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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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however, confiding in his fidelity, drank the medicine
as he showed the letter to Philip. (See ALEXANDER.)

Philip, Emperor of Rome. See PHILIPPUS.

Phil'ip, [Gr. Vihrmtx; ; Lat. PHILIP'PUS; Fr. PHI-
LIPPE, fe'lep',] SAINT, one of the twelve apostles, was a
native of Bethsaida, on the Sea of Galilee. He witnessed
the miracle of the loaves and fishes, (John vi. 5-7.) The
evangelist John records an interview between him and
certain Greeks, in chapter xii. 21. According to tra-
dition, he preached in Phrygia, and suffered martyrdom
at Hierapolis.

Philip, [Ger. PHILIPP, fil'ip,] Duke of Suabia, Em-
peror of Germany, a son of Frederick Barbarossa, was
born about 1170. He was elected emperor in 1198, but
his title was contested by Otho IV., and a civil war en-
sued. The pope favoured Otho, and excommunicated
Philip, but was afterwards reconciled to him. Philip
was assassinated in 1208.

Philip [Sp. FELIPE, fi-lee'pa] L, surnamed THE
HANDSOME, King of Castile, a son of Maximilian I.,
Emperor of Germany, was born at Bruges in 1478. His
mother was Mary of Burgundy, from whom he inherited
the seventeen provinces of the Low Countries. He was
styled Archduke of Austria in his youth. In 1496 he
married Joanna, a daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella,
(of Castile and Aragon.) On the death of Isabella
(1504) the crown of Castile was inherited by Joanna,
but, in consequence of her mental imbecility, or insanity,
Philip exercised the royal power. He died at Burgos
in September, 1506, leaving two sons, who became
emperors as Charles V. and Ferdinand I.

See MARIANA, " De Rebus Hispanicis:" " Nouvelle Biographic
Generate."

Philip [Fr. PHILIPPE, fe'ltp'] I., King of France, a
son of Henry I. and Anne of Russia, was born in 1052.
He succeeded his father in 1060, when Baldwin, Count
of Flanders, became regent. He abandoned himself to
disgraceful sensuality. In 1092 he married Bertrade,
the wife of Foulques, Count of Anjou, who was still
living. Philip was excommunicated for this offence. He
was involved in a war with William Rufus of England
during the first crusade. He died in noS, and was
succeeded by his son, Louis VI.

See SISMONDI. " Histoire des Francais ;" MICHKLHT, " Histoire
de France;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Philip n. OF FRANCE. See PHILIP AUGUSTUS.

Philip (Philippe) TTT,, surnamed THE BOLD, (LK
HARDI, leh AiR'de' ; Lat. PHILIP'PUS AU'DAX,] born in
1245, was the second son of Louis IX., whose eldest son
died in infancy. He married Isabella of Aragon in 1262,
and accompanied his father in the crusade to Tunis in
1269. At the death of Louis, in 1270, Philip became
king. Having made a treaty of peace with the King of
Tunis, he returned to Paris in 1271. Although he was a
prince of little talent and of a weak character, the royal
domain and power were increased during his reign.
Among the chief events of his reign was a war against
Peter of Aragon. With the sanction of the pope, who
had offered the crown of Aragon to Charles, a son of
Philip, the latter invaded Catalonia in 1285, but was
loon forced to retreat He died at Perpignan in October,
1285.

See GUILLAUMH DE NANGIS, " Gesta Philippi Audacis ;" " Non-
velle Biographic G<nerale."

Philip IV., often called Philip the Pair, [Fr
PHILIPPE LE BEL, fe'ltp' leh bSl ; Ger. PHILIPP DER
SCHONE, fil'ip dfr sho'neh,) a son of Philip III. and
Isabella of Aragon, was born in 1268. He succeeded
his father in 1285, before which he had married Jeanne
of Navarre and acquired Navarre as her dowry. He
was ambitious to increase the royal power, and un-
scrupulous in the choice of means. His favourite ad-
visers were lawyers, who taught him how to substitute
despotism for the feudal system. In 1292 or 1293 he
summoned Edward I. of England to appear at Paris
and answer for the hostile acts of some of his sub-
jects. Edward sent his brother Edmund, who offered
reparation, and delivered to Philip six fortresses in
Guienne, (1294.) Having occupied ail Guienne by Kia
troops, Philip condemned Edward as contumacious, and



i,e,I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u,y,sAort; a,e, \,(), obscure; fir, fall, fat; nift; not; good; moon:



PHILIP



1941



PHILIP



declared his domains in France confiscated. In the
war that ensued, Edward recovered part of Guienne.
To raise funds for his wars, Philip debased the coin, and
extorted money, by persecution, from the Jews. He in-
vaded Flanders about 1300, but was successfully opposed
by the Flemings. By a treaty of 1303 he restored all
Guienne to Edward I. Some years before this date a
quarrel arose between Philip and the pope, Boniface,
whose person was outraged by the agents of Philip at
Agnani in 1303. In consequence of Philip's audacious
ind successful efforts to humble the papacy, the court
Df the pope was transferred to Avignon in 1308. Among
the last acts of his reign was his cruel persecution and
suppression of the order of Templars. He died in 1314,
and was succeeded by his son, Louis X.

See LKSSMANN, " Konig Philipp der Schone," 1829; " Nouvelle
Biographic G^nerale."

Philip (Philippe) V., surnamed LE LONG, (leh 16N,)
the second son of Philip IV., was born about 1293. He
became king at the death of Louis X., in 1316. Louis
X. had left a daughter, who was excluded from the
throne. The important question of succession was
decided on this occasion, and the Salic law became
thenceforth one of the bases of the French consti-
tution. The events of his reign were not remarkable.
He renewed the persecution of the Jews, many of
whom were massacred. He died in 1322, leaving four
daughters, but no son, and was succeeded by his brother,
Charles IV.

Philip (Philippe) VI, or Philippe de Valois, fe'-
lep' deh vj'lwa', born in 1293, was a son of Charles de
Valois, who was a brother of Philip IV. He succeeded
his cousin, Charles IV. le Bel, in 1328, and became the
founder of the royal house of Valois. He was an in-
capable and prodigal prince. His reign commenced a
period of disasters and confusion. He became involved
in war with Edward III. of England, who possessed
Guienne and claimed to be the rightful heir of the
French throne, through his mother Isabelle. Philip was
defeated with great loss at Cre'cy in 1346, and lost Calais,
an important strategic point, in 1347, soon after which a
truce was concluded. He died in 1350, and was sue-
ceeded by his son John.

See FROISSART, " Chronicles ;" DE CHOISY, *' Histoire de Phi-
lippe de Valois," 1688 ; SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais."

Philip, [Fr. PHILIPPE,] King of Navarre, was a grand-
son of Philip III. of France. He married in 1318
Jeanne, a daughter of Louis X., who was heiress of the
throne of Navarre. He died in 1343, leaving a son,
Charles the Bad.

Philip 1 OF SPAIN. See PHILIP I. OF CASTILE.

Philip [Sp. FELIPE, fk-lee'pa; It. FILIPPO, fe-lep'po]
H., King of Spain, was the son of the emperor Charles
V. and Isabella of Portugal. He was born at Valladolid
on the 2ist of May, 1527. By education and character, as
veil as birth, he was a Spaniard, and a thorough-paced
bigot. He married in 1543 Maria of Portugal, who died
about three years later. In 1548 he visited Brussels,
where Charles V. held his court. In 1554 he went to
London to celebrate his marriage with Mary Tudor,
Queen-Regnant of England, who was about eleven years
older than he. Having parted from her in September,
1555, he went to Brussels to meet his father, who, on the
*5th of October, 1555, abdicated in his favour the sove-
reignty of the Netherlands. Before the end of the year,
Philip became King of Spain and the Indies by the
abdication of his father, and master of an empire " on
which the sun never set." His favourite minister, in the
early part of his reign, was Ruy Gomez de Silva, Count
of Melito and Prince of Eboli. Philip found himself,
against his will, in a position of hostility to the pope,
Paul IV., who in December, 1555, made a treaty with
the King of France, in order to drive the Spaniards out
of Italy. In 1557 his army gained a complete victory
over the French at Saint-Quentin. This war was ter-
minated by the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, in 1559, and
Philip, having appointed Margaret of Parma Regent of
the Netherlands, returned to Spain, which he never
quitted again.

Soon after the death of Mary Tudor (1558) he mar-
ried Elizabeth or Isabelle of France, a daughter of



Henry II., who had been betrothed to his son, Don
Carlos. He transferred his court from Toledo to Madrid,
which became about 1560 the permanent capital of
Spain. One of the first measures of his reign was to
re-enact the atrocious edict of 1550, condemning to
death every one who should print, write, copy, keep,
buy, sell, or give any book made by Luther or Calvin,
and all lay persons who should read or teach the Scrip-
tures. His systematic efforts to suppress religious liberty
by the torments of the Inquisition, in all his dominions,
provoked a general revolt of the Flemings and Dutch
in 1566. (See ORANGE, WILLIAM OF.) In August, 1567,
the Duke of Alva arrived in Flanders with an army, and
with unlimited power to subdue and punish the insur-
gents. Among the victims of his bloody regime were
the Counts of Egmont and Horn, executed in June, 1568.
" The execution of Egmont," says Motley, " remains an
enduring monument not only of Philip's cruelty and per-
fidy, but of his dulness. The king had everything to
hope from him, and nothing to fear." Alva defeated the
insurgents in several battles, and massacred thousands
of non-combatants of both sexes and all ages, but was
baffled by the indomitable spirit of the people, and was
recalled m 1573. " It was beyond the power of man's
ingenuity to add any fresh features of horror to the
religious persecution under which the provinces were
groaning." (Motley.) In 1568 the king's eldest son,
Don Carlos, died mysteriously in prison, where he had
been confined for some months. According to De Thou
and other writers, he was put to death by the order
of Philip.

The effort to subdue the Netherlands was continued
by Don John of Austria and Farnese, Duke of Parma,
without success. This long war exhausted the finances
of Philip and hindered his projects for the conquest of
France and England. In 1580 he obtained the crown
of Portugal as successor of his uncle Henrique, who died
without issue. He instigated the French to rebel against
Henry IV., and furnished subsidies to the factious League.
For the invasion of England he equipped a fleet of one
hundred and thirty or, according to some writers, one
hundred and fifty vessels, which sailed in May, 1588,
and was called "the Invincible Armada." After this
fleet had passed through the Strait of Dover, it was
damaged by English fire-ships, and attacked on the 8th
of August by Admiral Howard, who sunk and captured
many ships. The Spanish admiral retreated northward,
and near the Orkneys encountered a violent storm, which
dispersed his fleet. About fifty of his vessels were
wrecked. (See ELIZABETH.) The war between Spain
and England continued many years. Philip died on the
I3th of September, 1598, and was succeeded by his son,
Philip III.

In person, Philip was meagre and below the middle
height. He had a fair complexion, blue eyes, aquiline
nose, and a very prominent lower jaw. His temper was
morose, his manners reserved and repulsive, but he had
great ambition and indefatigable industry.

See WATSON, " History of Philip II.," 1777 ; MOTLEY, " History
of the Rise of the Dutch Republic," 1846: PRESCOTT, "History of
Philip II.," 3 vols., 1855-58: CAMPANA, "Vita del Don Filippo,"
1605; CABRERA, "Felipe II. Rey de Espafia," 1619; C6RDOVA.
" Vida de Felipe II.," i66>: A. DUMESNIL, "Histoire de Philippe
II," 1821; G. LBTI, "Vita del Re Filippo II.," 1679; SAN MIGUEL,
" Historia del Rey Felipe II.," 4 vols., 1844-45 : ANTONIO DB HBR-
RERA, " Historia del Mundo en el Reynado del Rey Don Phelipa
II.," 3 vols., 1606; CARDINAL GRANVBLLB'S "State Papers."

Philip (Felipe) HL OF SPAIN, a son of Philip II.,
was born at Madrid in April, 1578. His mother was
Anne of Austria. He began to reign in September,
1598. He was timid, indolent, and incapable, but de-
voted to the intolerant policy of his father. Passing his
time chiefly in hunting, in acts of devotion, or formalities
of etiquette, he abandoned the direction of affairs to his
favourite, the Duke of Lerma. This minister prosecuted
the war against the revolted provinces of the Nether-
lands until the exhaustion of his finances forced him,
in 1609, to grant a truce of twelve years (see MAURICE
OF NASSAU) and to recognize the independence of the
Seven United Provinces. The issue of this long con-
test demonstrated that Spain was no longer the most
powerful kingdom of Europe. The prosperity of Spain



as k ; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t: th as in this. (Jl^'See Explanations, p. 23.)



PHILIP



1942



PHILIPON



was greatly impaired by the cruel expulsion of the Moors,
in 1610. The number of these exiles is estimated at
about one million. Philip had married Margaret of
Austria. He died in March, 1621, leaving the throne
to his son, Philip IV.

SM WATSON, "History of the Reien of Philip III.," 1783;
CHSPEDES, " Historia de Don Felipe III.," 1631 ; AVILA, " His-
toria de la Vida de Don Felipe III.," 1660; "Nouvelle Biographic
General e."

Philip (Felipe) IV., a son of the preceding, was
born in April, 1605, and ascended the throne at the age
of sixteen. He submitted himself to the control and
ascendency of his favourite the Duke of Olivarez. He
renewed the war against the Dutch United Provinces
at the expiration of the truce, (1621,) and formed with
the Emperor of Germany a league against the Protest-
ants. His intrigues involved Europe in a long war, in
which the Spaniards fought against the Dutch, Swedes,
French, and English. In maritime war the Dutch ob-
tained a decided superiority. On land the Spaniards
were defeated by the French at Rocroy (1643) and other
places. Portugal revolted in 1640, and was finally sepa-
rated from the Spanish monarchy. By the treaty of
Westphalia (1648) Spain made peace with her enemies,
except the French, who continued the war until 1659.
The results of these wars were disastrous to Spain,
which lost several colonies, islands, and cities. Philip
was twice married; in 1615 he espoused Elizabeth of
France, and in 1649 Marie Anne of Austria. He died
in September, 1665, and was succeeded by his son,
Charles II.

See CESPEDES v MENEZES, " Historia de Don Felipe IV.," 1631 ;
MALVEZZI, " Successes de la Monarquia de Espafia en el Tiempo de
Felipe IV.," 1640; DUNLOP, "Memoirs of Spain during the Reign
of Philip IV.," i vols., 1834.

Philip [Fr. PHILIPPE; Sp. FELIPE] V, King of
Spain, born at Versailles in December, 1683, was a
grandson of Louis XIV., and the second son of Louis,
Dauphin of France. In his youth he was styled the
Duke of Anjou. He was appointed heir to the throne
of Spain and the Indies by the will of Charles II., who
died, without a direct heir, in November, 1700. His
title was contested by the archduke Charles of Austria,
whose claim was enforced by the armies of England,
Holland, and Austria in the war of the Spanish succes-
sion, which began in 1702. Philip was supported by the
French and the majority of the Spaniards, who gained a
decisive victory at Almanza in 1707. By the treaty of
Utrecht (1713) he was recognized as King of Spain;
but he gave up Flanders and Naples to the Emperor of
Germany. He married Elizabeth Farnese of Parma in
1714, and chose Cardinal Alberoni as prime minister.
Under the influence of a religious melancholy, he abdi-
cated in favour of his son Louis in 1724 ; but the death
of Louis a few months later induced him to resume the
royal power. He died in July, 1746, and was succeeded
by his son Ferdinand VI.

See W. COXE, " Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of
Bourbon," 3 vols., 1813; CARVAIAL, "La EspanadelosBorbones,"
4 vols., 1844; F. X. CONDE, "Elogiode Felipe V.," 1779; A. VIOL-
LET, " Histoire des Bourbons en Espagne," 1843; SAINT-SIMON,
"Memoires;" "Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

Philip, [Ger. PHILIPP, fil'ip,] Landgrave of Hesse,
surnamed DKR GROSSMUTHIGE, (der gRos-miit / iG-?h,)
("the Magnanimous,") born at Marburg in 1504, was
an able prince, and a constant friend of the Protestant
cause. He began to reign at the age of fourteen, and
introduced the Lutheran religion into Hesse in 1526. In
1531 he formed with the Protestant princes the league
of Schmalkalden, which waged war against Charles V. ;
but he was forced to submit in 1547 to Charles, who
kept him a prisoner for five years. Philip was inclined
to toleration in religion. Died in 1567.

See HOFPMEISTER, " Leben Philipp des Grossmiithigen," 1846 ;
ROMMEL, "Philipp der Grossmuthige," 4 vols., 1828-35; RINCK,
** Erinnerungen an Philipp den Grossmtithigen," 1852.

Philip, [It FILIPPO, fe-lep'po,] Duke of Parma, born
at Madrid in 1720, was the second son of Philip V. of
Spain. He invaded Italy with a Spanish army in 1742,
and attempted to obtain a throne by conquest, but failed.
The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, gave him the
duchy of Parma. Died in 1765.

Philip, a celebrated Indian chief, commonly called



KING PHILIP. He began a war with the English in
1675, but was killed the following year.

Philip the Bold, [Fr. PHILIPPE LE HARDI, fe'lep'
leh /ziR'de',] Duke of Burgundy, born in 1342, was a
younger son of John, King of France. He was one of
the most powerful French princes during the minority
of Charles VI., and was a rival of the Duke of Orleans.
He acted as regent while Charles VI. was disabled by
insanity. He died in 1404, and left the dukedom to his
son, Jean Sans Peur.

Philip the Deacon, one of the primitive Christian
ministers, was one of seven men appointed to a special
service, (Acts vi. 5.) He preached in Samaria, and in-
structed the treasurer of Queen Candace of Ethiopia.
(See Acts viii. 5-40, and xxi. 8.)

See John L 43-44, xiv. 8, 9 ; Matthew x. 3 ; Mark iii. 18 ; Luie
vi. 14: Acts i. 13.

Philip the Fair. See PHILIP IV. OF FRANCE.

Philip the Good, [Fr. PHILIPPE LE BON, fe'lep' leh
DON,] Duke of Burgundy, a son of Jean Sans Peur, was
born at Dijon in 1396. As a partisan or ally of Henry
V. of England, he fought against Charles VII. of France
from 1422 to 1435. At the latter date he entered into
alliance with Charles. Some years before this event he
had invaded the territory of Jacqueline, Countess of
Hainault, and compelled her to recognize him as her heir
in Holland, Zealand, and Hainault He had inherited
Flanders and Artois in addition to Burgundy. He in-
stituted the order of the Golden Fleece. His wife was
Isabella, a daughter of John I. of Portugal. He died in
1467 or 1457, and was succeeded by his son, Charles the
Bold. Philip was one of the most powerful sovereigns
of his time, but had little claim to the epithet of " Good."
" He was certainly neither a good nor a great prince,"
says Motley : " he was an adroit dissembler, a practical
politician."

Philip of Orleans. See ORLEANS.

Phil'ip Au-gus'tus, [Fr. PHILIPPE AUGUSTE, fe'lep'
o'giist' ; Lat PHILIP'PUS AUGUS'TUS,] called Philip IL,
King of France, born in 1 165, was the son of Louis VII.,
whom he succeeded in 1180. He married Isabella of
Hainault, a niece of the Count of Flanders. In the first
part of his reign he banished the Jews and confiscated
their property. He aided and abetted the sons of Henry
II. of England in rebellion against their father. Having
taken the cross in 1 188, he raised an army and united
with Richard I. of England in a crusade. They embarked
at Genoa and Marseilles in 1 190, passed the winter in
Sicily, and arrived at Acre in the spring of 1191. Dis-
sensions or jealousies having arisen between Philip and
Richard, the former, on the pretext of ill health, aban-
doned the enterprise, and arrived at Paris in December,
1191. (See RICHARD I.) A war ensued between Philip
and the English king for the possession of Normandy,
and lasted until the death of Richard, in 1199. The
crimes and incapacity of John of England afforded a
favourable opportunity to the ambition of Philip, who
extended his dominions by the conquest of Normandy,
Anjou, and Touraine, (1204-06.)

In 1213, at the instigation of Pope Innocent III., who
had deposed John, Philip prepared to invade England.
He was forced to renounce this enterprise by the abject
submission of John to the pope, and by the loss of his
fleet, which was defeated by the English. He invaded
Flanders, the chief towns of which surrendered to his
army, and gained in 1214 a decisive victory over the em-
peror Otho IV. and the Flemings at Bouvines, where
he commanded in person. He died in 1223, leaving his
throne to his son, Louis VIII.

Philip, (JOHN W.,) an American commodore, was
born at New York in 1840, and graduated from the
Naval Academy in 1861. He served through the civil
war and subsequently, and was captain of the battle-
ship Texas in the engagement with the Spanish fleet,
July, 1898. He ivas afterwards promoted commodore.
Died June 30, 1900.

Phiiipon de la Madelaine, fe1e'p6N' deh U mld'-
IJn', (Louis,) a French litterateur, born at Lyons in
1734. He published a "Dictionary of Homonyms,"
(" Dictionnaire des Homonymes," 1799,) a "Dictionary



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon;



PHILIPOT



'943



PHILIPS



of the French Language," (1809,) and other works,
which were received with favour. Died in 1818.

Phill-pot, (JOHN,) an English antiquary and herald,
born in Kent. Among the works attributed to him
is " Villare Cantianum, or Kent Surveyed." Died in
1645.

Fhl-lip'pa OF HAINAULT, a daughter of William,
Earl of Hainault, was married to Edward III. of Eng-
land about 1326. She saved the lives of six citizens of
Calais, whom Edward intended to put to death. Died
in 1369.

Philippar, fe'le'pSV, (FRANCOIS AKEN,) a French
writer on agriculture, born at Peuving, Austria, in 1801.
He became director of the botanic garden at Versailles
in 1841. Died in 1849.

Philippe, the French of PHILIPPUS, which see.

Philippe, (Kings of France.) See PHILIP.

Philippe de Mons, fe'lep' deh m6N, a Belgian com-
poser, born at Mons about 1522. He composed masses,
motets, etc., and was the most famous Belgian composer
of his time, except Orlando de Lasso.

Philippe de Neri. See NERI.

Philippe de la Sainte-Triuite, felJp' deh Ii saNt
tRe'ne'ti', (ESPRIT JULIEN,) a French missionary, born
in the Comtat in 1603. He preached in Syria, Persia,
etc., and published "Itinerarium Orientale," (1649.)
Died in 1671.

Philippe le Bon. See PHILIP THE GOOD.

Philippe le Hard! See PHILIP THE BOLD.

Philippeaux. See PHELIPPEAUX.

Philippeaux, feHe'po', (PIERRE,) a French revolu-
tionist, born in the department of Orne in 1759. He
was elected in 1792 to the Convention, in which he
voted for the death of the king and an appeal to the
people. He was proscribed by Saint-Just, arrested as
an accomplice of Danton in March, 1794, and guillotined
in the ensuing month.

Fhilippi, fe'le'pe', (HENRI,) a French Jesuit, born at
Saint-Hubert, in the Ardennes, about 1575. He wrote
several works on Chronology. Died in 1636.

Fhl-lip'pI-cuB or Phl-lepl-cus, also called BAR-
DANES, Emperor of Constantinople, was a son of Ni-
cephorus Patricius. He began to reign in 711 A.D.,
and was deposed in 713. He was a partisan of Mono-
thelism.

Philippide. See PHILIPPIDES.

Phl-lip'pl-dea, [Gr. Qthmmb]; ; Fr. PHILIPPIDE, fe'-
le'ped',] an Athenian comic poet, flourished about 300 or
330 B.C. His works are not extant. He was considered
one of the best poets of the new comedy. He is said to
have died of joy because one of his plays had gained the
prize. His character is eulogized by Plutarch in the life
of Demetrius.

S FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grzca."

Philippon. See PHILIPON.

Philippon, fe'le'pdN', (ARMAND,) a French general,
born at Rouen in 1761. He commanded at the siege
of Badajos, in 1811 and 1812. Died in 1836.

Philippoteaux, fe'le'po'ts', (FtfLix HENRI EM-
MANUEL,) a French historical painter, born at Sedan
in 1815. He obtained a first medal in 1840. Among
his numerous works are the " Last Banquet of the Gi-
rondists," (1850,) "The Battle of the Alma," (1877,) etc.
Died in 1884.

Philippson, fil'lip-son, (LUDWIG,) a Jewish rabbi,
born in Dessau, in Anhalt, December 27, iSll. He
was chosen a rabbi in 1840, after seven years' service as
an instructor. He published " Benedict Spinoza as a


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 223 of 425)