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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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the Tribunal, (1800-04,) and one of the rapporteurs of
the Code Civil. Among his works are " Elements of
Natural Legislation," (1801,) and "Elements of Roman
Civil Law," ("Juris civilis Romani Elementa," 1809.)
Died in 1813.

Perreciot, peVse-o', (CLAUDE JOSEPH,) a French
antiquary, born at Roulans in 1728. He wrote "On the
Civil State of Persons, etc. among the Gauls, from the
Celtic Times to the Adoption of the Common Laws,"
(Coutumes,) (1784-86.) Died in 1798.

Ferree, pi'ri', (JEAN BAPTISTE EMMANUEL,) a French
admiral, born in Picardy in 1761. He was killed in a
battle against Nelson in 1800.

Ferrein, pi'raN', (JEAN,) a French naturalist, born
in 1750. He travelled in Africa and North America.
Died at New York in 1805.

Perrenot. See GRANVELLE.

Ferrens, pS'rfiN', (FRANC.OIS TOMMY,) a French
historian, born at Bordeaux, September 20, 1822. He
studied at the Ecole Normale, and held various profes-
sorships, among them that of French letters in the Ecole
Polytechnique. Among his works are "Jerome Savo-
narole," (1854,) "Etienne Marcel," (1860,) "La Demo-
cratic en France au moyen Age," (1873,) and the very
important" Histoire de Florence, "(1877 > 6th vol., 1884,)
a work of high authority.

Ferret, pl'r^', (JEAN JACQUES,) a French cutler and
writer, born at Be'ziers in 1730. He invented surgical
instruments, and wrote " On the Art of Shaving One-
self," (1769.) Died in 1784.

Perrier. See PRIER.

Perrier or Perier, pa're-1', (FRANCOIS,) a painter and
engraver, was born in Burgundy about 1590. He worked
at Rome and Paris, and was one of the founders of the
Academy of the latter city. He painted the Hdtel de la
Vrilliere, at Paris. His engravings of antique statues,
etc. are commended. Died at Paris about 1654.

Perrimezzi, pSr-re-met'see, (GIUSEPPE MARIA,) an
Italian prelate and writer, born in Calabria in 1670;
died in 1740.

Perrin, pi'raN', (ALPHONSE,) a French painter of
history and landscapes, born in Paris in 1798.

Perrin, (CLAUDE.) See VICTOR, Duke of Belluno.

Perrin, (JEAN PAUL,) a French historian and Prot-
estant minister, born at Lyons in the sixteenth century.
He wrote a " History of the Vaudois," (1619.)

Ferrin, (MAXIMILIEN,) a French novelist, born in
Paris in 1796. Died March 21, 1879.

Perrin, (NARCISSE,) a French Orientalist, born at
Lyons in 1795. He wrote a work on Persia, entitled
" La Perse," (7 vols., 1823.)

Perrin, (OLIVIER STANISLAS,) a French painter, born
at Rostrenen in 1761 ; died in 1832.

Perrin, (PIERRE,) a French poet, born at Lyons, is
said to have been the first writer of French operas. He
produced a musical drama, entitled " Pastorale," in 1659,
and obtained letters-patent to open an academy of music
in Paris in 1669. Died in 1680.

Perrin des Vosges, pi'raN' d| vozh, (JEAN BAP-



cas/S; 9asj; ghard; gas/; G, H, IS., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sass; th as in this. (Jt^'See Explanations, p. 23.*



PERRON



1926



PERSEUS



riSTE,) a Frenchman, born at Epinal. He ,vas elected
n 1792 to the Convention, in which he opposed the
excesses of the royalists and terrorists. He sat in the
Council of Elders in 1798, and was the first president
of the corps l^gislatif, about 1800. Died in 1815.
Perron, Du. See DOPERRON.
Perrone, p?r-ro'na, (GIOVANNI,) an eminent Italian
theologian, born at Chieri (Piedmont) in 1794. He
wrote, besides other works, "Theological Lessons,"
(" Praelectiones Theologicse," 9 vols., 1835 et sef.,) which
ran through twenty-five editions. He became rector of
the Roman College in 1853. Died August 29, 1876.

Perronet, pi^ro'ni', ( JEAN RODOLPHE, ) an able
French engineer and architect, born at Suresne, near
Paris, in 1708. He became first engineer of the roads
and bridges of France about 1750, and organized the
ficole des Fonts et Chaussees, which was frequented by
students from foreign countries. He was a Fellow of
the Royal Society of London. Among his master-pieces
are the bridges of Neuilly, Nemours, and Pont Louis
XVI, Paris. He invented a number of machines. Died
in 1794.

Perrot. See ABLANCOURT, D'.
Perrot, (GEORGE,) a French archaeologist, born
in 1832. He became professor of archaeology in the
University of Paris in 1877, and director of the Ecole
Normale in 1883. With Charles Chipiez he wrote a
" History of Art in Antiquity," (trans. 1883-94,) also
wrote on Crete, archaeology, etc.

Ferrottet, p^'ro'ti', (G. SAMUEL,) a French bot-
anist, born in 1793. He wrote narratives of voyages
to Senegal and other places, and a " Flora of Sene-
gambia," (1831.)

Per'ry, (ARTHUR LATHAM,) D.D., LL.D., an Amer-
ican economist, born at Lyme, New Hampshire, February
27, 1830, graduated at Williams College in 1852. In 1853
he became professor of history and political economy in
Williams College. His principal works are " Elements
of Political Economy," (1865,) of which his "Political
Economy" (1883) was the eighteenth edition, and "In-
troduction to Political Economy," (1877; 3^ edition,
1882.) Prof. Perry is a clergyman of the Congregation-
alist Church. He has for many years been one of the
most earnest of the American advocates of free trade.

Per'ry, (GEORGE,) an English musician and composer, '
born at Norwich in 1793. His oratorios "The Death
of Abel," " The Fall of Jerusalem," etc., are his best-
known works. Died March 4, 1862.

FSVry, (JAMES,) an able British journalist, born at
Aberdeen in 1756. He became a resident of London
about 1776, and distinguished himself as a reporter for
the " General Advertiser." He was afterwards editor
of the "Gazetteer" and the "Morning Chronicle," a
Whig organ, which he edited more than twenty years.
He improved the method of reporting speeches, by
employing a succession or relay of reporters on the
same speech. Died in 1821.

See WILLIAM JEKDAN, " Men I have known," London, 1866.
Perry, (JOHN,) an English engineer, born about 1670.
He entered the service of Peter the Great, as engineer,
in 1698, and published a work called " The State of
Russia under the Present Czar," (1716.) Died in Eng-
land in 1733.

Perry, (JOHN,) a British engineer, born in Ulster,
Ireland, in 1850. He was professor of engineering
in Japan 1875-79, and at Finsbury 1881-96, and of
mathematics and mechanics at South Kensington
after 1896. He wrote "The Steam Kngine," (1874,)
"Practical Mechanics," (1883,) "Spinning-Tops,"
(1890,) "Applied Mechanics," (1897,) etc.

F6r'ry\ (MATTHEW CALBRAITH,) an American naval
officer, born at South Kingston, Rhode Island, in 1795,
was a brother of Commodore Perry. He served in the
Mexican war of 1847, and in 1852 commanded the expe-
dition to Japan, which opened the way to intercourse
between that country and the United States. An account
of this voyage was published, in 3 vols., in 1856. Died
in 1858.

Perry, (NORA,) an American author, born at Dud-



ley, Massachusetts, in 1841. Her writings consisted
of poems and stories for girls, including " New Songs
and Ballads," (1886,) " Lyrics and Legends," (1890,)
"Three Little Daughters of the Revolution," (1896,)
etc. Died in 1896.

Perry, (OLIVER HAZARD, ) a distinguished American
commodore, born at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1785-
On the I3th of September, 1813, as commander ot a
squadron on Lake Erie, he defeated the British under
Commodore Barclay, after an engagement of three hours.
For this brilliant victory he was made a captain and
received from Congress a gold medal. Having been
appointed commander of a squadron bound for the coast
of Columbia, he died of yellow fever, in the island of
Trinidad, in August, 1819.

See " National Portrait-Gallery ofDistinguished Americans, "vol. u.
Perry, (STEPHEN JOSEPH,) an English priest and
physicist, born in London, August 26, 1833. He was
educated at Douai, Rome, and Stonyhurst, in which, last-
named college he became director of the observatory.
In 1853 he joined the Jesuits. He was sent on many
scientific expeditions by the British government, and
wrote many valuable reports and papers, chiefly on
magnetic, meteorological, and astronomical subjects.
Died December 27, 1889.

Perry, (Sir THOMAS ERSKINE,) an English legal
writer, born in London in 1806. He graduated at Cam-
bridge in 1828. He published seven volumes of law
reports, known as " Neville and Perry" and " Perry and
Davison," and other works. Died April 22, 1882.

Perry, (THOMAS SERGEANT,) an American author,
born at Newport, Rhode Island, January 23, 1845, g ra d-
uated in 1866 at Harvard College, and studied at the
Sorbonne and the College de France and in the Uni-
versity of Berlin. He held tutorships in Harvard College,
1868-83, and published " Life of Francis Lieber," (1882,)
" English Literature in the Nineteenth Century," (1883,)
" From Opitz to Lessing," (1884,) etc.

Perry, (WILLIAM STEVENS,) D.D., LL.D., an Amer-
ican bishop, born in Providence, Rhode Island, January
22, 1832, graduated at Harvard College in 1854, and was
made a presbyter of the Episcopal Church in 1858. He
was professor of history in Hobart College, 1871-73, and
in 1876 became president of that college, but in the same
year was consecrated Bishop of Iowa, the consecrator
being his uncle, Bishop Stevens, of Philadelphia. Bishop
Perry has published many works, very generally bearing
upon the history of the Episcopal Church in the United
States. A part of these were prepared by him conjointly
with Dr. F. L. Hawks. Among his principal works
is " Historical Collections of the American Colonial
Church," (1871 ; 5th vol., 1878.) Died May 13, 1898.

PersaeuB, per-see'us, [TUpoaiof,] a Greek philosopher,
surnamed CITTIE'US because he was born at Cittium, in
Crete. He was a favourite disciple of Zeno the Stoic,
and flourished about 260 B.C. He was patronized by
Antigonus Gonatas, who appointed him governor or
commander at Corinth. According to Pausanias, he
was killed at the capture of Corinth, in 243 B.C. He
wrote several works, which are lost.
Perse. See PERSIUS.
Persee. See PERSEUS.

Per-seph'o-ne, [Gr. Ufpotjavii ; Fr. PERSEPHONE,
peVsk'fon',] the Greek name of PROSERPINE, which see.
Perses. See PERSEUS, King of Macedonia.
Fer'seus, [Gr. ncporiic ; Fr. PERSE, peR'si',] a
famous hero and demi-god of classic mythology, was
called a son of Jupiter and Danae. (See DANAE.) Ac-
cording to the fable, King Polydectes extorted from
him a rash promise to bring to him the head of Medusa.
To equip him for this enterprise, Minerva, Mercury,
and the Nymphs gave him winged sandals, a helmet
which rendered him invisible, and a mirror by means
of which he could see the image of the Gorgon and
avoid the petrifying effect of looking at the reality.
After he had cut off her head, he flew through the air
to Ethiopia, where he rescued Andromeda from a sea-
monster and married her.

Per'seua or Per'sei, [Gr. TIepacvf; Fr. PERsis,
peR'si',] the last king of Macedonia, was the eldest son



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long-; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; n6t; good; moon;



PERSEUS



1927



PERUGINO



of Philip V., whom he succeeded in 179 B.C. Before
this date, by perfidy and intrigues, he had procured the
death of his brother Demetrius. He began early to pre-
pare for a renewal of hostilities against the Romans, who
declared war against him in 171 B.C. Several campaigns
were fought, without decisive results, until L. jEmilius
Paulus took command, in 168 B.C. He defeated Per-
seus with great loss at Pydna, in June, 168, after which
the whole kingdom submitted to the victors. Perseus
escaped from this battle, but was soon taken prisoner,
and was kept in captivity at Alba until his death, about
164 B.C.

See LIVY, " History of Rome," books xxxviiL-xlv.

Perseus, a Greek painter and disciple of Apelles,
flourished about 300 B.C. He is mentioned by Pliny.

Persian!, pe'R-se-a'nee, (FANNY Tacchinardi tak-
ke-naa'dee,) an Italian operatic singer, born in Rome in
1818. She married a composer named Persian! about

1835. Died in 1867.

Fersigny, (per-seen'ye,) de, [Fr. pron. deh peVsen'-
ye',] (JEAN GILBERT VICTOR de Fialin deh fe'SHaN',)
COMTE, a French minister of state, born in the depart-
ment of Loire in 1808. He became about 1833 a zealous
partisan of Louis Napoleon, and is said to have been the
instigator of the attempt made by him at Strasbourg in

1836. In 1840 he was arrested with Louis Napoleon at
Boulogne, and condemned to imprisonment for twenty
years. He was, however, released before the revolution
of 1848, and renewed his intrigues. In January, 1852,
he obtained the office of minister of the interior, which
he resigned in June, 1854. He was sent as ambassador
to London in 1855, was reappointed minister of the in-
terior in November, 1860, and removed in June, 1863.
Died in 1872. M. Delaroa published in 1866 a work
entitled " Le Due de Persigny et 1'Empire."

See H. CASTILLE, " Le Comte de Persigny :" E. DE MIRRCOURT,
"M. de Persigny."

Persil, peVsel', (JEAN CHARLES,) a French politician
and advocate, born at Condom in 1785. He was minister
of justice in 1834 and 1835. He published a good work,
entitled "Regime hypothecate," (1809.) Died in 1870.

Fersio, pSR'se-o, (ASCANIO,) an Italian philologist,
born at Matera about 1550. He wrote a "Treatise on
the Conformity of the Italian Language with the Greek,"
etc., (1592.) His brother ANTONIO wrote several works
on philosophy. Died after 1608.

Persius, per'she-us, [Fr. PERSE, pSRSs,] or, more fully,
Au'lus Per'sius Flac'cus, [It. AULO PERSIO FLACCO,
ow'lo p?R'se-o flak'ko,] a celebrated Roman satirical
poet, was born of an equestrian family at Volaterrae,
in Etruria, in 34 A.D. He was a pupil of Cornutus
the Stoic, to whom he became attached by an intimate
friendship, which lasted until the death of Persius. He
associated with Lucan and Seneca. His moral character
appears to have been excellent. He died prematurely
in November, 62 A.D., leaving six satires, extending
altogether to only six hundred and fifty hexameter lines.
Though his language is obscure, his style unpolished,
and his delineations of men and manners greatly inferior
to those of Horace and Juvenal, his sententious satires
have been very popular in ancient, mediaeval, and mod-
ern times. His object is to inculcate the morality of
the Stoics. Among the chief merits of his satires is
the moral beauty of his doctrines. His dialogues are
remarkably spirited, and display much dramatic power.
The best English versions of Persius are those by Dryden,
Gifford, Brewster, and Howes. Among the best editions
of the text are those of Isaac Casaubon, (Paris, 1605,)
Kpnig, (Gbttingen, 1803,) O. Jahn, (Leipsic, 1843,) and
Gildersleeve.

See " A. Persii Flacci Vita," attributed by some scholars to SUK-
TONIUS; G. MASSA, " Osservazioni e Racconto delja Vita di A. Per-
sio Flacco," 1666: BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary:"
" Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale ;" N. J. SLIS, "Dissertation aui
Perse," 1783.

Person, peVs6N', (FELIX,) a French writer, born at
Caen in 1795. He published several books on the breed-
ing of horses. Died March 6, 1876.

Persona, p^R-so'na, (CRISTOFORO,) an Italian Hel-
lenist, born at Rome in 1416. He translated into Latin
Borne works of Athanasius, Origen, and Chrysostom.
Died in 1485.



Persona, p?R-so'na, (GOBELIN,) a German chronicler,
born in Westphalia in 1358; died after 1418.

Persoon, pSR-son', (CHRISTIAN HENDRIK,) a Dutch
botanist and physician, born at the Cape of Good
Hope about 1770. He settled at Paris about 1802,
and published, besides several interesting works on
cryptogamous plants, " Synopsis of Plants," (" Synopsis
Plantarum," 2 vols., 1805-07.) Died in 1836.

Persoz, peVso', (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a chemist, born in
Switzerland in 1805. He obtained a chair in the Con-
servatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris, in 1852. He has
published a "Treatise on the Printing of Tissues," (4
vols., 1846,) and other works. Died in 1867.

Persuis, de, deh peVsii-e', (Louis Luc LOISEAU,) a
French composer, born at Metz in 1769. He composed
operas and ballet-music. Died in Paris in 1819.

Perthes. See BOUCHER DE PERTHES.

Fertb.es, peVtSs, (FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH,) a learned
German bookseller and publisher, born at Rudolstadt
in 1772. He opened a bookstore in Hamburg in 1796,
married a daughter of the editor Claudius, and made
acquaintance with many literary men, among whom were
Voss, Stolberg, Niebuhr, and the Schlegels. In 1822
he removed to Gotha, where he published the " Alma-
nach de Gotha." He died in 1843, and was succeeded
in his business by his son JUSTUS.

See " F. Perthes Leben." by his son CLEMENS THEODOR, 3 vol*.,
1848; " Fraser's Magazine" for November, 1856.

Perti, peVtee, (GiACOMO ANTONIO,) an Italian com-
poser, born at Bologna in 1661. He composed success-
ful operas. Died in 1756.

Perticari, pe'R-te-kl'ree, (GiuLio,) COUNT, an Ital-
ian writer, born in the Romagna in 1779. He married
a daughter of the poet Monti in 1812. His works, which
form two volumes of the " Biblioteca Scelta," (Milan,
1831,) are commended. Died in 1822.

See MONTANARI, " Biografia di G. Perticari," 1836.

Fer'tl-nax, (HELVius,) a Roman emperor, born at
Alba Pompeia, on the Tanaro, in 126 A.D., was a son
of a dealer in charcoal. He was a teacher of grammar
before he entered the army. As prefect of a cohort, he
served with distinction against the Parthians. He was
admitted into the senate, and obtained command of a
legion in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. In 179 A.D. he
was consul. He suppressed a mutiny in Britain in the
reign of Commodus, and was proclaimed emperor by the
senate at the death of Commodus, in January, 193 A.D.
By the announcement of important reforms, and his
efforts to restore discipline, he made enemies among the
courtiers and praetorians, who murdered him in his
palace in March, 193 A.D.

See CAPITOLINUS, "Pertinax;" DION CASSIOS, "History of
Rome :" GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Pertusier, de, deh peVtii'ze-i', (CHARLES,) a tit-
tlrateur, bom at Baume-les-Dames, in France, in 1779 ;
died in 1836.

Perty, peVtee, (JOSEPH ANTON MAXIMILIAN,) a
German zoologist, born at Ohrnbau, in Bavaria, Sep-
tember 17, 1804. In 1833 he became professor of zoology
in the Berne University. He published various works
on biological science. Died at Berne, August 8, 1884.

Pertz, p?Rts, (GEORG HEINRICH,) a German historian,
born at Hanover in 1795. He became royal librarian
and councillor of the archives in his native city, and was
a member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. His
most important work is entitled " Historical Monuments
of Germany," (" Monumenta Germanise historica," 13
vols., 1854.) Died October 7, 1876.

Perugin, Le. See PERUGINO.

Pemeino, pi-roo-jee'no, [called in French LE PE-
RUGIN, Teh pa'rii'zhaN',] originally Pietro Vanucci,
(va-noot'chee,) written, also, Vannucci and Vanuzzd,
an eminent Italian painter, born at Castello della Pieve
in 1446. He painted some frescos for Sixtus V. in the
Sistine Chapel, Rome, about 1480, after which he worked
at Florence and Perugia, from which circumstance he
received his surname IL PERUGINO, or "the Perugian."
He was a good colorist, and surpassed most of his
contemporaries in the gracefulness of his heads and
figures. His style, however, is considered rather dry.
Among his best works are an " Infant Christ with the



as k; as s; 2, hard; g as;',- G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( j!^ = See Explanations, p. 23.)



PER UN



1928



PETAU



Virgin," in the Albani palace, Rome, the frescos of
Scriptural subjects in the Sala del Cambio at Perugia,
and an oil-picture of "The Holy Family," and a "Dead
Christ," in the Pitti palace, Florence. He was the
master of Raphael. Died in 1524.

SeeVASARl, "Lives of the Painters;" B. ORSINI, " Vitadi Pietro
Perurino," 1804 : LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy ; MRS.
IAMESON, " Memoirs of Early Italian Painters :" A. MEZZANOTTB,
' Commentario storico della Vita di P. Vannucci," 1836.



Perun, pa'roon', the thunder-god of the ancient Slavic
tribes identified by some with the Paranjya of the Vedas.
Many'of the Slavi regarded Perun as the supreme god.
His images were of wood, with a head of silver and
a beard of gold.

Feruzzi, pa-root'see, (BALDASSARE,) an able Italian
architect and painter, born near Sienna in 1481. He
painted some frescos at Rome, and attained great skill
in perspective and scene-painting. His fresco of the
" Judgment of Paris," in the Villa Belcaro, is called
his master-piece. He designed the beautiful Palazzo
Massimi, Rome, and the celebrated Palazzo Farnesma,
in which he painted " Perseus and Medusa." Having
been appointed architect of Saint Peter's about 1520, he
made a design for that church ; but it was not executed.
His works are characterized by grandeur, purity of de-
sign, and nobleness of expression. Died in 1536.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters;" LANZI, "History of
Painting in Italy :" QUATREMBRR DE QUINCY, " Vies des plus illus-
(res Architectes."

Peruzzi, (UBALDINO,) an Italian statesman, born at
Florence, of an old and rich family of patrician bankers,
April 2, 1822. He was educated at Sienna and Paris.
He became a Liberal statesman, and was gonfaloniere
of Florence from 1848 to 1850. He took an active part
in the formation of the Italian kingdom ; was minister of
public works in 1861-62, and of the interior until 1864.
He was afterwards syndic of Florence. Died in 1891.

Feruzzinl, pa-root-see'nee, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian
historical painter, born in 1629 ; died at Milan in 1694.
Pesarese, II. See CANTARINI, (SiMONE.)
Pesaro, pa'sa-ro or pes'a-ro, (GIOVANNI,) an able
Venetian diplomatist, born in 1589. He was elected
doge in 1658. Died in 1659.
Fescaire, de, MARQUIS. See AvAtos, D .
Pescara, de, MARQUIS. See AVALOS, D'.
Pescatore, pes-ka-to'ra, (GIAMBATTISTA,) an Italian
poet, born at Ravenna. He wrote a continuation of
Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso," (1548,) and other works.
Died in 1558.

Peace, pa'shi, (NicoLA or COLA,) a Sicilian, who
was noted as a swimmer and diver, lived about 1360-
80. It is said that he dived into the whirlpool of
Charybdis and brought up a gold cup which Frederick
II. had thrown there to test his skill.
FescenniuB Niger. See NIGER.
Feschel, pesh'el, (OSKAR FERDINAND,) a German
geographer, born at Dresden, March 17, 1826. He was
educated in Leipsic and Heidelberg, and became a jour-
nalist. In 1871 he was made professor of geography in
Leipsic. Died August 31, 1875. He wrote some valu-
able geographical treatises.

Feschka, pgsh'ka, (MiNNA, nle Leutner,) an Aus-
trian soprano-singer, born at Vienna in 1839. She made
her operatic dlbut at Breslau in 1856. In 1861 she mar-
ried Dr. Peschka, of Vienna. She appeared in the prin-
cipal German cities, and in 1872 visited England and
America, where she was well received. Died in 1890.

Peselli, pi-sel'lee, or Peaellino. pa-sel-lee'no,(FRAN-
CESCO,) a painter, born in 1426, was a son of Pesello,
noticed below. Died in 1457.

Peselli, (FRANCESCO PESELLO,) an Italian painter,
born at Florence in 1380. He painted animals with
success. Died in 1457.

Peselli, (PESELLO,) an Italian painter of history and
animals, born at Florence in 1404; died in 1481.

Feah-da'dl-an or Pish-da'dl-an, [from the Persian
tishd&d or ptshd&d, it. " lawgiver,"") the name of one of
the earliest of the ancient Persian dynasties, so called,
according to Sir William Jones, from Hoosheng, (Hfl-
sheng,) who was distinguished for his justice and was
Burnamed PESHDAD, or the "lawgiver." Kaioomers,
the grandfather of Hoosheng, is commonly called the



founder of the Peshdadian dynasty, and is said to have
been the first who established a code of laws and a regu-
lar government in Persia. To this line of Persian kings
belonged the famous Jemsheed, (or Jamschid,) who
occupies so prominent a place in the ancient legends
the East.

See ATKINSON, "Abridgment of the Shah Nimeh of FirdausL
London, 1832 ; " A Short History of Persia," in vol. v. of the woikJ
of SIR WILLIAM JONES.

Pesmes, de, deh pirn, (FRANC.OIS Louis,) a Swiss
general, called SAI'NT-SAPHORIN, (saN si'fo'raN ,) was
born in the Pays de Vaud in 1668. He was sent by
the Swiss government to the Congress of Utrecht, and
signed the treaty of alliance in 1714. He entered the
service of George I. of England in 1716 as a general,
and was sent as minister to Vienna. Died in 1737.

Pesne, pin, (ANTOINE,) a French painter, born ID
Paris in 1683. He worked at Berlin, to which he was
invited by the king. He painted many portraits and
historical pieces, and received the title of first pamtei


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 218 of 425)