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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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See JOSKPHUS, " History of the Jews :" Apocryphal Book of
Maccabees.

Hyrcanus H.. high-priest of the Jews, succeeded his



father, Alexander Jannaeus, in 76 B.C. His brother Aristo-
bu'lus having usurped the regal power, Hyrcanns, who
was a weak prince, appealed to the Roman Pompey,
who restored him to the throne and priesthood. An-
tigonus, son of Aristobulus, with the aid of the Parthians,
deposed Hyrcanus about 38 B.C., and was soon after
supplanted by Herod, who married Mariamne, the grand-
daughter of Hyrcanus, and put the latter to death, 30 B.C

Hyrtl, hSeVt'l, (JOSEPH,) an able anatomist, born at
Eisenstadt, Hungary, in 1811. He became professor of
anatomy in Vienna in 1845. He published, besides other
works, a "Text-Book of Human Anatomy," (2 vols.,
1847,) which has been adopted by the German univer-
sities as a standard. Died July 17, 1894.

Hys'lpp, or HIs'lop, (JAMES,) a Scottish poet, born
near Sanquhar, July 13, 1798. He became a school-
master in the navy, and died near the Cape Verde
Islands, December 4, 1827. He is still remembered for
his sweet and graceful verses.

Hystaspe. See HYSTASPES.

Hys-tas'peS, jGr.'To-TooTr^f ; Fr. HYSTASPE, es'ttsp';
Persian, GUSHTASP,] a satrap of Persia, and the father
of Darius I., lived about 550 B.C. He is said to have
been the first who introduced into Persia the learning
of the Indian Brahmans. According to one account, he
was the chief of the Magians, which accords with the
Persian tradition that Gushtasp patronized the religion
of Zoroaster. (See GusHrAsp.)

Hywell See HOV.'ELL THE GOOD.



I.



I-ao'hn8, IGr.
BACCHUS, which see.



& surname or synonym of



I-am'be, [Gr. 'la/t/ij),] a servant-maid of Metanira,
Queen of Eleusis, was said to be a daughter of Pan. By
her jokes or tricks she amused Ceres when the latter
was in distress. Iambic poetry is supposed to have
derived its name from her.

lamblichus. See JAMBLICHUS.

I-ap'e-tus, (Gr. 'lairerof; Fr. JAPET, zhJPpS',] in classic
mythology, a Titan, and a son of Uranus. He was the
father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius.
He is by some considered to be the same as the Japhel'a
of Scripture. lapetus was regarded by the anciert
Greeks and Romans as the ancestor of the human race,*
and, according to Scripture, the descendants of Japheth
inhabited the "isles of the Gentiles," (Genesis r. 5,)
which would seem to signify the numerous islands along
the coasts of Europe and Asia Minor, and probably
also the adjacent portions of the two continents ; in other
words, all that part of the world with which the early
Greeks were acquainted.

I-a'sI-on [Gr. 'lam'uv] or I-a'sI-us, a fr.buluus son of
Jupiter and Electra, (or of Minos and Corythus.) He
is said to have been beloved by Ceres, who bore him a
son, Plutus, the god of ricl.es.

Ibarra, e-nar'ra, (JOAQUIN,) a Spanish printer, born at
Saragossa in 1725, carried on business in Madrid. He
was distinguished for the perfection of his publications,
especially fur his editions of " Don Quixote," (1780,) and
a Spanish version of Sallust, (1772.) Died in 1785.

ITsas, a Syrian priest of the fifth century, ac'.cd a
prominent part in the disputes about Nestorianism, He
was chosen Bishop of Ldessa in 436 A.D. At the Coun-
cil of Ephesus, in 449, he was deposed on the charge of
favouring the Nestorians ; but he was reinstated by the
Council of Chalcedon in 451. Died in 457.

Ib'bet-spn, (Mrs. AGNES,) an English botanist, born
in London in 1757. She investigated the structure of
plants, and wrote botanical papers which were inserted
in Nicholson's "Journal" and the " Philosophical Maga-
rine," (1809-17.) Died in 1823.

Ibbetson, (JULIUS C/ESAR,) an English landscape-



See Hnrace, lib. i., Carmen 3, in which the phrases "Gens hu-
mana" and " lapeti genus" are used almost synonymously,
t See note on page 35.



painter, born at Jcarborough, copied and imitated with
success the works of Berghem. He wrote an " Accidence
or Gamut of Oil-Painting for Beginners." Died in 1817.

Ib'bpt, (BENJAMIN,) an English divine, born near
Swaffham, in Norfolk, in 1680. He became chaplain
to George I. in 1716, and prebendary of Westminstei
in 1724. He delivered the Boyle lectures in 1713-14.
Died in 1725. Two volumes of his sermons were pub-
lished in 1726.

6ee DR. S. CLARKE, " Life of Benjamin Ibbot."

Iberville, d', de"b?R'vel', (LEMOINE or LEMOYNE,)
a Canadian navigator, born at Montreal in 1642, distin-
guished himself in many actions against the English.
He commanded a vessel sent by the French government
to explore the mouth of the Mississippi, which he dis-
covered in March, 1699. He ascended the river, and
built a fort on its border. Died at Havana in 1706.

Ibi, ee'bee, (SiNlBALDO,) an Italian painter, a pupil
of Perugino, was born at Perugia, and flourished between
1505 and 1528.

IBN, ib'n, an Arabic word signifying "son," and
torming a part of many names; as, IBN-HANBAL, the
"son of Hanbal," etc. It is often written Btn; as, ALI-
BEN-Aiif-TAuB, for AI.EE-!BN-ABEE (-An!) -TALIB.

Ibn- Abeet(- Ab!)-Yakoob,(or -Y'akflb,) Ib'n a'bee
ya'koob' (Abool-Faraj, a'bool far'aj,) otherwise called
An-Nadeem (-Nadim)-Mohammed-Ibn-Ishak, an-
na-deem' mo-ham'med Ib'n is-hik', an Arabian writer,
chiefly known as the author of a valuable catalogue of
books in the Arabic language, with brief and excellent
notices of their authors. Nothing is known of his life,
except that he wrote in the latter part of the tenth century.

Ibn-AI-Atseer, (-Atsyr,) Ib'n al at-seeR', (Abool-
Hassan-Alee, or Aboul (-Abfll) -Hassan- All, a'b6ol
has'san J'lee,) surnamed Az-ED-DEEN, (AzzEDDYN,) (i.e.
the " Splendour of Religion,") an Arabian historian, born
in Mesopotamia about 1160, became a citizen of Mosul.
I le excelled in the science of prophetic traditions, and
had great knowledge of history, as appears by his
Complete Chronicle from the origin of the world to
his own time. Died in 1233.

See HAJI-KHALFAH, " Lexicon Bibliographicum ;" VON HAMMM-
PURGSTALL, " Literaturgeschichte der Araber."

Ibn-AI-Atseer (or -Al-Atsyr)-Nasr- Allah, Ib'n al-
It-seeR' nas'r dl'lah, written also Alatyr and Alatlr, an
Arabian writer, a brother of the preceding, was born at



. <;as.i,- g/iarJ; g as/; G, H, K,. guttural; n, nasal; R, trilled; gas z; th asm this.



Explanations, p. 23.)



IBN-BAJAH



1342



IBRAHEEM



Jezeereh-Benee-Omar, on the Tigris, in 1 162. He visited
the court of Saladin, who engaged him as vizier to his
son and heir, Melik-Afdhal. He was eminent for his learn-
ing, and wrote a treatise on Prosody, and other works.

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary."

Ibn-Bajah. See AVENPACE.

Ibn-Batuta. See BATOOTAH.

Ibn-Doreid, Ib'n do'rad', (or do'nd',) a celebrated
Arabian poet, born at Bassorah in 838 A.D. He culti-
vated various kinds of poetry with distinguished success.
Died at Bagdad in 933.

Ibn-Hanbal, Ib'n han'bal, (Ahmed, an'med.) the
founder of the fourth sect of orthodox Mohammedans,
was born at Bagdad (or, as some say, at Meru) in the
year of the Hejrah 164. He attained a great reputation
for virtue and knowledge of the traditions of Mohammed.
He received many traditions from Shafei, with whom he
was intimate. For his refusal to acknowledge the Koran
to have been created, he was scourged and imprisoned
by the caliph M6tassem. He died at Bagdad in A.D.
855. The sect became very numerous after his death.
They are called Hanbalites.

Ibn-HankaL See HAUKAI,

Ibn-Ishak, (cr -lahaq,) Ib'n is-hlk', an Arabian his-
torian, who, at the request of the caliph Al-Mansoor,
wrote a life of Mohammed the prophet He is an elo-
quent but not a trustworthy writer. Died in 768 A.D.

See SPRENGER, "Life of Mohammad," p. 69 et teq.

Ibn-Khakan, (or -Khacan.) See AL-FATH.

Ibn-Khaldoon, (-Khaldoun or -Khaldftn,) Ib'n
Kal'doon' (Walee-ed-Deen- (or Waly -Eddyn-)
Aboo-Zeid-Abd-er-Rahman, wa'lee ed-deen' S'boo
zid abd-er-r Jh'man,) a celebrated Arabian historian, born
at Tunis in 1332. He removed to Cairo, where he distin-
guished himself by his uprightness as a judge, and was
chosen chief of the Cadees (Cadis) of the sect of Malek-
ites in 1384. Afterwards, while on a journey to Syria,
he was made prisoner by Taimoor, (the famous Tamer-
lane,) by whom he was treated with great kindness and
respect His principal work is a valuable " History of
the Arabs, Persians, and Berbers, with Preliminary
Observations," which was recently published in France.
"We cannot but conceive, in reading this," says Sil-
vestre de Sacy, "a very high idea of his judgment,
sagacity, and erudition, and of the great variety of his
knowledge." Died in 1406.

See his Autobiography, published in the " Journal Asiatiquc" of
1844 ; SILVESTRR DB SACY, " Chrestomalhic Arabe :" CASIRI, Bibli-
otheca Arabico-Hispana."

Ibn-KhaHikan, Ib'n Kal'le-kln', written also Ebn-
Khalican or -Khilcan, (Shems-ed-Deen (or-Eddin)
Abool- (Aboul- or Abfil-) Abbas-Ahmed, shims
ed-deen' a'bool Jb'bJs' aH'med,) a celebrated Arabian
historian, born at Arbela in 121 1. He became grand
Cadee (Cadi) of Damascus about 1261. His chief work
is a "Biographical Dictionary of Famous Moslems,"
which contains over eight hundred articles. An English
translation of it was beg-jn by Mr. Slane, the first volume
of which was published in 1841. Died in 1282.

Ibn-Kotcybah or Abdallah-Ibn-Koteybah, ab-
dll'lah Ib'n ko-ta'bah or ko-ti'bah, written also Cotey-
bah and Qotay tiah, an Arabian historian and critic, born
at Bagdad in 828 A.D. ; died in 889.

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary."

Ibn-Maimoon, (-Maimfln or -Maimoun.) See
WAIMONIDES.

Ibn-Rosched, (or -Roahd.) See AVERROES.

Ibn-Sina See AviCE.N.NA.

Ibn-Tofail, (-TofayL) See ABOO-BF.KR-!B.\-TOFAIL

Ibnul-Abbar. See KODHAEE.

Ibn-Yoonaa, (-Younas or -Yftnas,) Ib'n yoo'nas,
sometimes spelled Ibn-Younis, (Alee- (or Ali-) Ibn-
Abderrahman, i'lee Ib'n abd-er-rah'man,) one of the
most eminent Arabian astronomers, was born in 979 A.D.
He made at Cairo a series of observations, the results of
which he published in a work called the "Table of Ibn-
Yoonas." Died in 1008.

Ibn-Zohr. See AVENZOAR.

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) written also Ibrahym, ti..-
Arabic name of the patriarch ABRAHAM, which see.



Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,*) ib-rS-heem', thirteenth caliph
of the Omeyyad dynasty, was the son of Waleed (Walid)
I. He began to reign in Damascus in 744 A. D., and a
few months after was deposed by Merwan. The Arab
historians disagree respecting his subsequent fate,

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) L, (Aboo-Abdallah, i'tx58
Ib-dal'lah,) founder of the dynasty of Aglabides in Africa,
was the son of Aglab, and a native of Arabia. About
800 A.D. he was appointed Governor of Africa by Haroun-
al-Raschid. After the death of the latter, (808,) IbrSheem
assumed the royal power. Died about 813.

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) L, a Turkish Sultan, brother
of Amurath IV., was proclaimed in 1640, at the age of
twenty-three. His cruelty and other vices excited against
him a powerful and successful conspiracy, by which he
was deposed and strangled in 1648 or 1649. He wa
succeeded by his son, Mahomet IV.

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) U., Emperor of Hindostan, the
son of Iskander, iiegan to reign in 1517, being the third
of the Afghan dynasty. He was a very unpopular rulei.
In 1526 the Mogul Baber invaded India, a battle was
fought at I-aniput, where Ibraheem was defeated and
killed, and the Mogul dynasty was established in India.

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) a favourite of Sultan Solyman
II., was a Genoese by birth, and was taken to Constan-
tinople by pirates in his infancy. He became grand
vizier about 1523, and signalized his courage in the war
against Hungary in 1527. He was put to death, at the
instigation of the Sultana, in 1535.

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) born at Aleppo, was the most
eminent among the Ottoman jurists. His fame rests upon
a great work styled the " Confluence of the Seas," (" Mul-
t.-.ka al-Abhar, ') which is a complete code of laws. Died
in 1549.

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) Pasha of Egypt, the son of
Mehemet Alee, (Ali,) was born in Rumelia in 1789. He
conquered the Wahabees, in Arabia, about 1818. In
1824 he commanded an army and fleet which Mehemet
Alee sent against the Greeks. Having landed in the
Morea with 10,000 men in 1825, he took several towns
and committed many atrocities. The success of the allies
at Navarino and the French invasion of the Morea forced
him to retire to Egypt in 1828. In a war waged between
the Viceroy of Egypt and the Sultan, Ibraheem took
Aleppo and defeated the Turks in a great battle at
Konieh, in Syria, in 1832. His victorious progress was
arrested by the intervention of the European powers in
1833. Died in 1848.

See LABAT, " L'lSgypte, ancienne et moderne."

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) Bey, a famous Mameluke
chief, born in Circassia about 1735. He went to Egypt
in his youth, and entered the service of Mohammed Bey.
After the death of the latter.Ibraheem shared with Moorsd
Bey the sovereignty of Egypt. When Bonaparte invaded
Egypt in 1798 and defeated Moored, Ibraheem retired
to Syria. In 1800 he took part against the French at
Cairo, etc., and, after they evacuated Egypt, was again
Governor of Cairo, until supplanted by Mehemet Alee.
Died in 1816.

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) Effendi, (eT-f?n'dee,) a learned
Turk, who was born about 1640, and filled considerable
offices at Constantinople. He was converted to Chris-
tianity, was baptized in 1671, retired to Venice, and as-
sumed the name of Paul Antonio Effendi. He translated
several books of the Bible into Arabic. Died in 1697.

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) Khan-Ogli,(o'glee,) was grand
vizier of Turkey when Mahomet I. died, in 1421. He
tcok measures to secure the succession of Mahomet's
sen, Amurath II., who was then absent from the capital.
To reward this service, Amurath gave him the title of
Klian, with hereditary privileges which made his family
the rrst in the empire.

* The Arabic texts are by no means un'f rrn in regard to the
penultima of this name; it is often made sVcrjt but. if we mistake
not, more frequently long, as given above. It is proper, however, to
remark that a single instance of the insertion of the Alif (the sign of



generally correct, merely proves lhat the insertion is not deemed
Absolutely indispensable. Its omission may be compared to the
neglecting to dot one's rs in writing English, a fault, undoubtedly, but
null often committed by writers otherwise remarkable for accuracy.



i, e, T, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, san-e, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; m?t; n5t; good; moon;



IBRAHIM



IGNARRA



Ibrahim. See IBRAHEEM.

Ibrahym. See IBRAHEEM.

Ibsen, ib'sen, (HENRIK,) a Norwegian poet and
dramatist, born at Skien, March 20, 1828. He began
life as an apothecary. His "Catiline," (1850,) a drama,
was an ill-written production. In 1851 lie went to the
University of Christiania, and afterwards was director
of theatres, first at Bergen and then at Christiania.
In 1864 he left Norway, in anger because it failed to
help the Danes in their war wilh Prussia, and resided
abroad till 1892. His " Warriors in Helgeland,"
(1858,) and "Rival Kings," (1864,) placed him in
the first rank of Scandinavian national dramatists, and
his "Love's Comedy," (1862,) was the first step to-
wards his satirical social dramas. He produced other
historical dramas, but first attracted world-wide atten-
tion by "A Doll's House," (1879.) This keen ar-
raignment of modern social custom; was followed by
"Ghosts," (1881,) "The Wild Duck," (i"4,) "The
Lady from the Sea," (i88,) "The Master Builder,"
(1892, ) " John Gabriel Borkwan," (1896,) and others,
psychological in their interest, but vividly realistic in
language, and which gave rise to a storm of contro-
versy among critics.

Ib'y-OOB, ['ISii/tof,] a Greek lyric poet, born at Rhe-
gium, in Italy, flourished about 560 B.C., and passed part
of his life at Samos. His poems, which were chiefly
love-songs, are lost, except a few fragments. He was
the fifth lyric poet of the Alexandrian canon, and had
a high reputation. He is said to have been killed by
robbers. His death has furnished the subject of one
of the finest of Schiller's minor poems, "Die Kraniche
des Ibycus."

I9a. See ISA.

Icard, e'kiR', (CHARLES,) a French Protestant min-
ister and writer, born in Languedoc in 1636. He was
driven into exile by persecution in 1682, and settled at
Bremen in 1688.

Icare. See ICARUS.

I-ca'rl-us, [Gr. 'luapiof ,] also called Icarus, an Athe-
nian, to whom Bacchus is said to have taught the cultiva-
tion of the vine. He was killed by some shepherds, to
whom he had given wine and who suspected that he had
poisoned them. The legend adds that he was changed
into the constellation Bootes.

Icarius, a Lacedaemonian, the father of Penelope.
He urged her to remain at Sparta after she was married
to Ulysses ; but she preferred to follow her husband.

Ic'a-rus, [Gr. 'kopec; Fr. ICARE, e'kjR',] son of Da?-
dalus.'with whom, according to the Greek mythology,
he was imprisoned in the Labyrinth of Crete. Having
attempted to fly by means of artificial wings made with
wax, they were melted by his approaching too near the
sun, and he fell into the sea, near the island of Samos,
which received from him the name of the Icarian Sea.

Iccius, ik'she^js, a Roman philosopher, lived about
30 B.C., and was a friend of Horace, who addressed to
him an epistle and an ode.

Icher, e'shaiR', (PIERRE,) a French physician and
Hellenist, born at Montpellier in 1658; died in 1713.

I-cill-us, (Lucius,) a Roman tribune, who was affi-
anced to the celebrated Virginia. He was elected tribune
of the people in 456 B.C., and favoured the cause of the
plebeians. He was one of the leaders of the successful
revolt against the Decemviri about 450 B.C.

See NIBBUHR, " History of Rome."

Ic-ti'nus, ['I/cru-of,] a celebrated Grecian architect,
who flourished about 450 B.C. He built several grand



and King of Jerusalem. She was eminent for wisdom
and piety. Died in 1113.

See BAILLBT, " Vies des Sainta."

Idace. See IDACIUS.

Idacius, e-da'she-us, [Fr. IDACE, e'dtss',1 a Spanish
chronicler, born at Lamego about the end of the fourth
century. He became Bishop of Chaves, (Accuse Flavise,)
in Portugal. He was author of a " Chromcon" of the
period from 379 to 468 A.D., which was printed in Paru
by Sirmond in 1619.

See N. ANTONIO, "Bibliotheca Hispana Nova."

I'daa, [Gr. 'loaf,] a son of Aphareus, took part in the
Argonautic expedition, and was renowned for valour.
Idas and his brother Lynceus having quarrelled with
the Dioscu'ri, Idas killed Castor, and was in turn killed
by Pollux.

Iddesleigh, (EARL OF.) See NORTH COTE, (WAL-
TER STAFFORD.)

Ide. See IDA.

Ideler, ee'deh-ler, (CHRISTIAN LUDWG.) a Prussian
astronomer and linguist, born near Perleberg in 1766.
He was appointed in 1816 tutor to the princes William
Frederick and Charles, and in 1821 became professor at
the Berlin University. He was the author of " Historical
Researches on the Astronomical Observations of the
Ancients," (1806,) "On the Calendar of Ptolemy," and
other similar treatises. He was a member of the French
Institute, and the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. Died
in Berlin in 1846.

Ideler, (Junus LUDWIG,) a physician, a son of the
preceding, was born at Berlin in 1809. He published
" Meteorology of the Ancient Greeks and Romans,"
(1832,) "Hermapion, or Rudiments of the Hieroglyphic
Literature of Ancient Egypt," (1841,) and other anti-
quarian treatises. Died in 1842.

Ideler, (KARL WILHELM,) a Prussian physician, born
in 1795, lived in Berlin. He is known as a writer on
i mental maladies. Died at Kumlosen, July 29, 1860.

Ides, ee'dfs, (EVERARD ISBRANTZ,) a German travel-
ler, born in Holstein about 1660. He was sent to Pekin
by Peter the Great in 1692 to negotiate a treaty of com-
merce, and returned in 1694. A narrative of his journey,
published in 1704, is a work of some merit

Idman, id'man, (NILS,) a Swedish philologist, pub-
lished in 1778 " Researches on the Finnish People, and
the Relations between the Finnish Language and the
Greek."

Idomeneus, [Gr. 'lotyifra'if,] a Greek historian, born
at Lampsacus, lived about 300 B.C. He was a friend and
disciple of Epicurus. His works are not extant

See Vossius, "De Historitis Gratis."

idtina, e-doo'na, or Idun, sometimes written Idun
na, [etymology doubtful,] in the Norse mythology, the
goddess of immortality, who keeps a casket of apples, of
which if the gods partake they never grow old. (See
THIASSI.) Iduna is said to be the wife of Bragi, the god
of poetry, who in one sense may be said to possess the

lefremoff or lefremov. See YEFREMOF.

lenichen. See JENICHEN.

lermak. See YERMAK.

lezdedjerd. See YEZDEJERD.

Iffland, ifflant, (AUGUST WILHELM,) a celebrated
German actor and dramatist, born at Hanover in 1759.
He became director of the National Theatre at Berlin in
1796, and in 1811 was appointed director-general of the



Arcadia. The most memorable monument of his genius .'

5553sSSMS5MittJs



this edifice, which is probably the most perfect speci-
men of Grecian architecture in any age. Its length was
227 feet and its breadth about 100. (See CALLICRATES.)

See PAUSANIAS, book viii.

Icwara. See ISWARA.

I'da, [Fr. IDE, ed,] Countess of Boulogne, born about
1040, was the mother of Godfrey of Bouillon, crusader



theory as" in the practice of his art" Died in 1814.

Igdrasil, (Yggdrasil.) See ODIN.

Iglesiaa de la Casa, e-gla'se-is di li ki'8.1, (Jos,l
a Spanish poet, born at Salamanca in 1753 ; died in 179'-

See LONGFELLOW'S "Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Ignace. See IGNATIUS.

Ignarra, en-yar'ri, (NICCOL6,) an Italian antiquaij



eas/S; fasj; %Aanf; gas/;G, H, K,guttural; y, nasal; ^,trilled; sasz; thasinMu. (J^'See Explanations, p. 23.)



IGNATIEFF



1344



IMAD-ED-DOWLAH



nd priest, born near Naples in 1728, was a good clas-
sical scholar. He became professor of divinity in the
Royal University of Naples in 1771, director of the royal
printing-office in 1782, and preceptor of the prince Fran-
cis de Bourbon in 1784. He wrote, besides other works,
an esteemed commentary "De Palaestra Neapolitans *'
(1770.) Died in 1808.

See CASTAL: i, " Igname Vita," prefixed to his '* Opuscoli," 1807.

Ignatieff, ig-na'te-Sf, (NIKOLAI PAVLOVITCH,) a Rus-
sian general and diplomat, born at Saint Petersburg,
January 29, 1832. He entered the army, was rapidly
promoted, and was afterwards sent upon various im-
portant diplomatic errands. In 1858 he obtained from
China the cession of extensive territories, and from 1859
to 1863 he was full ambassador at Peking. He was
(1864-77) Russian envoy to Turkey, and in 1878 he
negotiated the treaty of San Stephano, and was after-
wards minister of the interior.

Ignatius, ig-na'she-us, [Gr. 'I/rariof; Fr. IGNACS,
en'ytss'; Ger. IGNAZ, ig-nats'; It IGNAZIO, en-yat'se-o.J
surnamed THEOPH'ORUS, one of the earliest Christian
Fathers, and one of the most eminent among the imme-
diate successors of the apostles, is supposed to have
been a native of Syria. About 67 A.D. he became bishop
or minister of the church of Antioch by the appointment
of Saint Peter, or, according to some writers, of Saint
John. He had filled this station acceptably about forty
years, when the emperor Trajan began a persecution
of the Christians. Ignatius was brought before Trajan
at Antioch, and, refusing to renounce his religion, was
condemned, and suffered martyrdom at Rome in 107,
being exposed to wild beasts in the amphitheatre. His
epistles to the Ephesians, Trallians, Magnesians, Romans,
Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and to Polycarp are extant,
and are regarded by many able critics as precious memo-
rials of the primitive Church; but not a few scholars
reject them entirely. There are eight other Ignatian
ep'stles which are generally conceded to be spurious.
In one of his epistles we find the words, " Now I begin
to be a disciple ; I weigh neither visible nor invisible
things, that I may win Christ !"

See CAVE, " Historia Literaria ;" PHAKON, " Vmdidae Ignatianz,"
Cambridge, 1672: W. CURBTON, " Vindiciz Ignatianx, or the Genu-
ine Writings of Saint Ignatius vindicated from the Charge of Heresy,"
8vo, 1846 ; CottTLosQUET, " Vie de Saint-Ignace, Eveque d'Antioch,"
1857 ; Mas. JAMESON, " History of Sacred and Legendary Art."

Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, born in 799
A.D., was the son of the emperor Michael Curopalates.
When the latter was deposed, Ignatius entered a monas-
tery, and became eminent for piety and wisdom. In 846
he was raised to the dignity of patriarch. Eleven years


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 22 of 425)