1853.

Pereira, (MANOEL,) a Portuguese sculptor of high
reputation, was born in 1614. He worked in Spain,
and died at Madrid in 1667.

Pereira or Pereyra, (NuSo ALVAREZ or NUNEZ AL-
VAREZ,) a general and statesman, called " the Portuguese
Cid," was born in 1360. He gained victories over the
Spaniards. Died in 1431.

See A. DK ESCOBAR, " Heroe Portuguez. Vida del Senor N. A.
Pereyra," 1670; DA COSTA, "DeVita et Rebus gestis N. A. Pe-
reirz," 1723.

Pereira de Figueiredo, pa-ra^e-ra da fe-ga-e-ra'do,
(ANTONIO,) a learned Portuguese writer, born at Macao
in 1725. He was an opponent of the Jesuits, and he
wrote an able work against the temporal power of the
pope, entitled "Theological Essays," ("Tentativa Theo-
fogica," 1766.) He published a Latin Grammar, (1752,)
a Portuguese version of the Bible, (23 vols., 1778-90,)
and other works. Died at Lisbon in 1797.
Pereire, peli-raV, (EMILE and ISAAC,) French finan-
ciers, grandsons of Jacob Rodriguez, noticed above, were
born at Bordeaux in 1800 and 1806 respectively. They
gained distinction as originators of the railway from
Paris to Saint-Germain in 1835, and other railroads.
They were the chief founders of the Credit Mobilier, a
joint-stock company, with a capital of sixty million
francs, which was established in 1852. EMILE died Jan-
uary 6, 1875, and ISAAC died July 12, 1880.

Perelle, peri-reV, (GABRIEL,) a French designer and
etcher, born at Vernon-sur-Seine ; died in 1675. His
sons, NICOLAS and ADAM, were engravers.
Ferenna. See ANNA PERENNA.
Peres, pi'res', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French litterateur,
who wrote a curious work, entitled " How Napoleon
never Existed," etc., ("Comme quo! Napoleon n'a ja-
mais exist^, ou grand Erratum," etc., 1817, often re-
printed.) Died in 1840.

Pereyra, pa-raVra, (Dioco,) a skilful Portuguese
landscape-painter^was born about 1570. His favourite
subjects were the " Burning of Troy," and the " Com-
bustion of Sodom." Died in 1640.

Pereyra, (MANOEL, and NUNO ALVAREZ.) See PE-

Perez, pa'reth or pee'rez, (ANTONIO,) a Spanish
courtier, born about 1 540, was a son of Gonzalo Perez,
who was secretary of state under Charles V. and Philip
II. He succeeded his father in 1567, and obtained
the confidence and favour of the king, who used him
as his instrument in the assassination of Escovedo, the
intriguing secretary of Don John of Austria, (1578.)
Soon after this event, Perez and the princess Eboli were
arrested by order of Philip, who, it appears, induced
Perez to give up all the papers which would implicate
him in the death of Escovedo. Subjected to the rack,
Perez confessed his own share in that crime, and ac-
cused the king of complicity in it. About 1590 he
escaped from prison, and sought refuge at Saragossa,
the citizens of which rose in arms to protect him and
assert their own civil rights. He escaped to France,
published an account of his sufferings, (1594,) and
received a pension from Henry IV. Died at Paris ir.
1611, or, as others say, 1616.

See PRESCOTT, " History of Philip II. :" ANTONIO PEREZ,
" Memorial y Relaciones," 1598 : S. BERMUDEZ DH CASTRO, "An-
tonio Perez," Madrid, 1841; MIGNHT, "Antonio Perez et Philippe
II," 1845; MOTLEY, "The Rise of the Dutch Republic:" " Eraser's
Magazine" for December, 1867.

Perez, (ANTONIO,) a Spanish painter, who lived about
1550, was one of the three founders of the Academy of

Perez, (ANTONIO,) a Spanish jurist, born at Alfaro, on
the Ebro, in 1583. He became professor of civil law al
Louvain in 1628, and wrote several works. Died at
Louvain in 1672.

Perez, pa'redz, (DAVIDE,) a composer, of Spanish
origin, born at Naples in 1711. He composed several
popular operas, among which is " Semiramide." Died
in 1778.

Perez, pa'res, (Don JOSE JOAQUIN,) an able Chilian
statesman, born at Santiago de Chili in 1800. He was

chosen a deputy to Congress m 1833, and was appointed
minister of finance in 1844. In 1849 he became foreign
minister. He was afterwards a senator, and held other
ligh offices. In :86i he was elected president for five
ears, and in 1866 was re-elected. Died in 1889.

Perez, [Lat. PETRE'IUS,] (JUAN,) a Spanish poet,
Dorn at Toledo in 1512, wrote an admired Latin poem
named "Magdalena," (1552,) and other works. Died
in 1545.

Perez de Pineda, pa'reth da pe-na'oa, (FRANCISCO,)
a painter, born at Seville, was one of the best pupils of
Murillo. Died about 1682.

Perez Galdos, pa'rSth gal'dis, (BENITO,) a Spanish
novelist, born at Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands,
m 1845. Among his many and very successful romances
are " La Fontana de Oro," (1871,) " Bailen," (1873-75,)
"El Amigo Maudo," (1881,) " Lo Prohibido,"
(1884,') "Mian," (1888,) "Angel Guerra," (1891,)
etc. Perez Galdos, after his first literary successes,
removed to Madrid, and soon took rank as one of the
best of Spanish novelists.

Perfetti, peR-fet'tee, (BERNARDINO,) an Italian im-
provisator, born at Sienna in 1681. He exercised in
public his talent of extempore versification on all sub-
jects. He is said to have been the best improvisator of
Italy in his time. Died in 1747.

P'ergamini, pjR-ga-mee'nee, (JACOPO,) an Italian
writer, born at Fossombrone, lived about 1600. He
published a good "Treatise on Grammar," (1602.)

Pergola, della, del'li peVgo-ll, (ANGELO,) an able
Italian general, born near the line between Tuscany and
the Romagna. He served the Duke of Milan against
the Florentines. Died in 1427.

Pergolese. See PERGOLESI.

Pergolesi, peR-go-li'see, or Pergolese, peR-go-la'sa,
celebrated Italian composer, born at Jesi about 1708,
(some say in 1704.) He studied at Naples under Gae-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 216 of 425)