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il influence in political affairs. Died in 1699.
Petre, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English statesman, born in
evonshire. He became a Fellow of All Souls' College,
xford, in 1523, and afterwards master of requests,
bout 1543 he was appointed secretary of state. He
eld a high office in the reign of Edward VI., and was
cretary of state during the reign of Mary. Died in 1 572.
Pe-trel-us, (MARCUS,) a Roman general, to whom
e victory over Catiline (62 B.C.) is ascribed. He was
partisan of the senate in the civil war, fought against
aesar at Pharsalia, and -commanded (with Afranius)
i Spain, where he was defeated by Caesar in 49 B.C.
!e killed himself in Africa in 46 B.C., or was killed by
uba in accordance with an agreement that they should
ill each other.

Petrella, pa-trel'la, (ENRICO,) an Italian musical com-
oser, born at Palermo in 1813. He produced a number
f operas, chief among which are " Le Precauzione,"
lone," (1856,) "Giovanna II di Napoli," (1869.) and
I Promessi Sposi," (1869.) Died in 1877.
PetretUnl, pa-trSt-tee'nee, (SPIRIDION,) an Italian
assical scholar, born at Corfli in 1777, became a resi-
ent of Venice. He translated Velleius Paterculus into
talian. Died in 1833.

Fetri, pa'tRee, [in Flemish, PEETERS, pa'ters,] (BAR-
HOLOMEW,) a Flemish theologian, born in Brabant
bout 1545. He was professor at Louvain and Douai.
Died in 1630.

Petri, pa'tRee, (BERNHARD,) a German rural econo
mist, born at Deux-Ponts in 1767. He wrote several
works on the raising of sheep, and made improvements
n the rural economy of Germany. Died in 1*842.

Petri, pa'tRee, (CHRISTIERN,) a Danish divine, who
published in 1529 a Danish version of the New Testa-
ment.

Petri, pa'tRee, or Peterson, pa'ter-son, (LARS,) the
irst Protestant Archbishop of Upsal, was born at
Derebro in 1499. He studied under Luther at Witten-
>erg, and became archbishop in 1531. With the aid of
lis brother Olaus and L. Andreas, he produced a Swedish
ranslation of the Bible, (1541.) He published several
works of theology. Died in 1573.

See " Biographiskt-Lexicon ofver namnkunnige Svenska Man."

Petri, (OLAUS,) a brother of the preceding, was born
n 1497, and was a zealous preacher of the Reformed
religion. He became first minister of Stockholm in
1539. He published some religious works. Died in 1552.

Petri, pa'tRee, (SUFFRID or SUFFRIDUS,) a Dutch
philologist, born in Friesland in 1527. He obtained a
:hair of law at Cologne in 1577. He was very learned,
jut was deficient in taste and critical ability. Among
lis works are "Orations on the Utility of the Greek
Language," (1566,) and "On the Writers of Friesland,"
;"De Scriptoribus Frisiae Decades," 1593.) Died at
Cologne in 1597.

See NICERON, " Memoires :" Vossius, " De Historicis Latinis."

Petrie, pee'tre, (Dr. GEORGE,) an Irish antiquary, born
at Dublin in 1791, was the author of an "Essay on the
Round Towers of Ireland," which obtained for him the
gold medal of the Royal Irish Academy. He also pub-
fished an " Essay on the Military Antiquities of Ireland."
Died in 1866.

Petrie, pee'tre, ? (HENRY,) an English antiquary, born
In 1768, became keeper of the chancery records in the
Tower. He collected materials for the history of Great
Britain, of which two volumes were published, (1830-48.)
Died in 1842.

Fetrini, pl-tRee'nee, (PiETRO ANTONIO,) an Italian
translator, born at Palestrina in 1722. Among his works
is a good version of Horace's " De Arte Poetica," ( 1 777-)
Died in 1803.

Petrof, Petrov, or Petrow, pa'tRof, (VASSILI F
TROVITCH,) a Russian poet, born at Moscow in 1736. He
wrote odes and other poems, which have some merit,
and translated Virgil's " jEneid" into Russian, (1781-86.)
He became imperial librarian about 1775. Died in 1799.
Petrone. See PETRONIUS ARBITER.



a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a. e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon;



PETRONI



'935



PEYER



Petroni or Fetronj, pi-tRo'nee, (STEFANO EGIDIO,)
n Italian poet, born near Perugia in 1770. Among his
works is "The Napoleonic! : a Lyrical-Numismatical
Poem," ("La Napoleonide ; Poeme lyrique-numisma-
li^ue," 1810.) Died about 1845.

Fe-tro'nI-us, [Fr. PETRONE, p&'tRon',] or, more fully,
Petro'nius Ar'biter, a licentious Latin writer, sup-
posed to have lived in the reign of Nero. He described
the vices of his time in a satire or novel, in mingled
prose and verse, entitled " Satyricon," fragments of
which are extant. His style is classical, and the work
displays much talent, but is extremely licentious. The
author of this is supposed to be identical with Petronius,
a refined voluptuary who figured at the court of Nero as
arbiter elegantia, (umpire of fashion and taste,) and who
killed himself in 66 A.D.

See TACITUS, " Annales," book xvi. ; J. C. VON ORKLLI, "Lec-
tiones Petronianz," 1836; DUNLOP, " History of Fiction."

Petrunti, pa-tRoon'tee, (FRANCESCO,) a skilful Italian
surgeon, born at Campobasso in 1785. He practised at
Naples, and wrote a " Treatise on Surgery," (2 vols.,
1822.) Died in 1839.

Petrus, the Latin for PETER, which see.

Petrus Aponis. See ABANO, (PiETRO Di.)

Petrus Blesensia. See PETER OF BLOIS.

Pe'trus Patrioius (pa-trish'e-us) et Magls-ter, a
Byzantine historian of the sixth century, was born at
Thessalonica. He wrote a work on the history of the
empire under Tiberius and several of his successors,
some portions of which have been preserved.

Pettenkofer, von, fon pet'ten-ko'fer, (MAX,) a Ger-
man chemist, born at Lichtenheim, in Bavaria, December
3, 1818. Educated at Munich, he was employed in the
mint, 1845-47, was professor of medical chemistry (1847
-50) at Munich, was then made pharmacist to the Bava-
rian court, and in 1865 became professor of hygiene in the
university. He retired in 1894, having made impor-
tant discoveries. Chief among his many works is
" Handbuch der Hygiene," (1882 et sea.)

Petter, pet'ter, (ANTON,) a German painter of history,
born at Vienna 'in 1783. He gained the grand prize for
his " Death of Aristides," and became director of the
Academy of Vienna in 1830. He painted many clas-
sical subjects. He excelled in harmony and brilliancy
of colouring. Died May 14, 1858.

Pet'tie, (JOHN,) an eminent British artist, born in
Edinburgh in 1839. In 1862 he went to London, and in
1873 was elected to the Royal Academy. Many of his
pictures are upon antiquated or medieval subjects, and
some are quaintly humorous. Died in 1893.

Pettigrew, pet'te-gru, (JAMES BELL,) M.D., a Scot
tish physician, born at Roxhill, May 26, 1834. He was
educated at Glasgow and Edinburgh, graduating in 1861.
He went to London, where, after a brilliant career as a
lecturer on anatomy and physiology, he was made a
Fellow of the Royal Society. His most noted works are
"On the Physiology of Wings," (1870,) and "Animal
Locomotion," (1873.) In 1875 ne was called to a pro-
fessorship in the University of Saint Andrew's.

Pettigrew, pet'te-gru, (THOMAS JOSEPH,) an Engl'sh
surgeon, antiquary, and biographer, born in London in
1790. He was admitted to the College of Surgeons in
1812. He published, besides other works, a "History
of Egyptian Mummies," (1834,) a "Medical Portrait
Gallery, or Memoirs of Celebrated Physicians and Sur-

f;ons," a " Life of Lord Nelson," and a work " On
uperstitions connected with the Practice of Medicine,'
(1844.) Died in 1865.

Fettiti, p?t-tee'tee, COUNT, an Italian general, was
second chief of the staff in the army led by the king
against the Austrians in June, 1866.

Pettrich, p?t'tR?K, (FRANZ,) a Bohemian sculptor
born in 1770, became professor in the Academy of Arts
at Dresden. Died in 1844. His son FERDINAND, born
at Dresden in 1798, studied under Thorwaldsen at Rome
He has produced several works of superior merit.

Pet'tus, (Sir JOHN,) an English writer, born in Suf
folk. He became deputy governor of the royal mines
and published "The History, Laws, and Places of the
Chief Mines in England and Wales," (1670.) Died
about 1690.



Petty, (HENRY.) See LANSDOWNE.

Petty, (WILLIAM.) See SHELBURNE.

Pet'tf , (Sir WILLIAM,) an eminent English political
conomist, was born at Romsey, in Hampshire, in
623. He became professor of anatomy at Oxford in
650, and physician of the army in Ireland in 1652. He
erved Henry Cromwell as secretary while he was lord
eutenant of Ireland, about 1655. His reputation is
ounded on his writings on commerce and political
conomy, on which subjects he was in advance of his
ge. Among his works are a "Treatise on Taxes and
Contributions," (1662,) "Political Arithmetic," (1682,)
nd "The Political Anatomy of Ireland," (1692.) One
)f his sons became Baron Shelburne. Died in 1687.

See a " Notice of Sir William Petty," prefixed to his " Political
Arithmetic," by his son ; WOOD, " Athenae Oxonienses."

Pet'tyt or Pet'jrt, (WILLIAM,) an English writer on
aw, born in Yorkshire in 1636. He was keeper of the
ecords of the Tower. Among his works is " Parliament-
ary Law," ("Jus Parliamentarium," 1 739.) Died in 1 707.
Peucer, poits'er, [Lat. PEUCE'RUS,] (KASPAR,) a
German scholar and physician of high reputation, born
at Bautzen in 1625, married a daughter of Melanchthon.
rle became professor of medicine at Wittenberg about
1559. Having offended the Lutherans by advocating
some doctrines of Melanchthon, he was confined in prison
about eleven years, (1574-85,) and treated with rigour,
ie wrote numerous works on geometry, theology, and
medicine; also an account of his imprisonment, "His-
toria Carcerum Peuceri," (1604.) Died in 1602.

See LEUPOLD, " Lebensbeschreibung Peucers," 1745 ; HSIMBURG,
'De Gasp. Peucerp," 1842; NICBRON, '* Me"moires ;" ERSCH und
JRUBBR, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

Peucerus. See PEUCER.

Peu-9es'tas or Feu-kes'tas, [Gr. Unndaraf,] an offi-
cer of Alexander the Great. He attended that prince's
Derson in the expedition against Persia, and gained his
"avour in a high degree. He was appointed satrap of
Persia in 331 or 330 B.C., and joined Alexander's army
at Babylon with about 20,000 Persians in 323. Having
co-operated with Eumenes against Antigonus, he was
deprived of his satrapy by the latter in 316 B.C.

Peuchet, puh'shi', (JACQUES,) z French litterateur,
born in Paris in 1758. He published, besides other
works, " Statistics of France and its Colonies," (7 vols.,
1803,) "Commercial Library," ("Bibliotheque commer-
ciale," 12 vols., 1802-06,) and a "Dictionary of Political
Economy," (4 vols., 1810.) Died in 1830.

Peukestaa. See PEUCESTAS.

Peurbach. See PURBACH.

Peut, puh, (FRANCOIS MARIE HIPPOLYTE,) a French
publicist and economist, born at Lyons in 1809. He
published several journals and pamphlets. Died in 1887.

Peutemar, puh'teh-man', (NIKLAAS or PIETER,) a
Dutch painter, born at Rotterdam about 1654. He
painted, with success, still life, cemeteries, and allegori-
cal subjects. His death was hastened by fright. As he
was working in an anatomical cabinet, he fell asleep
among some skeletons. On awaking, he was horrified
by seeing them move rapidly and jostle against each
other. This was the effect of the earthquake of Sep-
tember 1 8, 1692. He died the same month.

Feutinger, pu'tin-ger, [Ger. pron. poi'ting"e,r ; Lat
PEUTINGE'RUS,] (CONRAD,) an eminent German scholar
and antiquary, born at Augsburg in 1465. He was secre-
tary of the city of Augsburg, and councillor to the empe-
ror Maximilian. He was a diligent collector of statues,
medals, inscriptions, etc., and is called the founder in
Germany of the science of Roman and German antiqui-
ties. He published "Convivial Discourses," ("Sermones
conviviales," 1506,) "Old Roman Inscriptions," ("In-
scriptiones vetustae Romanae," 1520,) and other works.
Died in 1547.

See J. C. WENDLHR, " De Vita et Meritis Peutingeri :" LOTTER,
"Vita Peutingeri." 1729; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Peutingerus. See PEUTINGER.
Peyer, pi'er, (JOHANN CONRAD,) a Swiss anatomist,
born at Schaffhausen in 1653. He was professor of
logic and physical sciences at his native place, and
wrote several works on anatomy. He was the first whc
described accurately the small bodies called Peyer'l
glands. Died in 1712.



eas/; fasj; gkard; gzsi;G,H,K, guttural; N, nasal; V.,tril!td; sasz; thasinMif. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



PEYRARD



PFEFFERKORN



Peyrard, pi'r9R', (FRANCOIS,) a French mathema-
tician, born at Vial (Haute-Loire) in 1760. He pub-
lished a treatise " On Nature and its Laws," (4th edition
1794,) and other works. His translations of the works
of Archimedes (1807) and of Euclid (3 vols., 1814-18!
are said to be the best in the French language. Diet
in 1822.

Peyrat, pl'ri", (ALPHONSE,) a French journalist anc
political writer, born at Toulouse in 1812. He became
an assistant editor of Girardin's " Presse" about 1844.
He wrote against the second empire, and also publishec
"History and Religion," (1858,) "History of Jesus,'
(1864,) etc. Died January 3, 1891.

Peyrat, (NAPOLEON,) a French author and Pro-
testant clergyman, born at Bordes-sur-Aube in 1809.
He published " Les Reformateurs de la France et de
1'Italie," (1860,) " Histoire des Albigeois," (3 vols., 1870-
72,) and other prose works ; but his chief reputation rests
on "Roland," a short poem of great spirit and excel-
lence. He wrote under the pseudonym of " Napol le
Pyren^en."

Peyre, pSR, (ANTOINE FRANCOIS,) a French architect,
born in Paris in 1739. He gained the grand prize in
1763, and became a member of the Institute. He pub-
lished some works on architecture. Died in 1823.

See QUATRBMBRB DK QUINCY, "Notice sur A. F. Peyre," 1834.

Peyre, (ANTOINE MARIE,) an architect, born in Paris
in I77> was a nephew of the preceding. He was ap
pointed architect of the Palais de Justice in 1809. Among
his works are the Salle de Spectacle of Soissons, and the
restorations or additions to the Palais de Justice in Paris.
Died in 1843.

Peyre, (MARIE JOSEPH,) a French architect, father
of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1730. He pub-
lished "Architectural Works," ("CEuvres d'Architec-
ture," 1765.) Peyre and Wailly were architects of the
theatre of Paris called the Odeon. Died in 1785.

Peyrere, de la, deh 11 P 4'raiR', (ISAAC,) a French
writer, born at Bordeaux in 1594. He published, be-
sides other works, one entitled " Pre- Adamites," (" Prz-
adamitae," 1655,) in which he maintained that some men
were created before Adam. Died in 1676.

Peyrilhe, p^'Rel' or p4-re'ye, (BERNARD,) a French
physician, was born at Pompignan in 1737 ; died in 1804.

Peyron, p4'rAN', (JEAN FRANCOIS PIERRE,) a French
historical painter, born at Aix, in Provence, in 1744.
He gained the grand prize in 1773, studied the antique
in Rome, and promoted the reformation of the French
school. Died in 1814.

Peyron, pi'roN', (VICTOR AMED^E,) ABBS, an Ori-
entalist, born at Turin in 1785. He published a " Lexicon
of the Coptic Language," (i 835,) etc. Died April 27, 1870.

Peyronie. See LA PEYRONIE.

Peyronnet, de, deh p^'ro'ni', (CHARLES IGNACE,)
COUNT, a French politician and lawyer, born at Bor-
deaux in 1778. He was minister of justice from 1821 to
January, 1828, and became minister of the interior in
May, 1830. He procured in 1825 the passage of a very
unpopular and odious law against sacrilege. Having
been convicted of treason in 1830, he was imprisoned
six years in the fortress of Ham. Died in 1854.

Peyssonel, pJ'so'neV, (CHARLES,) an antiquary,
father of the following, was born at Marseilles in 1700.
He explored the coasts of Asia Minor, where he col-
lected marbles. He wrote a "Memoir on the Kings
of Bosphorus," and "Travels in the Levant." Died
in 1757.

Peyssonel, (CHARLES,) a French political writer,
born at Marseilles in 1727. He was consul at Smyrna
and in the Crimea. He wrote, besides other works,

The Numbers," ("Les Nume>os," 4 vols., 1784,) and
"The Political Situation of France, and its Relations
with all the Powers of Europe," (2 vols., 1790) Died
in 1790.

Peyton, pa'tpn, (BAILLIE,) an American lawyer and
orator, born in Sumner county, Tennessee. He repre-
sented a district of Tennessee in Congress from 1833 to
1837, voted with the Whigs, and was sent as minister to
Chili about i8"jo. Died August 19, 1878.

Peyton, (JOHN LEWIS,) an American author, born
in Augusta county, Virginia, September 15, 1824. He



studied at the Virginia Military Academy, and in 1845
graduated as LL.B. from the University of Virginia. In
1861 he raised and equipped a regiment for the Confed-
erate service, and in that year became agent of North
Carolina in Europe. In 1876 he returned to the United
States. He published " The American Crisis," (1866,)
"The Adventures of my Grandfather," (1867,) "Over
the Alleghanies and Across the Prairies," (1869,)
" Rambling Reminiscences of a Residence Abroad,"
(1889,) "Tom Swindel, or the Adventures of a
Boomer," (1893,) and several other works.

Pezarese, U, a name of the painter Cantarini. (See
CANTARINI.)

Pezay, de, deh peh-zi', (ALEXANDRE FREDERIC
JACQUES Masson mf'siN',) MARQUIS, a French writer
of prose and verse, born at Versailles in 1741. He gave



1771.) Voltaire addressed to him some verses. Died
in 1777.

Pezenas, pez'ni' or peh-zeh-nl', (ESPRIT,) a French
Jesuit and mathematician, born at Avignon in 1692.
He published "Memoirs on Mathematics and Physics,"
(5 vols., 1756,) an "Astronomy for Mariners," (1766,)
and other works. Died in 1776.

Fezet, pa-thjt', (General JUAN ANTONIO,) a Peruvian
statesman, who became vice-president of Peru in Octo-
ber, 1862, and at the death of San Ramon succeeded to
the presidency, in April, 1863. Hewas removed, or
ceased to be president, about the end of 1865.

Pezron, pSz'rdN', (PAUL,) an able French chronolo-
gist and philologist, born in Bretagne in 1639. He wrote
" The Antiquity of the World (des Temps) Restored
and Defended," (1687,) in which he argued that the
world was created 5872 years before the Chrisiian era.
Died in 1706.

Pfaff, pfjf, (CHRISTOPH MATTHAUS,) an eminent Ger-
man Protestant theologian, born at Stuttgart in 1686,
was a man of great erudition. He became professor of
theology at Tubingen in 1717, and received the title jf
count palatine in 1724. He wrote (in Latin) numerous
works, among which are " Institutions of Dogmatic and
Moral Theology," (1719,) remarkable for mental inde-
pendence, and "Introduction to the Literary History of
Theology," (1720.) He became dean of the faculty at
Giessen in 1756. Died in 1760.

See LBPORIN, " Nachricht von C. M. Pfaflens Leben," etc., 1716
HIRSCHING. " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch."

Ffafl; (JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) father of the preceding,
was born in Wurtemberg in 1631. He was professor of
:heology at Tubingen, and wrote several works. Died
n 1720.

FfaS; (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a mathematician, born
at Stuttgart in 1765. He became professor of mathe-
matics at Halle in 1810. Among his works are "Ana-
lytic Essays mostly relating to the Integral Calculus,"
etc., (1797.) Died at Halle in 1825.

Pfaff, (KARL,) a German historian, a son of the pre-
ceding, published a " History of Wurtemberg," (2 vols.,
1818-21,) and other histories.

Pfanner, pfan'ner, (TOBIAS,) a German historian, born
at Augsburg in 1641. He was keeper of the archives at
Gotha. Among his works is a " History of the Peace
of Westphalia," (1679.) Died in 1716.

Pfeffel, pfJPfel, (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH von Krle-
;elatein fon kRee'gel-stin',) a historian, born at Col-
nar. Upper Rhine, in 1726. His chief work is a
' Chronological Epitome of the History of the Public
^.aw of Germany," in French, (1754; 5th edition, 1766.)
Died in 1807.

Pfeffel, (GOTTLIEB KONRAD,) a distinguished Ger-
man fabulist and poet, brother of the preceding, born
at Colmar in 1736, became blind while pursuing hi
studies at Halle. He was appointed in 1803 president
f the Evangelical Consistory at Colmar. Died in 1809.
See KIBDBR, "G. C. Pfeflel; biographischer Versuch," 1810
Ffefferkorn, pfSf fer-koRn', (JoHANN,) a German Jew,
who was converted to Christianity, and, in excess of zeal,
advised the emperor to burn all Jewish books except the
iible. He lived about 1500.



a. e, T, o, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e. i, p, olxcurc; far, fall, at: met; not; good; moon:



PFEIFFER



'937



PHAN1AS



Pfeiffer, pfiffer, (AUGUSTUS,) a German scholar, anc
professor of Oriental literature at Leipsic, was born in
Lower Saxony in 1640. He wrote a number of works
in relation to Jewish antiquities and Biblical criticism
Died in 1698.

Pfeiffer, (BURCHARD WILHELM,) a German jurist ant
publicist, born at Cassel in 1777. He published "Prac
tical Deductions concerning all Parts of Jurisprudence,'
(8 vols., 1825-46,) and other works. Died in 1852.

Pfeiffer, fi'fer, (CARL,) a skilful architect, born in
Brunswick, Germar", in 1834. At the age of sixteen he
came to the United States, and passed several years as
assistant architect in Ohio and other parts of the West
He afterwards spent four years in the same capacity in
the city of New York. In 1864 he commenced business
on his own account, and soon acquired a high reputation
as an excellent architect. Among the buildings designec
and erected by him are the church of the Messiah, the
Roosevelt Hospital, and the mansion of Mr. Barroda,
one of the largest houses in New York, and, for its
admirable arrangement, probably unsurpassed, if nol
unequalled, by any other private dwelling in the Unitet
States. His plans were accepted for the City Hospita
and other public buildings belonging to New York city.

Pfeiffer, pfif'fer, (FRANCOIS Louis,) a Swiss general,
born at Lucerne in 1716. He served with distinction in
the French army, (1734-75.) Died in 1802.

Pfeiffer, pflffer, (EMILY,) an English poetess. Since
1873 she has published numerous volumes of verse,
which have won much praise. Her sonnets are es
pecially fine. Died in 1890.

Pfeiffer, (IDA, ((^Reyer,) a celebrated German trav-
eller, born in Vienna in 1797. She set out in March
1842, for Asia Minor, where she spent nearly a year, and
in 1845 made the tour of Sweden, Norway, and Iceland.
In 1846 she undertook a journey round the world, which
she accomplished in a little more than two years, after
encountering great hardships and dangers. She pub-
lished in 1850 "A Woman's Journey round the World,
urorn Vienna to Brazil, Chili, Tahiti, China, Hindostan,"
etc. In 1851 she entered upon a second journey, having
received for this purpose a sum of money from the Aus-
trian government. Her account of this expedition ap-
peared in 1855, under the title of " A Second Voyage
round the World, from London to the Cape of Good
Hope, Borneo, the Moluccas, California, Peru, and the
United States." Died in 1858.

Pfeiffer, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German economist,
born at Berlin in 1718. He wrote many works on rural
and political economy, among which is a "Treatise on
all the Economical Sciences," (4 vols., 1770-78.) Died
in 1787.

Pfeiffer, (Louis,) a Swiss general, born at Lucerne in
1530. He fought for Charles IX. of France against the
Huguenots. Died in 1594.

Pfeiffer, (Louis GEORG KARL,) a German naturalist
and physician, a son of Burchard Wilhelm, noticed above,
was born at Cassel in 1805. He published a number
of treatises on botany and conchyliology, among which
may be named " Monograph of Living Snails," (" Mono-
graphia Heliceorum Viventium," 3 vols., 1847-53,) a "d
a " Flora of Hesse," (2 vols., 1847-55.) Die d in 1877.
Pfenninger, pfeVning-er, (HENRI,) a Swiss engraver,
born at Zurich in 1749. He engraved portraits for
Lavater's "Physiognomy," which are admired. Died
in 1815.

Pfenninger, (MATTHIAS,) a Swiss designer and en-
graver, born at Zurich in 1739. He engraved Swiss
landscapes with skill. Died about 1810.

Pfinzing or Pfintzing, pffnt'sing, (MELCHIOR,) a
German poet, born at Nuremberg in 1481. He com-
posed a dull poem called " The Adventures of Theuer-
dank," (1517.) This edition was adorned with more
than one hundred fine engravings, and was a master-
piece of typography. Died in 1535.

.Pfiater, pfis'ter, (ALBRECHT,) a German printer, born
about 1420. He made use of movable types ; but it is
not known whether he was an assistant of Gutenberg or
invented them himself. His principal work is a Latin
j6-line Bible, in 3 vols. fol. Died about 1470.



POster, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a German historian,
born near Marbach in 1772. He wrote a " History of
Suabia," (5 vols., 1803-27,) and a "History of the Ger-
mans," (5 vols., 1830-35.) He became minister of a
church at Stuttgart, where he died in 1835.

Pfizer, pf ft'ser, (GusTAV,) a German critic and littfra-


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 221 of 425)