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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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to the king. Died in Berlin in 1757.

Pesne, "( JEAN,) a painter and engraver, the father oJ
the preceding, was born at Rouen about 1624. He en-
craved many admirable prints after Nicolas Poussm,
whose style and spirit he reproduced with great success.
Died in Paris in 1700.

Pesselier, pfVle-a', (CHARLES ETIENNE,) a French
litterateur, was oorrfin Paris in 1712. He wrote com-
edies fables, and other works. Died in 1763.

Pe'ssuti, pes-soo'tee, ( GIOVACCHINO, ) an Italian
mathematician, born at Rome in 1743- He obtained
in 1787 the chair of mathematics at the Roman Col-
lege of Sapienza. He wrote treatises on hydraulics and
on the occultation of fixed stars by the moon, (1802.)

D peatalo I zt;i, pes-ta-lot'see, (JoHANN HEINRICH.)
Swiss teacher and educational reformer of great merit
and influence, was born at Zurich in 1746- He f received
a liberal education, and became a cultivator ot the soil,
but in this occupation he was not successful. He wrote
a popular novel, " Leinhardt und Gertrud, (4 yols.,
1781 ) designed to promote the better education of the
poor' and " Inquiries into the Process of Nature for the
Development of the Human Race," (i?97-) In I79 he
opened a school for orphans at Stanz, where he adopted
a system of mutual instruction. Having been driven
from Stanz by the Austrians in 1799. he removed to
Burgdorf, where his school prospered and acquired a
wide reputation. In 1804 he removed to Yverdun.
He was distinguished for energy, philanthropy, and
originality, but was deficient in practical ability t
manage a large institution. Died in 1827.

See his Autobiography, entitled "The Fortunes of ^ !;'" '*> 6;
OPFBU " I H Pestalozzi s Leben,"i846; Life, by VON KAUMBM,
,855; BANDLIN, " Pestalozzi, seine Zeit, seine Wirkungen 1843:
BLOCHMANN "H Pestalozzi." Dresden, 1846; AHKENDS, " Pesta-

nn.K_HMAi>iw, *. ' ' , " Rmtncr yiir

ICHMANN " estaozz. res, ,

o^f ""n Leben and sein Wirken." ,846; E. BIBER. " Beitrag ;.r
iographie J. H. Pe 5 talozzi," ,827; " Nonvelle Biographie Gen<-
le;" "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1828.

Pestel, pes'tel, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a German
jurist, born at Rinteln in 1724 ; died at Leyden in 1805.

Peatel, pes'tel, (PAUL,) a Russian revolutionist, born
in 1794, s a ieader of a secret societ y or conspiracy
which designed to substitute liberal institutions for
absolutism in Russia. He was hung in 1826.

Petagna, pa-tan'ya, (ViNCENZO,) an Italian botanist,
born at Naples in 1734. He was professor of bo
in the University of Naples, and published Botanic
Institutes," (" Institutiones Botanica:," 5 vols., I75-)
Died in 1810. ,

Petau, peh-to', or Petavu, peh-trvu', ILat. V
vms 1 (DENIS,) a French scholar and Jesuit of great
learning, born at Orleans in 1583. He was professor of
theology at Paris from 1621 to 1644. He published a
great work on chronology, " De Doctnna Temporum,
(2 vols 1627,) which is highly esteemed. Among his
other works is "Theologica Dogmata," (5 vols., 1644-50.)
He wrote against Salmasius. Died in Pans in 1652.

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary :" HBHMM
V ALOIS " Oratio in Obitum D. Petavu," 1653 ; LEON ALLATIUS.
"Melissolyra de Laudibus D. Petavu," 1653.

Petau, (PAUL,) an antiquary, born at Orleans in 1568.
He wrote on medals, etc. Died in 1614.

t, e, i, 6, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y. short: a, e, i, p, obscure: far, fall, fat; met; nftt; good; moon;




Petavius. See PETAU, (DENIS.)

Petavu. See PETAU.

Pe'ter, [Gr. ITfrpoc; Lat. PE'TRUS; Fr. PIERRE, pe-aiR';
Ger. PETER, pa'ter ; Ital. PIETRO, pe-a'tRo ; Span.
PEDRO, pa'DRo,] SAINT, one of the twelve apostles, was
oorn at Bethsaida, on the Sea of Galilee, and was a
brother of Andrew. His original name was SIMON ;
but when he became a disciple of Christ he received
the name of PETER, which in Greek signifies a " rock."
He was sometimes called CEPHAS. His occupation was
that of a fisherman. He was a man of ardent tempera-
ment, affectionate and generous. He was favoured with
special manifestations of his Master's confidence, and
performed a more prominent part in the sacred history
than any other of the twelve disciples. Peter and An-
drew were the first of the apostles in the order of time.
On several occasions Peter acted as spokesman for his
fellow-apostles ; and it is supposed by many that he
possessed some pre-eminent authority. When the Lord
Jesus was arrested, Peter drew a sword and cut off the
ear of the high-priest's servant ; but, in the severe crisis
that followed, his faith and courage failed, so that he
denied his Master. Having recovered from this lapse
by hearty repentance, he became a zealous and powerful
minister, and spoke with great effect at Jerusalem on the
day of Pentecost. He raised Tabitha, or Dorcas, from
the dead, and performed other miracles. He received a
divine mission to preach the gospel to Cornelius, a gen-
tile. About 44 A.D. he was cast into prison by Herod
the king, but he was delivered by an angel. The last
passage of sacred history which mentions Saint Peter
is the account of a council held at Jerusalem about 50
A.D. (Acts xv.) Tradition adds that he preached in
Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Pontus, and that he
suffered martyrdom in Rome about 65 A.D. He wrote
two epistles, which are included in the canon of Scrip-
ture, and are highlv prized.

See Matthew x. 3. xvi. 16-19, xvii., xxvi. 33-75 ; Mark i. 16, 29,
be. 2, 5, x. 28, xiv. *3, 33, 54, 66-72; Luke v., vi. 14, xviii. 28,
xxii. 31-34, 54-62, xxiv. 12; John L 40-44, vi. 68, xiii. 6-9, 24, 37,
xviii. ID, 15-18, 25-27, xx. 2-6, xxi. 2-21 ; Acts i., ii., iii., iv., v., via.
14, 20, ix. 32-43, x. 5-48, xi. passim, xii. 3-17, and xv. 7. Also,
L. CUCCAGNI, "Vita di San Pietro," 1777.

Fe'ter, (or Pedro, pa'dRo,) often called Dom Pedro,
(ANTONIO JozH de Alcantara da 11-kan'ta-ra,) Em-
peror of Brazil and King of Portugal, a son of John VI.
of Portugal, was born at Queluz in 1798. On the con-
quest of Portugal by the French, in 1807, he was taken
by his father to Brazil. He married Maria Leopoldina
of Austria about 1816, and became Regent of Brazil
in 1821. A revolution having rendered Brazil indepen-
dent of Portugal, Dom Pedro was proclaimed emperor
on the I2th of October, 1822. He was recognized as
such by the Portuguese government in 1825. At the
death of his father (1826) he inherited the throne of
Portugal, which he soon abdicated in favour of hi?
daughter, Donna Maria da Gloria. The disaffection of
his subjects became so violent that he abdicated the
crown of Brazil in favour of his son in 1831, and re-
turned to Portugal, from which he expelled his brother,
Dom Miguel, who had usurped the royal power. Died
in 1834.

Peter (or Pedro) II de Alcantara, Emperor of
Brazil, born at Rio Janeiro in December, 1825, was a son
of the preceding, who abdicated in his favour in 1831.
He began to act as emperor on the 23d of July, 1840,
when he was declared of age. In 1843 he married
Theresa Christina Maria, a daughter of the King of the
Two Sicilies. A lover of literature, he was noted for
his quiet scholarly tastes rather than for any manifesta-
tions of aggressive statesmanship, and was remarkably
popular both at home and abroad. His reign was ter-
minated by a bloodless revolution, November 15, 1889,
when he was exiled to Europe. Died December 4, 1891.

Peter, of Constantinople. See COURTENAY (PIERRE.)

Peter [Russ. PETR, pe-dtr'] 1, or Peter the Great,
[Fr. PIERRE LE GRAND, pe-aiR' leh gR6N ; Ger. PETER
DER GROSSE, pa'ter der gRos'seh ; It. PIETRO IL GRANDE,
pe-a'tRo el gRan'di; Lat. PE'TRUS MAG'NUS,] Czar of
Russia, born at Moscow, June 10, 1672, was the third son
of Alexis Mikhailovitch. His mother was Natalia, the
second wife of Alexis. Feodor, the eldest son of Alexis,

having died without issue, in 1682, Peter was recognized
as his successor, in preference to Ivan, who was a feeble-
minded youth. Their ambitious sister Sophia, however,
fomented a bloody mutiny among the strelitzes, and
procured the proclamation of Ivan and Peter as joint
sovereigns. Sophia acted as regent until 1689, when
she was confined in a convent and Peter began to reign
as sole autocrat. He married Eudoxia Feodorovna in
1689. Some years before this date he had receiTcd
scientific instruction from Le Fort, a native of Geneva,
who became one of his advisers or ministers after hia

Peter had received from nature violent passions and
an indomitable energy. In the early part of his reign
he determined to reform the institutions, governmental
system, and customs of Russia, which was far behind
other countries of Europe in civilization. His first care
was to organize an army with the European discipline ;
and he set the example by entering the army himself as
a private soldier. He also gave much attention to the
construction of a navy, and learned practical seamanship
by cruising on the White Sea. He procured the ser-
vices of many foreign engineers, shipwrights, artisans,
etc. In 1696 he captured Azof from the Turks by the
aid of his new navy.

Prompted by an irrepressible activity and desire of
knowledge, in 1697 he visited Western Europe incognito,
accompanied by several of his favourite officers or min-
isters, who were accredited as ambassadors to Holland.
He took a lodging in a small house at Saardam, where
he worked for wages as a ship-carpenter, under the name
of Pieter Timmerman.

In January, 1698, he went to England, where he passed
about three months. Here, says Macaulay, " his stately
form, his intellectual forehead, his piercing black eyes,
his Tartar nose and mouth, his gracious smile, his frown,
black with all the stormy rage and hate of a barbarian
tyrant, . . . were during some weeks popular topics of
conversation." He returned to his capital, Moscow,
after an absence of seventeen months, and punished
with great severity the strelitzes, who had rebelled while
he was absent. He established naval and other schools,
caused useful works to be translated into Russian, re-
quired his subjects to trade with foreigners, and made
various other innovations, against which a great number
of his subjects were deeply prejudiced. He also dis-
banded the strelitzes, who had served as a body-guard
of the Czars. In 1700 he formed an alliance with the
Kings of Poland and Denmark against Charles XII.
of Sweden, who defeated the Russians at Narva in the
same year. Peter founded Saint Petersburg in 1703,
and prosecuted vigorously the war against Charles, who
was defeated at the decisive battle of Pultowa, in 1709.
(See CHARLES XII.) In 1711 he married Catherine,
a girl of obscure origin, who had been taken prisoner at
Marienburg. (See CATHERINE I.)

The war between Russia and Turkey having been re-
newed, Peter conducted an army in person across the
Pruth into the dominions of the Sultan. Hemmed in
by the Turkish army, and unable to obtain a regular
supply of provisions, he was reduced to a dangerous
situation, from which, it is said, the empress Catherine
rescued him by overtures of peace and rich presents to
the grand vizier. Peter obtained peace by restoring Azof
and Taganrog in July, 1711, after which he prosecuted
with success the war against the Swedes in Pomerania
and conquered Finland. He transferred the senate to
Saint Petersburg in 1713, soon after which the imperial
palaces of that city were finished. In 1716 he visited
Germany, Holland, Denmark, and France. During his
visit to Copenhagen he was appointed commander-in-
chief of the combined fleets of Russia, Holland, England,
and Denmark.

Alexis, the eldest son of Peter, had constantly opposed
his projects of reform, and had selected his favourites
and advisers among the enemies of his father's policy.
Having remonstrated without effect against this conduct,
Peter compelled him, in February, 1718, to renounce the
succession. Alexis was then tried for conspiracy by a
council of judges and bishops, who condemned him to
death. The circumstances attending the death of Alexis,

easy$; casj; ^hard; gas/.- G, H, K,,^f-urnl; N, nasal: V., trilled; sasz; th as in //$>.

xplanations, p. 23.




attested as they appear to be by unimpeachable wit-
nesses, seem to prove beyond a doubt that he was
poisoned by order of his father. (See ALEXIS.)

In 1719 Peter was afflicted by the death of his second
son, Peter, the heir-apparent and the issue of Catherine.
He made, in September, 1721, at Nystad, (or Neustadt,)
a treaty of peace with the King of Sweden, who ceded
to him Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, Carlia, and Viborg.
Finland was restored to Sweden by this treaty. Having
thus fortunately ended a war of twenty years, he assumed,
at the request of the senate, the titles of " Peter the Great,
Emperor of all the Russias, and Father of his Country."
He afterwards directed his attention to internal improve-
ments, and founded the Academy of Sciences about 1724.
The public offices and tribunals had been removed in
1721 to Saint Petersburg, the population of which he
had rapidly increased by arbitrary measures. Among
his favourite ministers and courtiers were Mentchikof
and Galitzin. He died at Saint Petersburg on the 28th
of January or the 8th of February, 1725, leaving two
daughters, Elizabeth, who became empress, and Anna.
Catherine reigned until her death, in 1727, and was sn<>
ceeded by Peter II., a son of Alexis.

and married Juana de Castro, whom he also maltreated.
The friends of these ladies revolted without success, and
Jlanche was put to death by order of Peter. About

1366 he was driven out of Castile by Du Guesclin and

others, who supported Pedro's brother, Henry de Trans-
amare, as king. Peter was restored by the English
Black Prince in 1367, and was assassinated by Henry de

Transtamare in 1369.

See LOPEZ DE AYALA, " Cronica de los Reyes Pedro I.," etc.,
501 ; COUNT DE LA ROCA, "El Rey Don Pedro defendido," 1648;

tory of Peter the Great," 1755,

Pierre le Grand," 1759-63 : CLAUDIUS, " Peter der Grosse," 3 vols.,
1798-1818; GOLIKOW, "Life of Peter the Great," (in Russian.) a
vols., 1788-98; RABBNER, " Leben Petri I.," 1725: VON HALEM,
" Leben Peters des Grossen." 3 vols., 1803-05 ; GROSSE, " Peter
ise," 1816: PH. DE SEGUR, " Histoire de Russie etde Pierre

Peter n., (Alexievitch,) a grandson of Peter the
Great, was born in 1714 or 1715. He began to reign in
May, 1727. His accession was promoted by Mentchiko
who expected to have great power or influence during
his minority. Ivan Dolgoruki, however, became the
favourite of Peter, who banished Mentchikof to Siberia.
Peter died in January, 1730, and was succeeded by Anna

Peter TTT, (Feodorovitch,) Emperor of Russia,
born in 1728, was a grandson of Peter the Great, and a
son of Anna, who was married to the Duke of Holstein-
Gottorp. He was recognized as heir to the throne by
Elizabeth in 1742, and married, in 1745, Sophia Augusta
of Anhalt-Zerbst, who assumed the name of Catherine.
He succeeded his aunt Elizabeth in January, 1762.
Among his first acts was a treaty of peace with Frederick
the Great. Having provoked the enmity of the nobles
and clergy by some innovations, he was dethroned and
strangled in July, 1762, by conspirators, of whom his
wife was an accomplice. (See CATHERINE II.)

SeeRANFT, " Lebensbeschreibung des Kaisers Peterlll.," 1773;
THIEBAULT DE LAVEAUX, " Histoire de Pierre III," 3 vols.. 1798;
GOLDERN, "Biographic Peters III.." 1792 ; HELBIG, " Biographic
Peters III.," 2 vols., 1808-09.

Peter (or Pedro, pa'DRo) 1, King of Aragon, was a
son of Sancho Ramirez. Died in 1104.

Peter (or Pedro) II, King of Aragon, born in 1174,
was a son of Alfonso II. Died in 1213.

Peter (or Pedro) TTT surnamed THE GREAT, King
of Aragon, was born in 1236, and succeeded his father,
James I., in 1276. He had married about 1262 Con-
stance, a daughter of Manfred, King of Naples and Sicily.
After the death of Manfred, Peter asserted his claim to
the kingdom of Naples against Charles of Anjou, who
had possession of it and who was supported by the
pope. The interest of Peter was promoted by the mas-
sacre of the French at the Sicilian Vespers, March 30,
1282, and by several naval victories gained by his ad'
miral, Roger di Loria, over the fleet of Charles. He
died in 1285, and was succeeded by his son, Alfonso III

See ZURITA, " Anales de Aragon ;" " Nouvelle Biographic G&ui

Peter (or Pedro) IV, surnamed THE CEREMONIOUS
King of Aragon, born in 1317, was the son of Alfonso
IV. He began to reign in 1336. Died in 1387.

Peter (or Pedro) I_, surnamed THE CRUEL, King ol
Castile and Leon, born about 1334, succeeded his father
Alfonso XL, in 1350. He married Blanche de Bourbon
a French princess, in 1353, but he soon imprisoned her


Peter (Pedro) L, King of Portugal, born in 1320,
was a son of Alfonzo IV., whom he succeeded in 1357.
Died in 1367.

Peter (Pedro) U-, King of Portugal, a younger son
of John IV., was born in 1648. Having deposed his
jrother, Alfonzo VI., in 1667, he became regent. He
reigned as king from 1683 until his death, in 1706.

Peter or Pedro TV. of Portugal. See PETER L,
Emperor of Brazil.

Peter or Pedro V, King of Portugal, born at Lisbon
m September, 1837, was a son of Queen Donna Maria da
jloria, and a nephew of the preceding. He succeeded
lis mother in November, 1853, under the regency of his
ather, and assumed the functions of royalty in Septem-
ber or November, 1855. He was a popular prince. He
died in November, 1861, and was succeeded by his
orother, Louis I.

Peter (or Pierre, pe-ain') L, surnamed MAUCLERC,
Duke of Brittany, and Count de Dreux, was a grandson
of Louis VI. of France. He married, about 1212, Alii
de Thouars, the heiress of Brittany. He served under
Louis IX. in the crusade of 1249, and died in 1250.

Peter (Pierre) H-, Duke of Brittany, succeeded his
brother, Francis I., in 1450. Died in 1457.

Peter, [Gr. Ilrrpof,] Bishop of Alexandria, succeeded
Theonas in 300 A.D. He was beheaded in the reign of
Maximinus II., in 311. He is eulogized by Eusebius.

Peter or Pe'trua OF ALEXANDRIA, the companion
and successor of Athanasius. Having been designated
by the latter, he was elected bishop by the orthodox
party in 373 A.D., but was quickly deposed by the Arians.
He was restored in 378, and died in 381 A.D.

Peter OF BLOIS, [Lat. PE'TRUS BLESEN'SIS,] an emi-
nent French ecclesiastic, born at Blois. He was ap-
pointed Archdeacon of Bath by Henry II. of England.
He died in 1200, leaving many letters and other works,
which have been printed, (1519 and 1667.)

Peter or Fe'trus of SEBAS'TE, a bishop, born in
Cappadocia about 350 A.D., was a brother of Basil the
Great, by whom he was ordained a presbyter. He
became Bishop of Sebaste, in Armenia, about 380.
Died after 390 A.D.

Peter, [Lat. PE'TRUS,] surnamed CHRYSOL'OGUS, a
Bishop of Ravenna, who died in 450 A.D.

Peter de Bruys, (deh bRu-e',) a French preacher,
who began about 1 1 10 to speak against the corruptions
of the Church. He is said to have rejected masses, the
Lord's Supper, and other ordinances. He was burned
at the stake in 1130.

See HODGSON, " Reformers and Martyrs," Philadelphia, 1867.

Peter Comestor. See COMESTOR.

Peter the Deacon, an Italian chronicler, born at
Rome in 1107; died after 1159.

Peter the Hermit, [Fr. PIERRE L'ERMITE, pe-aiR'
l*R'met'; It. PIETRO L'EREMITA, pe-a'tRo la-ra-mee'ta,]
a famous enthusiast, agitator, and crusader, was born in
the diocese of Amiens about the middle of the eleventh
century. He performed a pilgrimage to Palestine about
1094, and was filled with indignation by the oppressions
to which the pilgrims were subjected. On his return
he received a commission from Pope Urban II. to preach
a crusade against the infidels. He traversed France
and other countries barefoot, and by his fervent appeals
enlisted a host of crusaders and outlaws estimated at
nearly 100,000. He led them as far as Constantinople,
and, after the defeat of this rabble near Nice, he accom-
panied Godfrey to Jerusalem. Nearly all of the rabble
perished miserably. He died in Flanders in 1115.

a, e, T, o, u, y,

f ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; moon:



Pe'ter Lom'bard, a distinguished Italian theologian,
born in the district of Novara. He was elected Bishop
of Paris in 1159. He produced acelebrated compilation
of sentences from the Fathers, (" Sententiarum Libri
IV.,") which was much used as a text-book, and often
reprinted and commented on. Died about 1160. He
is often called "the Master of the Sentences."

Peter Martyr. See ANGHIERA, DE.

Pe'ter Mar'tyr, [Ital. PIETRO MARTIRE, pe-a'tRo
maR'te-ra,] or PIETRO Vermigli, (veR-mel'yee,) an emi-
nent Protestant theologian, was born at Florence in 1500,
and educated in the Catholic faith. Having been con-
verted to the Reformed religion, he repaired in 1542 to
Zurich, where he acquired the friendship of Bullinger.
He afterwards became professor of theology at Stras-
burg, having the celebrated Bucer for his colleague. At
the invitation of Edward VI., he visited England, and
was appointed in 1549 professor of divinity at Oxford.
Soon after the accession of Mary, he left England, and
was invited to fill the chair of theology at Zurich. As a
Protestant writer he is esteemed second only to Calvin,
whom he is said to have surpassed in learning, and his
virtues and eloquence were eulogized by Catholics as
well as Protestants. He was the author of several com-
mentaries on the Scriptures, and other theological works.
Died at Zurich in 1562.

Pe'ter Mon'gus, [Gr. ITcrpof 6 Moyydc,] became Mo-
nophysite Patriarch of Alexandria in 477 A.D. Having
been deposed by the emperor Zeno, he was restored in
482. By a compromise or temporizing policy he retained
his office until he died, in 490.

Peter Nolasque (no'ltsk') or Nolasco, (no-lls'ko,)
the founder of the Order of Mercy, (for the redemption
of captives taken by the Moors,) was born in Languedoc
about 1189; died in 1256.

Peter the Venerable, a French monk, born about
1092, became Abbot of Clugny. Died in 1156.

Peter, pa'ter, (WENCESLAUS,) a Bohemian painter,
born at Carlsbad in 1742. He worked at Rome, and
was a skilful painter of animals. Died at Rome in 1829.

Peterborough. See MORDAUNT.

Pe'ter-kin, (GEORGE WILLIAM,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Clear Spring, Washington county, Mary-
land, March 21, 1841, served in the Confederate army,
1861-65, was educated at the University of Virginia, and
at the Alexandria Theological Seminary, where he gradu-
ated in 1868, took orders in the Episcopal Church, and
held rectorships in Virginia and Baltimore. In 1878 he
was consecrated Bishop of West Virginia, the first of
that title.

Petermann, pa'ter-man', (AUGUST HEINRICH,) a
German geographer, born near Nordhausen in 1822. He
aided Johnston, of Edinburgh, in the " Physical Atlas,"
and T. Milner in the " Atlas of Physical Geography."
He became about 1854 editor of a monthly journal
devoted to geographical discovery, published at Gotha.
He wrote or edited " An Account of the Expeditions to
Central Africa." Died September 25, 1878.

Petermann, pa'ter-man', (JULIUS HEINRICH,) D.D.,
a German scholar, born at Glauchau, in Saxony, August
12, 1801. He was educated at Leipsic, Berlin, and
Venice, receiving the doctorate in 1829. In 1837 he was
appointed professor of Oriental literature in Berlin Uni-
versity. Among his works are grammars of most of the
Semitic languages, and of other tongues, besides " Travels
in the East," (1860,) and other works of value. Died
June 30, 1876.

Peterneefs. See NEEFS, (PETER.)

Peters, pa'ters, (BONAVENTURE,) a Flemish painter,
born at Antwerp in 1614, was the best marine painter
of his time. His favourite subjects were storms and
shipwrecks. He also painted views of the sea in a
calm. Died at Antwerp in 1652.

German astronomer, born at Hamburg, September 7,
1806. He became in 1839 a director of the observatory
at Pulkova, in 1849 professor of astronomy at Kbnigs
berg, and in 1854 director at Altona, in which year he
began to edit that important work, " Die astronomischen
Nachrichten." Died in 1880.

American astronomer, born at Coldenbuttel, in Sleswick,
September 19, 1813. He was educated in Berlin, and
travelled extensively in the Mediterranean region, after
which he was employed on the United States coast sur-
vey. In 1858 he was chosen professor of mathematics at

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 219 of 425)