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Man," "Sepphoris and Rome," (1866,) "Questions of
Universal Interest in Politics and Religion," (1868-69,)
and other works.


Fhl-lip'pus, an impostor, whose proper name was
ANDRISCUS, pretended to be a son of Perseus, King of
Macedon. He obtained some success, but was expelled
by the Roman general Q. Caecilius Metellus.

Philippua, a son of Antiochus VIII., became King
of Syria about 88 B.C., after fighting against Antio-
chus X.

Philippus OF THESSALONI'CA, an epigrammatic poet,
who is supposed to have lived about loo A.D. He com-
posed many epigrams, which are in the Greek Anthol-
ogy, and compiled a " Greek Anthology."

Philippus, a physician, who lived about 150 A.D. and
belonged to the sect of Empirici. He is mentioned by
Galen, his contemporary.

Philippus, [Fr. PHILIPPE, feOep',] (L. MARCIUS,) a
Roman general, who became consul in 186 B.C. and
again in 169. At the latter date he obtained the conduct
of the Macedonian war. He invaded the territory of
Perseus, King of Macedonia, without important results
He was censor in 164 B.C.

Philippus, (L. MARCIUS,) a Roman orator, who be-
longed to the popular party. He was consul in 91 B.C.
with Sextus Julius Cassar, and was an enemy of M. Livius
Drusus, the tribune of the people, by whose order Philip-
pus was dragged to prison in the year just named. IB
86 B.C. he was censor. He remained neutral in the war
between Marius and Sulla, and was afterwards a friend
of Pompey. He was one of the most eminent orators
of his time, and was noted for his sarcastic wit. Horace
refers to him in his Epistle i. : " Strenuus et fortis causis-
que Philippus agendis clarus." He died after 76 B.C.

Philippus, (L. MARCIUS,) a son of the preceding,
was consul in 56 B.C. He married Atia, a niece of Julius
Caesar, and thus became the stepfather of the emperor
Augustus. He was neutral in the civil war between
Caesar and Pompey.

Philippus, (M. JULIUS,) a Roman emperor, was a
native of Trachonitis. He obtained the imperial power
by the murder of Gordian, in 244 A.D. The senate
confirmed the choice of the army. He made peace with
Persia in 244. In 248 or 247 A.D. he celebrated the
thousandth anniversary of the origin of Rome. He was
killed at Verona in 249 A.D., in a battle against Decius,
who had usurped the title of emperor. According to
Eusebius and other writers, Philippus was a Christian.

His son, M. JULIUS PHILIPPUS, who had been asso-
ciated with him in the empire, (247 A.D.,) was killed by
the partisans of Decius, in 249 A.D.

Philippus Augustus. See PHILIP AUGUSTUS.

Phil'ips, (AMBROSE,) an English poet and dramatist,
born probably in Leicestershire about 1670. Among
his early productions were six Pastorals, (about 1708,)
and a " Letter from Copenhagen," in verse, (1709,) which
was praised by Steele and others. His tragedy " The
Distressed Mother" was performed with applause in
1712. It was highly commended in the "Spectator"
by Addison and Steele, who were friends of the author.
He was an adherent of the Whig party, and an object
of Pope's ill-natured satire. He made a translation of
Sappho's " Hymn to Venus," which Addison printed in
the " Spectator," No. 223. His version of Sappho's
" Ode to Lesbia" is praised by Addison, as " written in
the very spirit of Sappho." (See " Spectator," No. 229.)
He became secretary to Dr. Boulter, Primate of Ireland,
in 1723, and for some time represented the county of
Armagh in the Irish parliament In 1733 he became a
judge of the prerogative court in Ireland. Died in 1740,
The term "namby-pamby" is said to have been first
applied to his style.

See JOHNSON, " Lives of the English Poets."

Philips, (CATHERINE,) an English poetess, born in
London in 1631. Her maiden name was FOWLER. She
translated Corneille's tragedy of " Pompey," and wrote
poems, which were published in 1667. She was called
by her admirers " the Matchless Orinda." Died in 1664.

Philips, (FRANCIS CHARLES,) a British novelist
and dramatist, was born at Brighton in 1849. Of his
many novels, the first and most successful was " As
in a Looking-Glass," (1885.) He dramatised this
and collaborated in writing other plays.

Philips, (JOHN,) an English poet, born at Bampton,
Oxfordshire, in 1676. His first successful work was
"The Splendid Shilling," a mock-heroic poem, (1703.)
He produced in 1705 "Blenheim," a poem in imitation
of the style of Milton. His principal work is a poem
"On Cider," (1706,) in which he imitated Virgil's
"Georgics" with some success. Died in 1708.

asi;cas.r; %hard; gas/; G, H, K.gvttural; N. nasal; ^.trilled; sas; thasinrfw. (J^=See Explanations, p.




Fhl-lis'cus, [^MaifOf,] an Athenian comic poet ol
the middle comedy, wrote probably about 400 B.C. The
titles of some of his plays are given by Suidas.

Philiscus OF ^EGINA, a Cynic philosopher, who,
according to Suidas, was a disciple of Diogenes the
Cynic, and taught grammar to Alexander the Great,

Philiscus OF CORCYRA, lived about 290 B.C., and was
one of the seven poets that formed the "Tragic Pleiad."
His works are not extant.

Philiscus OF RHODES, a sculptor, who is believed to
have flourished about 146 B.C. ; though some suppose
him to have lived in the reign of Augustus. His works
were placed in the temple of Apollo at Rome, for which
they were probably originally designed. Meyer identifies
the statue at Florence called Apollino with the Apollo
of Philiscus.

Phl-lifl'tl-on, [Qdurriuv,] a Greek physician, born
in Sicily or Italy, lived in the fourth century B.C.
He was the teacher of Eudoxus the physician and

Phl-lis'tus, [Gr. "tiAioroc,] an eminent Syracusan his-
torian and politician, born about 435 B.C. He aided
Dionysius to obtain power in Syracuse about 405 B.C..
loon after which he was keeper of the citadel. About
396 he was banished, because he married a niece of
Dionysius without his consent He was recalled from
exile by Dionysius the Younger, over whom he acquired
much influence. He used this influence against Plato
and Dion, and "employed his talents," says Plutarch,
" in defence of the despotic policy." Having been de-
feated in a naval battle by the party of Dion, in 356 B.C.,
he was killed, or killed himself to avoid falling into the
hands of the victors. He wrote a " History of Sicily,"
which is lost. His style resembled that of Thucydides.
Cicero characterizes him as "creber, acutus, brevis, psene
pusillus Thucydides."

See BAYLH, " Historical and Critical Dictionary :" GOBLLHR.
"Vita Philiati," in his "DeSituet Origine Syracusarura. "

FhiHI-more, (JoHN GEORGE,) M.P., an English
writer on law, born in 1809. He wrote a "History of
the Law of Evidence," and other works. Died in 1865.

Fhillimore, (Sir ROBERT JOSEPH,) BART., an English
lawyer, born in London, November 5, 1810. He was
educated at Westminster, and at Christ Church, Ox-
ford, graduating in 1831. He was appointed an advo-
cate of doctors' commons, and was afterwards admitted
as a barrister and Queen's counsel. He was chosen
judge of the cinque ports, 1855, advocate-general in admi-
ralty, 1862, and judge of the high court of admiralty, and
of the arches court, in 1867. He was judge-advocate gen-
eral, 1871-73, and in 1880 retired from the bench. His
principal works are " Memoirs of George Lord Lyttle-
ton," " Russia and Turkey," and " Ecclesiastical Law of
the Church of England." Died in 1885.

Phillip, (ARTHUR,) an English navigator, born in
London in 1738, was the first governor of Botany Bay.
Died in 1814

Phil'lip, (JoHN,) a Scottish painter, born at Aberdeen
about 1815, became a resident of London. Having
visited Spain about 1852, he painted numerous success-
ful pictures of Spanish life. Among his works are a
" Scotch Fair," " The Letter-Writer of Seville," " El
Pasco," " The Spanish Contrabandists," and " The
House of Commons." He was elected a Royal Acade
mician in 1859 or 1860. Died in 1867.

Phillips (ADELAIDE,) a noted singer, born in Bristol,
England, in 1833. When seven years old, she was taken
to Boston, Massachusetts, which was her residence
throughout the remainder of her life. Her voice was a
fine contralto. Died October 4, 1882.


Phillips, (CHARLES,) an Irish barrister, born at
Sligo about 1788. He practised with success in criminal
cases in London, and gained a wide reputation by his
speeches, the style of which is rather florid. He was
for many years a commissioner of the insolvent debtors
court in London. He published, besides other works,
"Recollections of Curran and some of his Contempo-
raries," (1818.) Died in 1859.

See "Edinburgh Review" for November, 1817; " Monthly Re-
view" for December, 1819.

Phillips or Philipps, (EDWARD,) a nephew and
jupil of the poet Milton, was born in London in 1630.
He wrote a "Life of Milton," (1694,) and published,
resides other works, " Theatrum Poetarum," or a com-
Dlete collection of the most eminent poets of all ages,
(vith observations, etc., (1675.) It is supposed that he
was assisted by Milton in this work, which is highly
esteemed. Died about 1680.

See WILLIAM GODWIN, " Lives of Edward and John Phillip*.

Phillips, fil'lips, (GEORG,) a Prussian historian, born

at Konigsberg in 1804.
the ultramontane party.

He was a Roman Catholic of
In 1851 he became professor

of the history of law at Vienna. Among his works are
a " History of Germany," (1834,) and a "Treatise on
Canon Law," (Kirchtnrccht,) (5 vols., 1845-51.) Died
in 1860.

Phillips, (JOHN,) a brother of Edward, noticed above,
was a pupil of Milton. He wrote " Maronides," a parody
of part of Virgil's " jtneid," (1672,) a " Defence of Mil-

ton," I

Miltoni Defensio,") and a few other works.

Lives of Edward and John Phillips, Nephews and Pupill
of John Milton," by WILLIAM GODWIN, London, i "

i8 IS .

Phillips, (JOHN,) a nephew of William Smith the
geologist, was born December 25, 1800. He assisted this
uncle in the explorations and surveys which he made
in order to prepare geological maps of England. He
lectured on his favourite science with success at various
places. In 1844 he obtained the chair of geology at
Dublin. He wrote articles on geology, etc. for the
" Penny Cyclopaedia" and the " Encyclopaedia Britan-
nica." Among his works are a " Treatise on Geology,"
(2 vols., 1837,) and " Palaeozoic Fossils of Cornwall,
Devon, and West Somerset," (1841.) He became pro-
fessor of geology at Oxford in 1853, and president of
the Geological Society in 1858. Died April 25, 1874.

Phillips, (JoHN,) LL.D., an American merchant, born
at Andover, Massachusetts, in 1719, founded an academy
at Exeter, New Hampshire, called by his name, and gave
a large sum to Phillips Academy, at Andover. Died

Philiips, (LAURENCE BARRETT,) an English etcher,
born in London, January 29, 1842. He became a suc-
cessful manufacturer of chronometers, and won distinc-
tion as an inventor and an author. His best -known work
is a" Dictionary of Biographical Reference," (1873.) His
etchings are highly commended.

Phillips, (MORGAN,) or Philip Morgan, a Welsh
Catholic writer, graduated at Oxford in 1537. He was
so skilful in disputation that he was called " Morgan the
Sophister." He wrote in 1571 an answer to Knox's
" Blast of the Trumpet against the Regiment of Women."

Phillips, (PHILIP,) an American singer, born in Chau-
tauqua county, N. Y., August 13, 1834. His life was
mainly devoted to singing at religious meetings and to the
publication of devotional music. Died June 25, 1895.

Phillips, (Sir RICHARD,) an English writer, born in
London in 1767 or 1768. He published the "Monthly
Magazine," which advocated liberal politics, and other
works. Died about 1840.

See " Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of Sir Richard

Phillips, (RICHARD,) F.R.S., an English chemist and
pharmacist, born in 1778. He learned his profession
with William Allen, of Plough Court, London, and ac-
quired great skill as an analytic chemist He wrote
articles on chemistry and mineralogy for the " Penny
Cyclopaedia." He lectured on chemistry at the London
Hospital, and became president of the Chemical Society
about 1850. Died in 1851.

Phillips, (SAMUEL,) nephew of John Phillips, noticed
above, (1719-95,) was born at North Andover in 1751,
and rose through numerous offices to be Lieutenant-
Governor of Massachusetts.
Phillips Academy, Andover.

Phillips, (SAMUEL,) an English writer, born in Lon-
don in 1815. He published "Caleb Stukely," a novel,
and wrote tales for " Blackwood's Magazine" and other
periodicals. He became an editor of the London
"Times," for which he wrote able literary criticisms and
reviews. In 1852 and 1854 he published two volumes
of " Essays from the Times." -' 1 ; " '*"

He was the founder of
Died in 1802.

Died in 1854.

i, e, T, 6, u. y, Ion?; A, e. A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mt; not; good; m6"6n,




Phillips, (THOMAS,) an English Catholic priest, borr.
in Buckinghamshire in 1708. He published a "Life of
Reginald Pole," (1764.) Died at Liege in 1774.

Phillips, (THOMAS,) an English portrait-painter, born
at Dudley, in Warwickshire, in 1770. He was professor
of painting in the Royal Academy from 1824 to 1832.
Among his works are portraits of Sir Joseph Banks,
Lord Byron, the poets Scott, Coleridge, and Southey,
Lord Brougham, Sir Francis Chantrey, and Major Den-
ham. Died in 1845.

Phillips, (Sir THOMAS,) an English antiquary, born

Phill'pots, (EDEN,) novelist, born at Mount Aboo,
India, in 1862. He was clerk in an insurance office
in London 1880-90. Among his works are " The End
of a Life," (1890,) " Some Everyday Folks," (1894,)
"My Laughing Philosopher," (1896,) " Children of
the Mist," (1898,) etc.

Phill'potts or Fhil'potts, (HENRY,) an English
bishop, was born at Bridgewater, May 6, 1778, and
educated at Oxford. He obtained the living of Stan-
hope, became Dean of Chester in 1828, and Bishop
of Exeter in 1830. He wrote many controversial

Philo, a physician of the sect of Methodic!, is men-
tioned by Galen. The time in which he lived is unknown.
Philo or Philon THE ACADEMIC, a philosopher, born

in Worcestershire in 1792. He formed a great collection '

of manuscripts, and wrote antiquarian treatises. Died '. works - He was regarded as the head of the extreme

February 6, 1872. , High-Church party in the House of Lords. Died in

Phillips, (WATTS,) an English dramatist, born in : September, 1869.

London in 1829. He began life as a writer and carica- Fhi'loor Phi'lon, [4><^n',] a son of Antipater, a Greek
turist on a comic weekly called "Diogenes." In 1856 statuary, who lived about 330 B.C. He made a statue
his play of "Joseph Chavigny" was produced at the of Zeus Ourios, which stood on the shore of the Black
Adelphi Theatre, and it was quickly followed by a num- Sea, near Chalcedon.

ber of successful dramas, among which may be named I Philo or Philon, an excellent Greek architect, worked
"The Dead Heart," "The Poor Stroller," "Camilla's I at Athens about 320 B.C. He built the portico of twelve
Husband," " Nobody's Child," " On the Jury," etc. Died Doric columns of the great temple at Eleusis.
in London, December 2, 1874.

Phillips, (WENDELL,) an American reformer, dis-
tinguished for his uncompromising hostility to the in-

ttitution of slavery and to oppression in every form, was at Larissa, was a disciple of Clitomachus. He taught
born in Boston, Massachusetts, November 29, 1811. He philosophy and rhetoric at Rome in the time of Cicero,
graduated at Harvard in 1831, studied law, and was ad- wno was one of his auditors or pupils.
mined to the bar in 1834. His sympathies were strongly Philo, (Philon,) [*iXuv,] an ancient Greek physician,
aroused by the persecution of the early abolitionists, born at Tarsus in Cilicia, lived probably about the time
more particularly during the Boston mob, headed by of Augustus. He wrote, in Greek verse, directions for
"gentlemen of property and standing," in October, 1835, compounding an antidote called Philonium, which are
when Garrison narrowly escaped with his life. In 1836 preserved by Galen.

he joined the abolitionists, relinquishing the practice of Philo, (Q. PUBLILIUS,) a Roman general, who was
law because he was unwilling to act under an oath to consul in 339 B.C. He procured the passage in that
the Constitution of the United States. In 1837 a meeting year of the important Publilian laws, which increased
of the citizens of Massachusetts was called in Faneuil 'he power of the plebeians. He was re-elected consul
Hall for the purpose of expressing public condemnation ln 3 2 7 an d in 320 B.C. In the latter year he defeated the
of the murder of Lovejoy, who fell (November 7) at Samnites.

Alton, Illinois, in defence of the freedom of the press. Philo, (Philon,) [Gr. $/Auv,] called also Philo By-
The pro-slavery feeling in Boston was at that time very zantius, (be-zan'she-us,) a Greek mechanician, who lived
strong, and the object of the meeting was in imminent in the second century B.C. He wrote a "Treatise on
danger of being defeated through the influence of Attor- Military Machines and Missiles," part of which is ex-
ney-General Austin, who asked how Mr. Lovejoy had tant . *'' 'he fourth and fifth books, and a treatise on
merited the distinction of being thus commemorated, and mechanics.

whether he had not died " as the fool dieth." At the Philo [Fr. PHILON, fe'ldN'] OF BYBLOS, (KEREN-
conclusion of his speech, Wendell Phillips arose, and, in Nius,) a Greek historian and grammarian, who lived
a burst of indignant and powerful eloquence, rebuked between 50 and 125 A.D. Among his numerous works
the craven and sordid spirit of those who sought to wa s an account of the reign, or part of the reign, of
defend or excuse that great crime against the liberty of Hadrian. Suidas says he wrote prritii basileias Adrianou.
the press and the rights of humanity. Dr. Channing, Philo made a translation of the History of Sanchoniathon,
who had been chiefly instrumental in calling the meeting a Phoenician.

on that occasion, often referred to the speech of young Fhl'lo (or Phi'lon) Judce'us,(ju-dee'us,)[Fr. PHILON
Phillips before that vast assembly, many of whom were LE JUIF, fe'loN' leh zhii-ef',] (" Philo the Jew,") a Greek
bitterly hostile to freedom, as "morally sublime." Be- philosopher, born at Alexandria, lived between 20 B.C.
lieving that the Constitution of the United States was | a "d 5 A>D - He was a member of the sacerdotal family,
an unrighteous compact between freedom and slavery, I an d was distinguished for learning and eloquence. He
Mr. Phillips refused to recognize its authority by voting was a man of mature age when he was sent by the Jews
or in any other manner, and maintained that a dissolu- nf Alexandria on an embassy to Caligula, (40 A.D.) It
tion of the Union would be the most effectual mode of ' appears that he was a believer in the Platonic philoso-
giving freedom to the slaves. In 1865 he succeeded Mr. phy. He wrote many works on the Jewish religion, on
Garrison as president of the American Anti-Slavery 'he interpretation of the Pentateuch, and other subjects.

Society, which position he held until the dissolution of
the society, April 9, 1870. Mr. Phillips was for many
years an advocate of woman suffrage, prohibition, prison
reform, and a greenback currency, and he made many
public utterances in support of these movements. He
was an accomplished scholar, and one of the most elo-
quent of American orators. Collections of his letters,
speeches, and addresses were made in 1863 and 1869,
and it is understood that a third volume will be issued
posthumously. He died February 2, 1884.

Phillips, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S.,an English mineralogist
and geologist, born in London in 1773, was a brother of
Richard, noticed above, and was a member of the Society
of Friends. He distinguished himself by the accurate
measurement of crystals by means of the reflective
goniometer. He published "Outlines of Mineralogy
and Geology," (4th edition, 1826,) and an " Introduction
to the Knowledge of Mineralogy," (1816.) He aided
Conybeare in an important work, "The Geology of
England and Wales," (1822.) Died in 1828.

He is partial to figurative oj allegorical interpretations.

Phi'lo or Phi'lon Thy-a-nen'sis, an abie geome-
trician, whose period is unknown. He wrote on curved
lines, and lived before loo A.D.

Fhl-loeh'a-reS, a Greek painter, mentioned by Pliny.
He is supposed to be the same as the brother of Ms-
chines, who lived about 340 B.C.

Fhl-loch'o-nia, [4>Ao;fopor,] a distinguished Athenian
writer, who states that he held an office at Athens in 306
B.C. He wrote a work on the antiquities, legends, and
history of Athens, entitled " Atthis," of which many frag-
ments are extant Suidas says he was put to death by
order of Antigonus. According to some writers, he
flourished between 306 and 260 B.C.

FhU'o-cles, [*i^o/cX7C, an Athenian tragic poet, born

about 468 B.C., was a nephew of the poet jEschylus, whom
he imitated. In 429 he gained a victory over Sophocles,
who on that occasion exhibited his much-admired " OZdi-
pus Tyrannus." None of the works of Philocles have
come down to us.

; 9asj; gAarJ; gas/;G,H, K, guttural ; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinrtit. (gg=See Explarations, p. 21.)




Fhilocles, an Athenian architect, (of Acharnae,) de-
signed the admirable Ionic temple of Athena Polias,
built about 333 B.C.

Philocrate. See PHILOCRATES.

Phl-loc'ra-teg, [Gr. QdoKfta-nic ; Fr. PHILOCRATE,
felo'kRit',] an Athenian orator, who was one of the
chief negotiators of the peace with Philip of Macedon
in 346 B.C. He was an opponent of Demosthenes, and
favoured the Macedonian party. Having been accused
of treason, he went into exile about 342 B.C.

Philoctfete. See PHILOCTETES.

Phn-OC-te'tes, [Gr. ^I^OKTT/TTK ; Fr. PHILOCTETE,
fe'lok't^t',] a celebrated Greek archer, who, during the
Trojan war, was left on the island of Lemnos, because
he was wounded in the foot by a serpent or a poisoned
arrow. He is the subject of many legends, one of which
ascribes the death of Paris to a shaft from his bow. He
was said to have been a friend of Hercules, who be-
queathed to him his bow and his poisoned arrows.

See SOPHOCLES, " Philoctetes," a tragedy.

Philod^me. See PHILODEMUS.

pbU-o-de'mus, [Gr. *i^6<%pc ; Fr. PHILODEME, fe'-
lo'd^m',] a Greek Epicurean philosopher and poet, born
in Palestine. He lived at Rome in the time of Cicero,
who mentions him in a speech against Piso. Cicero
condemns his conduct, but recognizes his literary merit.
He wrote epigrams, fragments of which are extant in
the Greek Anthology.

Phil-o-la'us, [Gr. Q&jiljiof,] a Pythagorean philoso-
pher, born at Crotona or Tarentum, was a disciple of
Archytas. He flourished about 375 or, according to
some authorities, 450 B.C., and wrote on physics. Plato,
it is said, purchased some of his writings at a high price,
and derived from them materials for his " Timaeus."

See AUGUST BOCKH, " Philolaos des Pythagoraers Leben," 1819;
ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

PhH'o-me'la, [Gr. *iAo/^a; Fr. PHILOMELE, felo'-
m|I',] a daughter of Pandi'on, and a sister of Procne.
The poets related that she was ravished by Tereus,
and afterwards metamorphosed into a nightingale.

See OVID, " Metamorphoses."

Fhilomfcle. See PHILOMELA.

Philon. See PHILO.

Phl-lonl-dea, [QiAuviAiK,] an Athenian comic poet
of the old comedy, lived in the fifth century B.C. He
is chiefly distinguished as one of the persons in whose
name the early plays of Aristophanes were produced.
In the opinion of some critics, he was one of the actors
to whom Aristophanes committed his chief characters.

Fhilopemen. See PHILOPCEMEN.

Philopcemen, fil-o-pee'men, [Gr. Qthmoi/aiv; Fr.
PHILOPBMKN, fe'lo'pa'mON',] an eminent Greek general
and statesman, born at Megalopolis, in Arcadia, about
252 B.C., was a son of Craugis. He was instructed by
Demophanes and Ecdemus, and chose Epaminondas
for his model. His favourite study was the art of war.
His name occurs in 222 B.C. as one of the few who re-
sisted Cleomenes, the Spartan, when he attacked Mega-
lopolis by night. The defeat of Cleomenes at Sellasia
(221 B.C.) was ascribed to Philopojmen. He was ap-
pointed general of the cavalry about 210 B.C., and made
reforms in discipline and tactics. In 208 he was elected
strategus or general-in-chief of the Achzan League. His
reputation was greatly exalted by a victory over the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 224 of 425)