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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, and director of
the Litchfield observatories. Dr. Peters discovered a
large number of asteroids, and performed a vast amount
of important astronomical work. Died July 19, 1890.

Peters, (GERARD.) See PIETERS.

Peters or Peter, (HUGH,) an English dissenting
minister, born in Cornwall in 1599. He preached in
Salem, Massachusetts, several years, between 1635 and
1641. On his return to England he became a par-
tisan of the Parliament, acquired much influence, and
was a preacher to the army which fought against the
king. He was tried for treason and hung by the royalists
in 1660. His reputation is defended by some respectable

SeeS. PETERS, " History of Hugh Peters." 1807.

Peters, (JAN,) an excellent Flemish marine paintei,
a brother of Bonaventure, noticed above, was born at
Antwerp in 1625. His figures are well designed and
his landscapes finely touched. Among his master-pieces
is the " Port of Oran." Died in 1677.

Pe'ters, (JOHN CHARLES,) M.D., an American homoe-
opathic physician, born in New York in 1819, pub-
lished a " Treatise on Diseases of the Head," a " Treatise
on Diseases of the Eyes," and other medical works, and
was for a time editor of the " North American Journal
of Homceopathy." Died October 21, 1893.

Peters, (JOHN PUNNETT,) an American divine,
was born at New York in 1852. He studied theology
at Yale, became professor at the Protestant Episcopal
Divinity School, Philadelphia, professor of Hebrew at
the University of Pennsylvania in 1885, and was chief
of an exploring expedition to Babylonia from that
institution, conducting the notable explorations at
Nippur 1888-91. He became rector of St. Michael's
Church, New York, in 1893. He published " Nippur,
or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates."


Peters, (RICHARD,) an American jurist, born in Phila-
delphia in 1744. He was appointed in 1776 secretary
of the board of war, and was afterwards judge of the
: United States district court for Pennsylvania. Died
in 1828. He was remarkable for his dry humour, ready
wit, etc.

Peters, (SAMUEL,) an Episcopal divine, born at
Hebron, Connecticut, in 1735. During the Revolution
he sided with the Tories, and took refuge in England,
where he published a "General History of Connecticut,"
by some condemned as libellous, by others considered
satirical. He is himself satirized in Trumbull's " McFin-
gal" under the name of " Parson Peter." Died in 1826.

Peters, (SAMUEL JARVIS,) an American merchant,
born in Canada in 1801, settled in New Orleans, and
became president of the State Bank of Louisiana. Died
in 1855.

Peters, (WILHELM KARL HARTWIG,) a German zool
ogist, a brother of Prof. C. H. F. Peters, was born at Col-
denbuttel, April 22, 1815, and was educated in medicine
and science at Copenhagen and Berlin. He travelled ex-
tensively in the South of Europe, and was later (1842-48)
employed in explorations in the East of Africa, under
the Prussian government's supervision. For a long time
he was anatomical prosector at Berlin, where in 1857 he
became professor of zoology. His principal work is
"Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique,"
(4 vols., 1852-68.) Died at Berlin, April 23, 1884.

Petersen, pa'ter-sen, ( FREDERIK CHRISTIAN, ) a
Danish scholar, and professor of philology at Copen-
hagen, was born in Seeland in 1786. Among his prin-
cipal works are a "Manual of Greek Literary History,"
and an "Introduction to the Study of Archaeology,"
(1825.) Died October 20, 1859.

Petersen, (NIELS MATTHIAS,) an eminent Danish
historian and antiquary, born at Sanderum, in the isle
of Funen, in 1791. He was a fellow-student of Rask,


d: gas/.'G, H, K., guttural ; N.nasat; R, trilh-d: as z. th asin/i/j. ,'3k2f = ?"e Explanations, p. 23. >




who became his friend. He published in 1829 a "His-
tory of the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish Lan-
guages," (2 vols.,) which is highly esteemed. In 1845
he became professor of Northern literature in the Uni-
Amorig his important works

a " History of Denmark in Heathen Times," (3
., 1834-38,) and "Contributions to the History of

He died in Copen-

versity of Copenhagen.


vols. :

Danish Literature," (ist vol., 1853.)

hagen in May, 1862.

See ERSLEW, " Forfatter- Lexicon."

Fe'ther, (ABRAHAM,) an English landscape-painter,
born at Chichester in 1756, was a son of William Pether,
noticed below. He painted moonlight scenes with suc-
cess. Died in 1812.

His son SEBASTIAN, born about 1790, was also a
landscape-painter. Died in 1844,

Pether, (WILLIAM,) an English engraver in mezzotint,
and painter, born about 1730, flourished about 1770.
He engraved some works of Rembrandt, and some of
his own designs.

Pethion. See PETION, (JEROME.)

P6tiet, pa'te-J', (CLAUDE,) a French administrator
born at Chatillon-sur-Seine in 1749. He was ministe
of war from February, 1796, to July, 1797, and governor
of Lombardy, (1800-02.) Died in 1806.

Fetigny, de, deh pa'ten'ye', (FRANgois JULES,) a
French antiquary, born in Paris in 1801. He receivec
a prize of nine thousand francs for his "Studies on the
History, Laws, and Institutions of the Merovingian
Period," (2_vols., 1842-44.) Died in 1858.

Fetl-gru, (JAMES Louis,) an eminent American
lawyer and statesman, born in Abbeville district, South
Carolina, about 1789. He practised law at Charleston
and was attorney-general of South Carolina from 182;
to 1830. He differed from the large majority of the
people of his State on the subject of nullification about
1831. He also opposed the secession movement of
1860-61. Died in 1863.

Fetion, p4'te-6N', (ALEXANDRA) the first President
of the republic of Hayti, was born at Port-au-Prince in
1770. His father was a wealthy colonist, his mother a
mulatto. He was sent to France to be educated, and
served at an early age in the French army. Afterwards,
when the Revolution broke out, he took an active parl
in the rising of the coloured people, and distinguished
himself as an officer of artillery. His humane disposi-
tion and pleasing manners gained for him the favour of
all classes ; and during the period of terror he succeeded
in protecting many of the colonists. When the blacks,
under Toussaint, began to proscribe the whites and
mulattos, Petion resisted them by arms, but he was soon
forced to fly from the island. Returning with General
Le Clerc, he fought for some time under the French
standard ; but, disgusted at length by the cruelties of the
French, and especially by their treachery towards Tous-
saint and their attempt to re-establish slavery, he again
joined Dessalines, and on the death of the latter was
elected President of the southern and western portion
of the island, while Christophe, who had been general-
in-chief under Dessalines, became ruler of the northern
part. Petion was a man of sincere and deep religious
convictions. As a ruler he was distinguished for the
republican simplicity of his manners and mode of life,
as well as for his humanity and impartial justice. But
the anxieties caused by the difficulties of his position, in
the midst of a population hitherto wholly unaccustomed
to self-control, anxieties which were still further in-
creased, on his part, by an extreme and almost morbid
conscientiousness, proved too much for his health. He
died, universally lamented, on the 2gth of March, 1818.
As a military officer, he was remarkable for skill and
serene courage. For some very interesting particulars
respecting President Petion, the reader is referred to
numbers 48 and 49 of volume xxxix. of " The Friend,"
(1866,) published in Philadelphia. The article in ques-
tion is from the pen of Stephen Grellet.

See SAINT-RHMI, " Potion et Haiti," Paris, 5 vols., 1834-58.

Petion (or F6thion) de Villeneuve, pa'te-oN'*

* We are informed in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ginerale" that,
ilthough Petion generally wrote his name without the accent, it was
always pronounced Pltion.

deh vel'nuv', (JEROME,) a French revolutionist, born at
Chartres in 1753. He was a radical member of the
National Assembly in 1790. His abilities were mediocre.
He was one of the three deputies sent to conduct the
king from Varennes to Paris in 1791, and was censured
for his harshness or rudeness to the royal captives. In
November, 1791, he was elected mayor of Paris, in
preference to La Fayette, who was supported by the
moderate reformers. He appears to have been remiss
in his duties during the massacres of August and Sep-
tember, 1792. Having been elected to the Convention,
he acted with the Girondists, and was proscribed about
the ist of June, 1793. He escaped to the department
of the Gironde, where he was found dead in a field in
June, 1794. The manner of his death was not ascer-

See REGNAULI-WARIN, "Vie de J. Petion. Maire de Paris,
1796; LAMARTINE, " History of the Girondists."

Petis de la Croix, peh-te' deh Ii kRwi, (ALEXANDRB
Louis MARIE,) a French Orientalist, born in Paris in
1698, was a son of Fran9ois, (1653-1713.) He was pro-
fessor of Arabic in the Royal College. Died in 1751.

Petis de la Croix, (FRANgois,) a French Oriental-
ist, born in 1622. He was interpreter to the king, and
published a " History of Genghiz-Can," (Jengis Khan,)
(1710.) Died in 1695.

Petis de la Croix, (FRANgois,) an Orientalist, born
in Paris in 1653, was a son of the preceding. He studied
Arabic, Persian, and Turkish at Aleppo, Ispahan, and
Constantinople. As interpreter, he rendered important
services in the negotiations between the French court
and the Sultan and the Dey of Algiers. In 1695 he
became interpreter to the king. He translated from
the Persian "The Thousand and One Days," (5 vols.,
1710-12,) and a "History of Taimoor," (Tamerlane,)
(4 vols., 1722.) Died in 1713.

See QU^RARD, "La France Litt^raire."

Petit, peh-te' or p'te, (ALEXIS THBRESE,) a French
natural philosopher, born at Vesoul in 1791, was a
brother-in-law of Arago. He became a teacher of phys-
ics in the Polytechnic School in 1810, and titular pro-
fessor in the same in 1815. He wrote an able " Memoir
on the Use of the Principle of Living Forces in the
Calculation of Machines," (1818.) Died in 1820.

See J. B. BIOT, " Notice sur Petit," 1821.

Petit, (ANTOINE,) an eminent French physician, born
at Orleans in 1718. He became professor of anatomy
at the Jardin du Roi, Paris, in 1768, and. attracted a
large concourse of auditors. He published " Palfyn's
Surgical Anatomy, with Notes," (" Anatomic chirurgi-
cale de Palfyn, avec des Notes," 1753.) Died in 1794.

Petit, (JEAN Louis,) a celebrated surgeon, born in
Paris in 1674. He served as army surgeon from 1692

His success was
He was for some

years the most celebrated surgeon in Europe. "The
icrvices which he rendered to surgery," says a French
writer, " are immense." He was one of the founders of
the Academy of Surgery, (1731.) His chief work is an
excellent "Treatise on Surgery," ("Traite 1 des Maladies
chirurgicales," etc., 3 vols., 1774.) Died in 1750.

See A. Louis, "filoge de J. L. Petit," 1750; "Biographic Me-

Petit, (JEAN Louis,) a French historical and marine
painter, born in Paris in 1793. He gained a first medal
in 1841. Died August 13, 1876.

Petit, (JEAN MARTIN,) a French general, born in
Paris in 1772. He served as lieutenant-general at
Waterloo. Died in 1856.

Pet'it, (LEWIS HAYES,) F.R.S., an English gentle-
man and patron of literature, was born in 1774 ; died

to 1700, and then returned to Pans.
e;reat as a lecturer and a practitioner.

n 1849.
Petit, (MARC ANTOINE,) a

French physician and

skilful surgeon, born at Lyons in 1766. He wrote
'Essai sur la Medecine du Cceur," (1806,) and several
poems. Died in 1811.

See BAUMES, "filoge de M. A. Petit," i8ia.

Petit, (PIERRE,) a French mathematician, born at
Montlujon (Allier) about 1596. He obtained the offices
of engineer, counsellor to the king, and intendant-gene-
ral of fortifications. He formed a friendship with Pas-

5, e, T, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a. e, I, 5, u, y 1 , short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon-




cal, whom he aided in experiments on the vacuum and
barometer, (1646-47.) Among his works are a treatise
"On the Use of the Compass of Proportion," (1634,)
and "Observations on the Vacuum," (1647.) He was a
Cartesian. Died in 1677.

See NICE.RON, " Mimoires ;" MORRI, " Dictionnaire Historique."




Te ,

("De Amazonibus," 1685,) and "On the Sibyl," ("De

Sibylla," 1686.) He was one of the Latin poets who

formed the " Ple'iade" of Paris. Died in 1687.

Petit, (SAMUEL,) a learned French Orientalist, born
at Nimes in 1594, was a Protestant minister. It is said
that he could speak Hebrew with ease. He wrote on
Jewish and Greek antiquities, chronology, etc. His
friendship was sought by Peiresc, Selden, Gassendi,
Vossius, and Gronovius. Died in 1643.

Petit, du, diip'te', (FRAN5OIS POURFOUR,) a learned
French physician, born in Paris in 1664. He was suc-
cessful in the treatment of cataract, and wrote several
treatises on the eyes. Died in 1741.

Petit-Didier, peh-te' de'de-4', (MATHIEU,) a learned
French monk, was born in Lorraine in 1659. He wrote
" Remarks on the First Volumes of Dupin's Biblio-
theque Ecclesiastique," (3 vols., 1691-96,) and other
works. Died in 1728.

Petit-Pied, peh-te' pe^i', (NICOLAS,) a French Jan-
senist, born in 1665. He~was a doctor of the Sorbonne,
and wrote many works in favour of Jansenism. Died
in 1747.

Petit-Radel, peh-te' r^del', (Louis CHARLES FRAN-
COIS,) a French antiquary, born in Paris in 1756. He
was a member of the Institute, and keeper of the Mazarin
Library. He published " Explanations of the Antique
Monuments of the Museum," (4 vols., 1804-06,) and
"Researches on Cyclopean Monuments," (1841.) Died
in 1836.

See QUBRARD, "La France LitteVaire."
Petit-Radel, (Louis FRANCOIS,) a French architect,
born in Paris in 1740, was a brother of the preceding.
Died in 1818.

Petit-Radel, (PHILIPPE,) a surgeon and medical
writer, born in Paris in 1749, was a brother of the pre-
ceding. He obtained in 1798 the chair of surgical clinic.
He published " Medical Institutes," (" Institutions de
Me'decine," 2 vols., 1801,) and compiled the "Dictionary
of Surgery," (3 vols., 1790,) which forms part of the
"Encyclopedic M^thodique." Died in 1815.
See " Biographic Me"dicale."
Fetit-Thouara. See Du PETIT-THOUARS.
Fetitain, peh-te'taN', (Louis GERMAIN,) a French
litterateur, born in Paris in 1765. He wrote some works
of fiction. Died in 1820.

Petitot, peh-te'to', (CLAUDE BERNARD,) a French
litterateur, born at Dijon in 1772. He translated the
dramatic works of Alfieri, (4 vols., 1802,) and edited
the works of Racine, (5 vols., 1805,) and the works of
Moliere, (6 vols., 1813.) Died in 1825.

Petitot, (JEAN,) an eminent painter on enamel, born,
ef French parents, at Geneva in 1607. He visited Eng-
land, where he obtained from the chemist Mayern some
important secrets respecting colours, and was patronized
by Charles I. He painted portraits of the royal family,
and copied some works of Van Dyck. About 1650 he
returned to France. He received a pension from Louis
XIV., whose portrait he painted many times. By order
of the king, Bossuet attempted to convert Petitot to
the Romish Church, but failed. His master-piece is a
whole-length portrait, in enamel, of the Countess of
Southampton, the dimensions of which are about nine
inches by five. His works are remarkable for delicacy
of design and harmonious richness of colour. Died at
Vevay in 1691

See L. BRIGHTWBLL, " By-Paths of Biography ;" " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'nerale."

Petitot, (Louis MESSIDOR LEBON,) a French sculptor
bora in Paris in 1794. He gained the grand prize in
1814, and went to Rome with a pension. Among his

works are many marble busts of Frenchmen. His capital
work is a colossal monument to Louis Bonaparte at
Saint-Leu. He was a member of the Institute. Died
n June, 1862.

Fetitot, (PIERRE,) a sculptor, born at Langres in
1751, was the father of the preceding. Died in Paris
in 1840.

Fet'I-ver, (JAMES,) F.R.S., an English botanist, was
an apothecary of London. He furnished materials for
Ray's " History of Plants," published " Pterigraphia
Americana," (1712,) and other works, and formed a
rich collection of plants, minerals, and animals. Died
'n 1718.

Pe'to, (Sir SAMUEL MORTON,) an English engineer
and contractor, born in Surrey in 1809. He constructed
:he Grand Trunk Railway in Canada, with the tubular
Dridge near Montreal, and several railways on the con-
:inent of Europe. He was returned to Parliament for
Finsbury in 1859. Sir S. Morton Peto visited the United
States in 1865, and published "The Resources and Pros-
pects of America," (1866.) Died November 13, 1889.

Petofi or Fetoefi, pa-tb'fee, (SANDOR, or ALEXAN-
DER,) a Hungarian poet and litttratevr, born in Little
Cumania in 1822. He published in 1847 a number of
patriotic songs, which enjoyed great popularity and had
a powerful influence in exciting the revolutionary feeling
of his countrymen. He also wrote several dramas and
prose works. His lyrics and odes display uncommon
;enius, and have procured for him the name of "the
Hungarian Burns." He is supposed to have been
killed at the battle of Schassburg, (1849.)

See KERTBENY, "Petoefy der Ungarische Nationaldichterj"
CHASSIN, " Petoefy et ses CEuvres," 1861.

Fetrarca. See PETRARCH.

Fe'trarh, fit PETRARCA, pi-tRaR'ka; Fr. Ps-
celebrated Italian poet, was born at Arezzo, in Tuscany,
on the 2Oth of July, 1304. His father, a friend of Dante,
was banished from Florence in 1302 for his political
principles, and removed in 1313 to Avignon, which was
then the residence of the pope. He was sent to study
law at Montpellier, where he remained about four years,
(1318-22 ;) but he preferred the study of the classic au-
thors, especially Cicero and Virgil. He made, however,
some progress in law under Cino da Pistoia at Bologna.
His fine personal and mental endowments procured for
him admission into the brilliant society of Avignon. He
was so handsome as to attract observation as he walked
in the streets. He was patronized by Cardinal Colonna,
and was an intimate friend of Giacomo Colonna, a
brother of the cardinal.

In 1327 his heart for the first time was touched by a
violent and profound passion. He has recorded the
place, the day, and the hour in which he first saw Laura
de Sade, a daughter of Audibert de Noves, and the wife
of Hugh de Sade, a lady distinguished by her rank,
but more by her beauty and modesty. With consum-
mate tact, she contrived, by a mixture of reserve, discre-
tion, and sympathy, to preserve him and herself from the
fatal consequences of his wayward passion. "She took
my heart into her hand," he writes, " saying, ' Speak no
word of this.' " By her pure and excellent example his
passion appears to have been purified and exalted ; but
his admiration of her never abated, and the whole tenor
of his life was changed by her influence. He sought re-
lief by the composition of the sonnets and canzoni which
have rendered the name of Laura immortal. She ac-
cepted this homage, which the usage of that age sanc-
tioned, and was, perhaps, proud of his admiration. He
passed much time in collecting, collating, and copying
ancient manuscripts. We owe to him the preservation
of many Latin authors which were buried in the dust of
monastic libraries. About 1335 he visited Rome, the
ruins of which made a deep impression on him. He
also travelled in France, Germany, and Spain. He dis-
covered two orations of Cicero at Liege, the " Institu-
tions" of Quintilian at Arezzo, and Cicero's " Familiar
Letters" at Verona. Petrarch corresponded with the
most eminent scholars of his time, founded the library
of Saint Mark at Venice, and was one of the principal
revivers of classical literature in Italy.

is t: <; as s: g hard; g as ;'; G. H, TH,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this. ( Sy=See Explanations, p. 2.




About 1336 he retired to Vaucluse, a romantic valley
near Jl.irignon, where he passed several years in solitude
and in vain efforts to forget his unhappy passion. Here
he meditated a great work which should be worthy of
his genius, and commenced a Latin epic poem, of which
Scipio Africanus was the hero. This poem, entitled
"Africa," is inferior to his Italian sonnets. In 1340 he
accepted an invitation from the Roman senate to come
to Rome and receive the laurel crown of poetry. He
was crowned at the Capitol in 1341. Petrarch appears
to have had much influence with several potentates of
his time. He exerted his eloquence to induce successive
popes to transfer the papal court from Avignon to Rome.
He was the colleague of the famous Rienzi in an embassy
sent by the Romans to Clement VI. for that purpose.
He became Archdeacon of Parma, and canon of several
cathedrals. His love of independence caused him to de-
cline the office of apostolic secretary and the dignity of
bishop. In 1342 he met Laura, whose beauty had faded,
and who was not happy in her domestic relations. Her
husband was jealous and ill-tempered. Laura sang to
Petrarch, and parted from him with emotion and regret.
The death of Laura, which occurred in 1348, inspired
i new series of beautiful and exquisite sonnets, the
melody and pathos of which have probably never been
surpassed. It is reported that she died on the anni-
versary of the day and hour that he first saw her.
Between 1350 and 1360 he resided at the court of Vis-
conti, Lord of Milan, who employed him in diplomatic
missions to Venice, to the Emperor of Germany, and
to the King of France. Among his intimate friends
at this period was Boccaccio. In 1370, for the sake
of retirement and the restoration of his health, he fixed
his residence at Arqua, among the Euganean Hills,
north of Padua. He was found dead in his library at
Arqua on the igth of July, 1374.* He left, besides other
prose works in Latin, a treatise "On Contempt of the
World," ("De ContemptuMundi,") and many epistles
which are highly prized as memorials of important events
which he witnessed. He had composed in praise of
Laura above three hundred sonnets and fifty canzoni
Among his most perfect productions is " The Triumph
of Death," ("Trionfo della Morte,") a poem, in which
he describes the death of Laura. The most complete
edition of Petrarch's works is that published at Bale, (:
vols. fol., 1581.) It contains, besides his Italian am
Latin poems, and the works already named in this notice
"De Vera Sapientia," "De OfBcio et Virtutibus Impe
ratoris," and " Vitarum Virorum Illustrium Epitome."

"The peculiar charm of Petrarch's character," says
one of his biographers, " is warmth of heart and a nativr
ingenuousness of disposition, which readily laid ban
his soul to those around." He was a believer in re
vealed religion ; but he often protested openly agains
the corruptions of the papal court

See L. BKCCADKLLI, " Vita di Petrarca," (translated into Englis
by W. PYK, 1766 ;) L. ARETINO, " Vita di Petrarca," 1671 : FBRNOW
" F. Petrarca, nebst dem Leben des Dichters," 1818; TOMASIN
"Petrarcha Redivivus," 1635 and 1650: AeeA DBSADE, "Mimoire
pour la Vie de Pe'trarque," 3 vols., 1764-67 ; FABEONI, " Petrarcha;
Vita," 1799; LEVATI, " Viaggi di F. Petrarca." 5 vols., 1820; U

raphy;" GIBBON, "Decline and Fall." chap, toe.: S. DOBSOI
''Life of Petrarch," 2 vols., 1775: MKINART, "Franc. Petrarca

. ' Allgi . .

p. 616; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for July, 1843.

Petrarcha. See PETRARCH.

Fetrarque. See PETRARCH.

Petrazzi, pa-tRat'see, (ASTOLFO,) an Italian painte

of the Siennese school, was born in 1579 ; died in 165;

* His epitaph, as given by some writers, is a curious specimen <
^atin versification, rhyming hexameters:

" Frigida Frantisri lapis hie tegit ossa Petrarchae.
Suscipe Virgo Parens animam: Sate Virgine parce;
Fessaque jam terris coeli requiescat in arce."
(See " Bibliotheca Vetus et Nova," by G. M. KONIG, Altdo:

frjR v

The following is a nearly literal translation: "This stone cove
the cold bones of Francis Petrarch. Virgin Mother, receive 1
soul ; O thou Son of the Virgin, have mercy ; and may [his sou
weary with earth, now find repose in the citadel of heaven."

Petre, pSt'tr or pe'ter, (EDWARD,) an English Jesuit,
orn about 1631. He was confessor or clerk of the closet
James II., over whom he is said to have exerted an

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 220 of 425)