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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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teur, born at Stuttgart in 1807. Among his principal
works are a " Life of Martin Luther," an " Essay on
Uhland and Riickert," (1837,) and a " History of Alex-
ander the Great, for the Young," (1846.) Died in 1890
Pflei'derer, pfli'der-er, (OTTO,) a philosopher and
theologian, born at Stettin, in Wurtemberg, in 1839.
He became professor of theology at Jena in 1870, and
at Berlin in 1875. He was deeply learned, and be-
longed to the advanced school in New Testament criti-
cism. His works are numerous, one of the latest being
" The Philosophy of Religion," (1894.) His brother,
EDMUND, born in 1842, was professor of philosophy at
Kiel and Tiibingen, and wrote various works on phi-
losophy and the philosophers.

Pforr, pfoR, (JoHANN GBORG,) a distinguished Ger-
man painter of animals, was born at Upfen, in Saxony,
in 1745. He painted horses, hunting-scenes, battles, etc.
with much skill. Died in 1798.

Phaeax, fee'aks, ($010!,] an Athenian orator, who
was sent as ambassador to Sicily in 422 B.C. He is men-
tioned by Plutarch as one of the two persons capable
of competing in some degree with Ahibiades, ie. when
the latter first entered the public service.

Fhaedon, fee'don, or Phaedo, fee'do, [<taiSav,] a
Greek philosopher, born at Elis. He came to Athens
about 400 B.C., and was a disciple of Socrates, after whose
death he founded a school of philosophy at Elis. His
writings have not come down to us. The name of Phae-
don is the title of a celebrated dialogue of Plato.

See DIOGKNKS LABRTIUS ; SITIDAS, " Phjedon."

Phaedra, fee'dra, [Gr. Qaitpa ; Fr. PHEDRE, fSdR,] a
daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, was the wife of The-
seus, King of Athens. She is said to have indulged a
guilty passion for her step-son Hippolytus, and to have
caused his death by a false accusation.

PhSBdrus, fee'drus, [Gr. QaiSpos ; Fr. PHEDRE, f|dR,]
a Greek Epicurean philosopher, was a friend of Cicero,
rie was the head of the Epicurean school at Athens from
!o to 70 B.C., and wrote a work which Cicero used freely
n composing the first book of his " Natura Deorum."

Fhaedrus, a Latin fabulist, who wrote about 20 or 30
A.D., was originally a slave. He was probably born in
Thrace or Macedonia. It is supposed that he belonged
o Augustus, and was liberated by him. He left ninety-
even fables in iambic verse, the subjects and ideas of
which are partly borrowed from jEsop. They are ad-
mired for the purity and simplicity of the style.

Fha'e-thon or Pha'e-ton, [Gr. *ot9uv; Fr. PHAS-
THON, fi'4't6N',] a mythical personage, called a son of
Mios (the Sun) or Phoebus. His name signifies " the
Shining." The poets feigned that, in his youthful pre-
sumption, he persuaded his father to permit him to guide
r or one day the chariot of the sun, that he was unable
o control the fiery coursers, which ran out of the right
course and came too near the earth, that Jupiter killed
'haethon with a thunderbolt, and he fell into the river Po.

Fhalanthe. See PHALANTHUS.

Pha-lan'thus, [Gr. 4>dAa><0of ,- Fr. PHALANTHE, ff -
ONt',] a Spartan chief, who founded a Greek colony at
Tarentum about 708 B.C., and subdued the natives of the
adjacent country.

Phal'a-ria, [Gr. "toAopic,] a ruler of Agrigentum, in
Sicily, notorious for his cruelty. He began to reign
about 570 B.C., according to Eusebius and Suidas. He
endered his name infamous by burning his victims in

brazen bull. Tradition adds that he was deposed by
'elemachus, the ancestor of Theron, and suffered the
ame cruel death which he had inflicted on others. Cer-
ain epistles ascribed to Phalaris were the subjects of

celebrated controversy between Boyle and Bentley,
who demonstrated them to be spurious.

See SUIDAS, " Phalaris ;" CICERO, " De Officiis," ii. and iU.

Phalereus. See DEMETRIUS PHALEREUS.
Pha'nI-as [<J>awaf] or Phaenias, fee'ne-as, [



a8i;$as/;gykrf,-gas/,-G,H, TK., guttural; N, nasal: R. trilled; sasz; th as in this.

123



Explanations, p.



PHANOCLES



1938



PHIDIAS



a Greek philosopher, born in Lesbos, was one of the
most eminent disciples of Aristotle, and was a friend of
Theophrastus. He wrote many works on logic, history,
etc.

See Vossius, "De Historicis Gratis;" FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca
Grzca. "

Phan'o-clesJ, [ifcavoKA^f,] a Greek elegiac poet, who
lived probably between 350 and 300 B.C. He wrote a
poem called 'Epurcc i) K.cdoi, of which a fragment is
extant. This is much admired by some critics.

See SMITH, "Greek and Roman Biography," etc.

Fhan-o-de'mus, [$av66ii[Wf,] an Athenian historian
of uncertain period. He lived before the Christian era.
He wrote a work on the antiquities of Attica, entitled
'Arflif, of which fragments are extant

Pha'on, [Gr. *ouv,] a mariner or boatman cf Lesbos,
celebrated as a favourite of Sappho. According to the
fable, Venus endowed him with youth and beauty because
he once carried her across the water without charge.

Phar'a-mpnd, a king of the Franks, who is sup-
posed to' have reigned in the first half of the fifth cen-
tury. His history is involved in obscurity, and is the
subject of some romances. The first historian who
mentions him is Prosper Tyro.

Pharaoh Hophra. See APRIES.

Pharaoh Necho. See NECHO.

Pharnabaze. See PHARNABAZUS.

Phar-na-ba'zus, [Gr. QapvaSaZoc ; Fr. PHARNABAZE,
fitR'nfbiz',] a Persian satrap, governed the provinces
near the Hellespont, under Darius II. He was an ally
of the Spartans in the war against the Athenians, anj
was defeated by Alcibiades, near Abydos, in 409 B.C. He
was defeated in 395 by the Spartans, under Agesilaus,
who had invaded his province. Pharnabazus and Iphic-
rates commanded an expedition to Egypt in 374, which
wag a failure.

See XENOPHON, " Hellenica," books i, iii., and iv.

Pharnace. See PHARNACES.

Phar'na-ceS [Gr. Qafvwaic ; Fr. PHARNACE, ftR'-
n3s'] L, King of Pontus, was a son of Mithridates IV.,
whom he succeeded about 190 B.C. He invaded Galatia
in 181, and was opposed with success by Eumenes. He
was succeeded by his son, Mithridates V.

Pharnaces IX, King of Pontus, was a son of Mithri-
dates the Great He conspired against his father after his
defeat by the Romans, (about 63 B.C.,) and was supported
by the army. He made peace with Pompey, who recog-
nized him as King of the Bosphorus. During the civil
war of Rome he seized Pontus, and provoked the hos-
tility of Ca;sar. He was defeated by the Romans and
killed in battle in 47 B.C.

Phavorinus Varinus. See GUARINO.

Phear, (Sir JOHN BUDD,) an English author, horn
in Suffolk in 1825. He was admitted to the bar in
1854, was a judge in Bengal 1864-76, and in Ceylon
'877-79- He wrote works on mechanics and hydro-
statics, " International Trade," and " The Aryan Vil-
lage in India and Ceylon," (1880.)

Fhelippeaux, de, deh feh-le'po', or Philippeatuc,
feOe'po, (ANTOINE le Picard leh peTciR',) a French
officer, born in Poitou in 1768. He emigrated in 1791,
fought against the republic, and procured the escape of
Sir Sidney Smith from prison, (1797.) Having entered
the British service, he distinguished himself at the
defence of Acre, where he directed the artillery, in 1799.
Died at Acre the same year.

Phelps, (ALMIRA HART LINCOLN,) an American
teacher and educational writer, born at Berlin, Connec-
ticut, in 1793. She was for many years associated with
her sister, Mrs. Emma Willard, as teacher of the Female
Seminary, Troy, New York, and in 1841 took charge of
the Patapsco Institute, Maryland. Among her principal
works are " Familiar Lectures on Botany," " Geology
for Beginners," (1832,) "Lectures on Natural Philoso-
phy," (1835.) and "Hours with my Pupils," (1859.) Died
July 15, 1884.

Phelps, (AUSTIN,) D.D., an American clergyman,
born in West Brookfield, Massachusetts, January 7,
1821, graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in
1837, was pastor of the Pine Street Congregational
Church, Boston, from 1842 to 1848, and professor of



sacred rhetoric m the Andover Theological seminary
from 1848 to 1879. Among his works are "The Still
Hour," "The Solitude of Christ," " Studies of the Old
Testament," " The Theory of Preaching," " Men and
Books," "English Style in Public Discourse," "The
New Birth," etc. He was the father of Miss Elizabeth
Stuart Phelps (Mrs. Ward). Died October 13, 1890.

Phelps, (EDWARD JOHN,) diplomatist, was born
at Middlebury, Vermont, in 1822. He was professor
of law at Yale 1881-85, an d United States minister to
Great Britain 1885-89. He was one of the govern-
ment counsel in the Behring Sea arbitration. Died
March 9, 1900.

Phelps. (ELIZABETH STUAKT,) an American writer,
a daughter of Professor Moses Stuart, D.D., was born
at Andover, Massachusetts, in 1815. She published a
number of moral and religious tales, which obtained
great popularity. Among these we may name "The
Kitty Brown Series," (1850) "The Sunny Side," (1851.)
"Peep at Number Five," (1851,) and "The Angel over
the Right Shoulder," (1851.) Died in 1852.

Phelps, (ELIZABETH STUART,) a daughter of the
foregoing. She was born at Boston, Massachusetts,
August 31, 1844. Her books, principally stories, are
" The Gates Ajar," (1868,) " Men, Women, and Ghosts,"
"The Story of Avis," (1877,) " Beyond the Gates,"
(1883,) "The Madonna of the Tubs," (1887,) "Don-
ald Marcy," (1893,) " Chapters from a Life," (1896,)
and many others. She married Herbert D. Ward.

Phelps, (JOHN S.,) an American politician, born in
Hartford county, Connecticut, in 1814. He emigrated
to Springfield, Missouri, in 1837, and was elected to
Congress in 1844. He also represented the sixth dis-
trict of Missouri in Congress for several terms, and was
appointed military Governor of Arkansas by President
Lincoln in 1862. Died November 20, 1886.

Phelps, (JOHN W.,) an American general, born at
Guilford, Vermont, in 1813, graduated at West Point in

1836. He became a captain in 1850, and resigned his
commission in 1859. He was appointed a brigadier-
general in 1861, and served under General Butler in the
expedition against New Orleans. In December, 1861,
he issued a proclamation against slavery, which was
disapproved by General Butler. He resigned in July
or August, 1862. Died at Guilford, February 2, 1885.

Phelps, (SAMUEL,) an English actor, born at Devon
port in 1806. He made his dlbut in York in 1828, wa
engaged by Macready for the Covent Garden Theatre in

1837, and, after brief engagements elsewhere, became
the favourite tragic actor at Sadler's Wells. Died No-
vember 6, 1878.

Phelps, (WILLIAM WALTER,) an American Con-
gressman, born in New York, August 24, 1839. He
was a member of Congress from New Jersey 187275*
1883-85. Died June 17, 1894.

Phelypeaux. 'See MAUREPAS and PONTCHARTRAIN.

Pherecrate. See PHERECRATES.

Phe-r6c'ra-teS, [Gr. QcpcicpdTrif ; Fr. PHERECRATE,
fa'ra'kRjt',] an Athenian poet of the old comedy, wrote
about 430 B.C., and was a contemporary of Plato and
Aristophanes. Small fragments of his plays are extant
He invented a new metre, called Pherecratic. His dic-
tion is elegant, and his plots are ingenious.

Pherecyde. See PHERECYDES.

Fh6r-e-5y'des, [Gr. 4>Epcm*7f ; Fr. PutfRftCYDE, fa
ri'sed',] a Greek philosopher, born at Syros about 600
or 570 B.C., was the teacher of Pythagoras. He is said
to have taught the doctrine of Metempsychosis, or the
transmigration of the soul.

Fherecydes, an Athenian historian, a contemporary
of Herodotus, lived between 490 and 450 B.C. His chief
work was a mythological history, in ten books, sometimes
entitled AOro^ovef.

Fhidl-as, written also Fheidiaa, [tewKof,] regarded
by many as the greatest sculptor and statuary that ever
lived, was a son of Charmidas or Charmides. He was
probably born at Athens between 500 and 485 B.C. The
details of his personal history are very deficient, consid-
ering his renown. His principal master was Ageladas,
a sculptor of Argos. Among his earlier works were a



,, 1, 6, u, y, long: A, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; m?t; not; good; moon;



PHI DON



1939



PHILINUS



colossal bronze statue of Athena Promachos, dated about
460 B.C., which stood on the Acropolis for many centuries,
and an ivory or chryselephantine statue of Athena at
Pellene. Having formed a new style, characterized by
sublimity and ideal beauty, he obtained the friendship
and patronage of Pericles, who about 444 B.C. began to
adorn the Acropolis with works of art. " Phidias was
appointed by Pericles superintendent of all the public
edifices," says Plutarch, "although the Athenians had
other eminent architects."

The sculptured ornaments of the Parthenon, executed
by Phidias and his disciples, exhibited a perfection
which has never been surpassed, if equalled, by other
artists. He formed with his own hand the colossal
statue of Minerva which was enclosed within the Par-
thenon and was dedicated in 438 B.C. It was chrysele-
phantine, that is, the naked parts were made of ivory
and the drapery of gold. The height of this statue was
nearly forty feet It was his most celebrated work at
Athens. His other master-piece was a colossal ivory
and gold statue of Jupiter at Olympia, (Elis,) which was
enclosed in the temple dedicated to that god. He was
represented seated on a throne, holding in his right
hand a statue of Victory. This figure, in the opinion of
the Greeks, expressed and realized their highest ideal
of supreme majesty and divine complacency. It was
destroyed by fire at Constantinople about 475 A.D.
Some of the Elgin marbles in the British Museum are
considered to be works of Phidias.

In the latter part of his life, Phidias was accused of
defrauding the state of part of the gold appropriated to
the statue of Minerva ; but, as Pericles ordered the gold
to be taken off and weighed, this charge was abandoned ;
for Phidias, by the advice of Pericles, had artfully con-
trived that the gold could be easily taken off. According
to Plutarch, he died in prison, into which he was thrown
on a charge of impiety, because he had sculptured on
the shield of Minerva images of himself and Pericles.
Some writers ascribe his death to poison, and others
doubt the truth of the statement that he was imprisoned.
His death, however, occurred about 432 B.C.

"The three greatest architects hitherto known in the
world, "says Ruskin, "were Phidias, Giotto, and Michael
Angelo, with all of whom architecture was only their
play, sculpture and painting their work." In the course
of his remarks on Repose as a test of greatness in works
of art, Ruskin says, " V/e shall see by this light three
colossal images standing up side by side, looming in
their great rest of spirituality above the whole world-
horizon, Phidias, Michael Angelo, and Dante."

See K. O. MULLER, " De Phidie Viu et Operibus Cora menu -
iim.cs rres," 1827.

Phi'don or Phei'don, [Gr. ttiduv,] a king of Argos
and descendant of Hercules, is said to have changed the
government of that state to a despotism about 750 B.C.
He was the reputed inventor of weights and measures,
and is said to have been the first prince who coined
silver money. He was deprived of power or defeated
by the Spartans and Eleians.

Phila, [Gr. *JAa,] a daughter of Antipater, the Re-
gent of Macedonia, was distinguished for her virtue
and wisdom. She was married to Craterus, and after
his death to Demetrius, the son of Antigonus. Died
in 287 B.C.

Fhilgeni, fe-lee'nT, [Gr. <f>/Aa'.%] two Carthaginians
nd brothers, whose name was rendered memorable by
an act of patriotic devotion. When the boundary be-
tween Carthage and Cyrene was disputed, the parties
agreed that two men of each state should start at the
same time and walk or run towards the other, and that
the place where they met should be the boundary. The
Phila:ni traversed a greater space than the Cyrenians,
who accused the former of unfairness. The Philaeni
then offered to prove their honesty by a sacrifice of their
lives, and were buried alive in the sand.

PW-la'grl-us, [<l>iXaxpiof,] a Greek medical writer of
Thessalonica, lived probably in the third century of our
era. His works are lost, except small fragments.

Plil-lam'mon, [4>f>l<i/i/zwi' t ] a mythical Greek poet
and musician, was supposed to be the son of Apollo,
the inventor of choral music, and the institutor of the
Delphian worship of Apollo.



Philander. See PHILANDRIER.

Philandrier, fe'16N'dRe-a', [Lat, PHILAN'DER, |
(GuiLLAUME,) a French scholar, born at Chatillon-sur-
Seine in 1505. He published "Notes on Quintilian,"
(1535,) and "Annotations on Vitruvius," (1544.) Died
in 1565.

Philarete. See PHILARETUS.

Fhilarete, fe'lf r|t', or PhMar'e-tus, (VASIL DRO-
SOF,) Metropolitan of Moscow, was born near Moscow
in 1782. He became Bishop of Revel in 1817, and
Archbishop of Moscow in 1820. He published "Com-
mentaries on Genesis," and other works. Died in 1867.

Fhl-lar'e-tus, [Fr. PHILARETE, fe'lS'r4t',] the reputed
author of a small Greek treatise " On the Pulse," which
is sometimes attributed to Philotheus.

Fhi'le or Phnis, (MANUEL,) a Byzantine poet, born
at Ephesus about 1275. He wrote, in barbarous Greek
verse, a curious work, llfpi &uv UWTT/TOC, ("On the
Nature of Animals,") which is extracted mostly from
Elian's "Natural History." Died about 1340.

Fhil'e-as, [<t>i^oc,] a Greek geographer, born at
Athens, lived probably several centuries before Christ,
He is quoted by Dicsearchus. He wrote a " Periplus."

Fhilelphe and Philelphus. See FILELFO.

Phl-le'mon, [$Mi/iuv,] an eminent Athenian comlL
poet, was born at Soli in Cilicia, or at Syracuse, about
360 B.C. He was a rival of Menander, and was the first
poet of the new comedy in order of time. He began
to exhibit comedies about 330 B.C., and obtained great
favour with the Athenians. He gained several victories
over Menander in dramatic contests. Fragments of his
works are extant. He was a witty and elegant writer.
Died about 262 B.C. His son, Philemon, was also a
comic poet, but less famous.

See SUIDAS, " Philemon ;" MKINEKE, " Menandri et PhHemonU
Reliquiz," and " Fragmenta Comiconun Grzcorum ;" HAUPT-
MANN, " Dissertatio de Philemone," 1745.

Philemon, a Greek grammarian, who lived probably
between 600 and 7OOA.D., was the author of a "Lexicon
Technologicon," part of which is extant.

Philemon, one of the primitive Christians, was a
friend of the apostle Paul, who addressed to him an
epistle, which is included in the canon of Scripture.

Philepicus. See PHILIPPICUS.

Philetaerus, fil-e-tee'rus, [<J>itera<poc,] an Athenian
comic poet of the middle comedy. Little is known of
his life or works.

Philetaerus, the founder of the kingdom ofPergamus.
He became king about 280 B.C., and died about 262 B.C.
leaving the throne to his nephew Eumenes.

Phl-le'tas [*iA^rof] OF Cos, an eminent Greek poet
and critic, who flourished between 350 and 290 B.C. He
was the preceptor of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He wrote
elegies and epigrams, and prose works on grammar.
Fragments of his poems have come down to us. He was
a favourite model of the poet Theocritus.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie :" N. BACK,
"Programma de Phileta Coo," 1828.

Phil'e-us, sometimes written Phiteus, Pytheua, or
Fhileos, an eminent Greek architect, who lived about
25 B.C. He designed two magnificent edifices in Asia
Minor, viz., the Mausoleum and the temple of Athena
Polias at Priene. His colossal group containing a statue
of Mausolus is one of the great treasures of the British
Museum.

Pliil'I-bert [Fr. pron. fe'leTjaiR'; It. FILIBF.RTO, fe-le-
beVto; Lat. PHILIBER'TUS] L, Duke of Savoy, a son
of Amadeus IX., was born in 1464; died in 1482.

Philibert II., Duke of Savoy, a son of Philip IL,
was born in 1480. He succeeded his father in 1497,
and died in 1504, leaving the dukedom to his brother,
Carlo III.

Philidor. See DANICAN.

Fhilieul, fe'le-ul', (VASQUIN,) a French titifraleur,
was born at Carpentras in 1522. He published "Laure
d'Avignon," (1548,) and "Toutes les CEuvres vulgaires
de F. Petrarque," (1555.) Died about 1582.

Fhl-li'nus, [<t>i^foc,] a Greek physician, born in
Cos, was a pupil of Herophilus. He lived about 250
B.C., and wrote a treatise on botany, which is not extant.
He was the reputed founder of the sect of Empiric;.



as k; 9 as s ; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as *; th as in this.



xplanations,



PHILINUS



1940



PHILIP



Philinus, an Athenian orator, a contemporary of
Demosthenes.

Fhilinus, a Greek historian, who accompanied Han-
nibal in his campaign in Italy, and wrote a History of
the First and Second Punic Wars, which is not extant.
He was a native of Sicily.

Phil'ip [Gr. toJUmrof] L, King of Macedonia, a son
of Argaeus, reigned in the ninth century B.C. He was
ucceeded by his son Aeropus.

Philip [Gr. tokmrof ; Lat. PHILIP'PUS; Fr. PHILIPPE,
fe'lip'; It FILIPPO, fe-lep'po; Sp. FELIPE, fl-lee'pi;
Ger. PHILIPP, fil'ipj H-, a famous king of Macedonia,
a younger son of Amyntas, was born in 382 B.C. In his
youth he passed several years at Thebes as a hostage,
and enjoyed the society of Epaminondas. He succeedec 1
his brother Perdiccas in 359, and married Olympias,
a daughter of the King of Epirus. During the Social
war, which began in 358 B.C., he extended his do-
minions by the capture of Amphipolis, Potidaea, and
Pydna from the Athenians. He availed himself of
another civil war, called the Sacred war, to pursue his
ambitious projects against the independence of the
Grecian states, and became the ally of the Thebans
against the Phocians and Athenians. In 347 B.C. he
besieged Olynthus with success, and made a treaty of
peace with Athens. By the conquest of Phocis, in 346,
he acquired a vote in the Amphictyonic Council. The
continued aggressions of Philip again involved him in
a war with the Athenians, who were stimulated by the
powerful appeals of Demosthenes, and who in 339 B.C.
compelled him to raise the siege of Perinthus and
Byzantium. A league was then formed against him by
the Athenians, Thebans, and others. The decisive battls
of Chaeronea, where Philip, commanding in person,
defeated the allies in 338 B.C., rendered him master of
Greece. He treated the Athenians with clemency. He
called a general congress of deputies from the Greek
states, who resolved to unite in an aggressive war
against Persia, and appointed Philip commander-in-chief.
During the preparations for this enterprise he was as-
sassinated, in 336 B.C., at the celebration of a marriage
between his daughter Cleopatra and the King of Epirus.
The assassin was Pausanias, a soldier of his own body-
guard, who had been insulted by Attalus, an uncle of
Philip's queen, and whose claim for redress had been
neglected by the king. Philip possessed great military
and political talents, with some virtues, among which
we may name generosity. He was, on the other hand,
sensual, unscrupulous, and perfidious.

See PLUTARCH, " Life of Demosthenes ;" LELAKD, " History o(
the Life and Reign of Philip of Macedon," 1758 : GROTK, " History
of Greece," vol. xi. ; BURY, " Histoire de Philippe et d'Alexandre le
Grand,'* 1760; BKUCKNBB, " Kdnig Philipp Sohn des Amyntas,"
1837: THIRLWALL, " History of Greece :" DIUMANN, "Geschichte
des Verfalls der Griechischen Staaten."

Philip 111 OF MACEDON. This title was given to
Arrhidaaus, an illegitimate son of Philip II. (See An-
RHIDvEUS.)

Philip IV. OP MACEDON, a son of Cassander, reigned
only a few months, and died in 296 B.C.

Philip V. OF MACKDON, born about 235 B.C., was
a son of Demetrius II. He succeeded his uncle, Anti-
gonus Doson, in 220 B.C. Having obtained command of
the army of the Achaean league : he displayed superior
military talents, and defeated the vEtolians and Spartans,
(JM8-2I7-) The success of Hannibal at Cannae tempted
Philip to form an alliance with him against the Romans
in 215 B.C. He is said to have poisoned Aratus, who
had been his friend. The Romans, having recovered
their ascendency, sent an army against Philip, who was
defeated completely by T. Q. Flamininus at Cynos-
cephalse in 197 B.C. He died in 179 B.C., leaving the
throne to his son, Perseus. Philip was an able monarch,
but was cruel and tyrannical.

See LIVY, " History of Rome," books nii.-xl.

Philip or Philip'pus, a son of Herod the Great and
Cleopatra, became tetrarch of Gaulonitis, Trachonitis,
and Batanaea. Died about 34 A.D.

Philip [Lat. PHILIP'PUS] OF ACARNANIA, a physician,
was a friend of Alexander the Great, whom he cured of a
fever caused by bathing in the river Cydnus, 333 B.C. On
this occasion Parmenio warned the king by letter that



Philip was bribed (by Darius) to poison him. The king,


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 222 of 425)