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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Spartan Machanidas at Mantinea. He defeated Nabis,
tyrant of Sparta, in 201 B.C., and again about 192. In
188 B.C. he was appointed commander in a war against
Sparta, which had seceded from the Achaean League.
He made himself master of the Spartan capital, razed
the walls, put to death the prominent men, and abolished
the laws of Lycurgus. For these acts of severity he was
censured by the Roman senate. In an attempt to reduce
Messene to allegiance by arms, he was taken prisoner
by the Messenians, and compelled to drink poison, in
182 B.C. He has been styled the last of the Greeks
His memory was cherished with great veneration. Ac-
cording to Pausanias, " Miltiades was the first, and Phi-
lopoemen the last, benefactor to the whole of Greece."

See PLUTARCH. "Lives:" POLYBIUS, "History."

Fhl-lop'o-nus, JOANNES,) [Gr. 'luawrif A QMmavof,]



samamed GRAMMAT'ICUS, a grammarian of Alexandria
whose reputation was greater than his merit. His name
is chiefly memorable for his connection with the capture
of Alexandria by Amroo, 639 A.D. It is reported that
he requested the victor to grant him the great library
of that city, and that his request was refused.

Fhilostorge. See PHILOSTORGIUS.

FbH-o-stor'gl-us, [Gr. QdoaTopytoc ; Fr. PHILO-
STORGE, fe'lo'stoRzh',] an Arian writer, born in Cappa-
docia about 360 A.D. He wrote an ecclesiastical history
of the period from 300 to 425 A.D., which is lost An
extract from it is preserved in a work of Photius.

Philostrat and Fhilostra. See PHILOSTRATUS.

FM-los'tra-tus, [Gr. QMarpaTof ; Fr. PHILOSTRATE,
fe'lo'stRtt' ; Ger. PHILOSTRAT, fee'los-tRat,] (FLAVius,)
a Greek biographer, born in Lemnos about 175 or 180
A.D. He became a resident of Rome, where he taught
rhetoric in the reign of Septimius Severus. At the re-
quest of the empress, Julia Domna, he wrote a " Life of
Apollonius of Tyana." This work, which has exercised
the ingenuity of many commentators, was printed in
1502. Among his extant works are "The Lives of the
Sophists," and a description of a collection of paintings,
which displays richness of fancy and beauty of style. He
was alive in the reign of Philip, (244-249 A.D.)

See RITTBR, " History of Philosophy ;" FABRICIUS, '* Bibliotheea
Grzca;" RKHFUES, " Ueber den Jiingern Philostrat," etc., 1800,
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Fhilostratus THE LEMNIAN, a Sophist, born about
190 A.D. He is mentioned in the writings of the Philos-
tratus noticed above, who was his friend and praises
his rhetorical skill. Suidas ascribes to him a work called



Phl-lo'tas, [Gr. 4>i^irraf,] a general of Alexander the
Great, was a son of Parmenio. He commanded the
Macedonian cavalry, or royal guards, in the expedition
against Persia, and stood high in the favour of the king.
Plutarch extols his valour and generosity, but adds that
" the loftiness of his port was altogether extravagant."
He received information of a plot against Alexander, but
neglected to mention it His enemy Craterus used this
circumstance to excite the suspicion of the king. Phi-
lotas was tortured until he confessed his complicity, and
was put to death in 330 B.C. His guilt may reasonably
be doubted.

See ARRIAN, "Anabasis."

Philotas, a physician of Amphissa, in Locris, born
about 50 or 60 B.C. He once supped with Antyllus, (a
son of Antony,) who was so pleased with a syllogism of
Philotas that he gave him a rich present, (30 B.C.)

FbJ-lo'the-us, [*iAo9Eoc,] (CocciNUS,) a Greek writer,
was chosen Patriarch of Constantinople in 1355. He had
a high reputation, and wrote a number of works, som
of which have been printed. Died about 1373.

Phfl-o-ti'mus, [QMrifwf,] an eminent Greek phy-
sician, who lived probably about 300 B.C., was a con-
temporary of Herophilus. His works are mentioned
by Galen.

Philoxeue. See PHILOXENUS.

Phl-lox'e-nua, [Gr. *i/loewf ; Fr. PHILOXENE, fe'-
loks'&n',] an eminent Greek dithyrambic poet, born at
Cythera about 435 B.C. He passed some time at the
court of Dionysius of Syracuse, who treated him with
favour and afterwards sent him to prison. His chief
poems were "Cyclops or Galatea," and "The Feast"
or " Dinner," (btiirvov,) which were much admired.
Fragments of them are extant He died in 380 B.C.

See BHRGLKIN, " De Philoxeno Cytherio Poeta," 1843 ; KLINO-
KNDER, "Dissertatio de Philoxeno Cytherio," 1845.

Fhiloxenus, an able Greek painter of Eretria, was
a pupil of Nicomachus of Thebes. He was noted for
rapidity of execution. His picture of a battle of Alex-
ander with Darius is highly praised by Pliny. He lived
about 325 B.C.

Philoxenus, an Egyptian surgeon, mentioned by
Celsus as the author of several valuable works on
surgery. He probably lived before the Christian era.

Phil'ppt, (JOHN,) an English Protestant minister,
born at Compton, was tried for heresy, and burned at
Smithfield in 1555. He left several works on theology.



i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, li, j?, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fat; met; n8t; good; m<5on,



PHILPOTTS



'947



PHRADMON



Philpotts, (HENRY.) See PHILLPOTTS.

Fhinee. See PHINEUS.

Phi'neus or Phin'e-U3, [Gr. fcivevc; Fr. PHIN^E,
fe'ni',] a blind soothsayer of classic mythology, supposed
to be a son of Agenor, (or of Neptune.) According to the
ancient fabulists, he treated his children with extreme
severity, and the gods, to punish him, sent the Harpies,
who annoyed him exceedingly, by snatching and soiling
his food, until he was relieved by the Argonauts. In
return for this service, he gave them prophetic counsel to
direct them in their enterprise. The story of Phineus
is related with much variation by different authors, some
of whom call him King of Salmydessus in Thrace.

Phintiaa. See DAMON.

PhippS, (CONSTANTINE.) See MULGRAVE.
Phipps, (CONSTANTINE HENRY.) See NORMANBY.

Phippa or Phips, (Sir WILLIAM,) an American ma-
gistrate, born in Maine in 1651, became Governor of
Massachusetts in 1692. His " Life," by Francis Bowen,
is included in Sparks's " American Biography," vol. vii.
He commanded an expedition against Port Royal, which
he captured in 1690. Died in 1695.

See COTTON MATHER, "Life of Sir William Phipps."

Phle'gon, [$3yiw,] a chronologer, born at Tralles, in
Lydia, lived in the first half of the second century. He
was a freedman of the emperor Hadrian. His most im-
portant work is called 'Oto/miovuiiw xai xpow/cuv own-
yuji?. It is not extant. Saint Jerome cites him as a wit-
ness to confirm the gospel narrative in relation to the
miraculous darkness which occurred at the death of
Christ. Phlegon states that in the fourth year of the
2O2d Olympiad there was a great eclipse of the sun at
the sixth hour, and an earthquake in Bithynia.

Phlegyas, flee'jej.s, [Gr. b'teyiw ; Fr. PHLEGYAS,
fli'zhe'a',] a fabulous' personage, said to be a son of
Mars, a king of the Lapithae, and the father of Coronis.
Having set fire to the temple of Apollo, he was killed
and doomed to a severe punishment in Tartarus.

Fho'cas, [Gr. <t>u/coc,] a native of Asia Minor, usurped
the empire of Constantinople in 602 A.D. He waged
war against Persia, in which he suffered great losses. He
rendered himself odious by his cruelty, and was deposed
and put to death by Heracli'us in 610 A.D.

Phocion, fo'she-on, or Fhokion, fo'ke-on, [Gr.
*u/a'<jv,] an Athenian statesman and general, born about
402 B.C., was a pupil of Plato and Xenocrates. He con-
tributed to the victory of Naxos, in 376. In 340 he com-
manded an army which operated with success against
Philip at Byzantium. He opposed Demosthenes on the
question of war against Philip of Macedon, and was the
leader of the conservative or aristocratic party. Accord-
ing to Plutarch, he was elected general forty-five times.
In his speeches he was remarkable for conciseness and
sententious brevity. Demosthenes used to say, when
Phocion arose to speak, " Here comes the pruner of my
periods." Many of his witty sayings are recorded by
Plutarch. He compared the speeches of a certain orator
"to cypress-trees, which are high and stately, but bear
no fruit." He opposed the war against Antipater in
323 B.C. Having been unjustly condemned on a charge
of treason, he was put to death by the popular party in
317 B.C.

" The influence of Phokion as a public adviser," says
Grote, " during the period embraced in this volume down
to the battle of Chsronea, was eminently mischievous
to Athens, all the more mischievous, partly (like that
of Nikias) from the respectability of his personal quali-
ties, partly because he espoused and sanctioned the
most dangerous infirmity of the Athenian mind." (" His-
tory of Greece," chap. Ixxxvii.)

See PLUTARCH, " Life of Phocion :" CORNELIUS NKPO&, "Pho-
cion ;" DIODORUS SICULUS, books xvi.-rviii. ; THIRLWALL, " History
of Greece ;" G. LESS, " Res a Phocione in Republica Athemensi
gestje," 1787 ; " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne'rale."

Pho-9yl1-deS [QuicvliiitK] OF MILETUS, a Greek
poet, who flourished about 540 B.C. He wrote didactic
and elegiac poems, of which small fragments are extant.

Phcebe, fee'be, [Gr. ^oi6i>; Fr. PHEB*. fa'ba',] a sur-
name of ARTEMIS or DIANA, goddess of the moon. (See
DIANA.)



Phcebidaa.-fe'b'e-das, [Gr. QoiHiiaf,] a Spartan gene-
ral, who commanded in the Olynthian war, (382 B.C.)
He seized by treachery the Cadmeia of Thebes. He was
killed in a battle against the Thebans about 378 B.C.

Phoebus, fee'bus, [Gr. *oiSof ; Fr. PHEBUS, fl'buV,]
a name given by the Greeks to Apollo as god of the
sun. (See APOLLO.)

Phoenix, fee'niks, [Gr. Qoivif ; Fr. PHENIX, fi'neks',]
a mythological personage, whom tradition represents as
King of the Dolopes, and preceptor of Achilles, whom
he accompanied to the siege of Troy. The invention
of the alphabet was ascribed to him.

Phcenbs, [Gr. 4>o('w,] a son of Agenor, and brothei
of Cadmus. It was fabled that he went to Africa to
search for his sister Europa, and settled in a countrj
which was from him called Phoenicia.

Phoenix is also the name of a fabulous bird, cele-
brated among the ancient Greeks and Orientals. Accord-
ing to one tradition, it attained the age of five hundred
years or more, and burned itself on a funeral pile, from
the ashes of which another Phoenix arose.

Phokion. See PHOCION.

Fhor'gya or Phor'cus, [Gr. 4>6pmjf or *6p/coc,] the
old man of the sea, in classic mythology, was said to
be the father of the Gorgons, the Graeae, and the Hes-
perides. The first and second of these were called



PHOR'CYDES or PHOR'CIDES, [Gr. ^op/u'dtf.]

Phor'ml-on, [Gr. *op/i/<jv,]
who blockaded Potidaea in 432 B.C. He gained a dec!



] an able Athenian general,



sive victory over the Peloponnesian fleet near Naupactus,
in 429. Died in 428 B.C.

Phormion OF EPHESUS, a Peripatetic philosopher,
who is said to have excited the disgust of Hannibal by
discoursing in his presence for several hours on the
military art

Phoron^e. See PHORONEUS.

Pho-ro'neua, [Gr. 4>opuvric; Fr. PHORONEE, fo'ro -
na',] a son of Inachus, and a king of Argolis, was the
father of Agenor, Pelasgus, and Niobe. According to
tradition, he discovered the use of fire.

Photius, fo'she-tjs, [Gr. *ur)f,] an ambitious and
highly-gifted Byzantine prelate and writer, was born of
a noble family probably at Constantinople. He was a
man of sound judgment and of profound and various
erudition. After he had held several high civil offices,
he was proto-secretarius under Michael III. He be-
came in 857 or 858 A.D. Patriarch of Constantinople in
place of Ignatius, who was deposed by Bardas. The
cause of Ignatius was supported by Pope Nicholas, who
anathematized Photius in 862 or 863. A council as-
sembled by Photius excommunicated the pope, and thus
originated the great schism between the Western and
Eastern Churches. In 867 the emperor Basil I. ban-
ished Photius and restored Ignatius, whose rights were
confirmed by an oecumenical council in 869. Photius
gained the favour of Basil, and on the death of Igna-
tius, in 877, was restored to his see, and was recognized
by the pope, John VIII. A dispute about the jurisdic-
tion of Bulgaria, however, revived the schism between
the Greek and Roman Churches. Photius was banished
by the emperor Leo VI. in 886 A.D., and died in exile a
few years later. He is treated with more favour by Prot-
estant writers than by the Roman Catholics. He was a
voluminous author. His most important work, " Myrio-
biblion, seu Bibliotheca," is a review or critical analysis
of ancient Greek authors, and is considered one of the
most precious monuments of ancient literature. He also
left a Greek Lexicon, which was published in 1808.



Sir



ee KLOSE, " Geschichte und Lehre des Marcellus und Photius,"
; LE BEAU, "Histoire du Bas-Empire;" J. G. PHILIPPI,



Phraatea. See ARSACES.

Fhra-a'tea, King of Parthia, a son of Orodes, began
to reign in 37 B.C. He restored to Augustus in 20 B.C.
the prisoners and ensigns taken from Crassus in 53 B.C.

Phrad'mon [4>pa6/iuv] OF ARGOS, a Greek statuary,
who lived about 425 B.C. He produced an Amazon for
the temple of Diana at Ephesus, in competition with
other eminent artists, several of whom were more suc-
cessful than he in this trial of skill.



as i; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,gvttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23. ]



PHRANZA



1948



PIALI



Fhran'za or Phran'zes, [Gr. QpavTZfi or
the last Byzantine historian, was born in 1401. He
served the emperor Constantine XIII. as a diplomatist
ad soldier, and was captured by the Turks in 1453.
He wrote a " Chronicon," or History, of the period from
1260 to 1477, which is highly prized.

Phra-or'tes, [Gr. Qpaofmx,] King of Media, reigned
from 656 to 634 B.C. He conquered Persia and other
parts of Asia. He was killed at the siege of Nineveh,
and was succeeded by his son Cyaxares.

Phreas or Freas, frees, f (JOHN,) a learned English-
man, born in London, studied medicine under Guarini
at Ferrara. He produced some translations and poems.
Died at Rome in 1465.

Fhry-gil'luB, a very ancient and celebrated engraver
of precious stones, was probably a native or citizen of
Syracuse.

Fhry'ne, [*pvn;,] an Athenian courtesan, born at
Thespise, in Boeotia, lived in the fourth century B.C.
She was the model of the statues of Venus produced
by Praxiteles.

Fhrjfn'I-eb.us, [*prv^of,] an Athenian tragic poet,
was a disciple of Thespis. He exhibited a play in 511
B.C., and made important improvements in the drama.
He introduced masks representing females, but admitted
only one actor. The chorus retained the principal place
in his dramas. He gained a prize in 476 B.C. for his
" Phoenician Women." His works are not extant.

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Graca :" K. O. MOLLBR. " History
of the Literature of Ancient Greece;" J. G. DROYSEN, " Phrynichos,
jEacbylos und die Trilogie." 1841.

Phrynichus, a distinguished Athenian comic poet of
the old comedy, flourished about 430 B.C. His vigour
and elegance are attested by the small fragments of his
works which are extant.

Phrynichus, an Athenian general, had a high com-
mand in 412 B.C. He co-operated with Theramenes
and Antiphon in the revolution by which the Four
Hundred came into power, in 41 1 B.C.

Phrynichus, a Greek grammarian, (called ARRHA-
Bius by Photius,) lived about 180 A.D. He wrote
" Eclogues of Attic Names and Verbs," (" Eclogae
Nominum et Verborum Atticorum,") in which he taught
the use of words as sanctioned by writers of the pure
Attic diction. This work has been printed.

Phrjfn'nis [Gr. "tpwwfl or Phry'nis, an eminent
dithyrambic poet, born at Mitylene, lived about 425 B.C.

Phtha, fthi, or Ftah, ptl, the great god of the people
of ancient Memphis, in Egypt. He is said to have stood
for the abstract idea of intellectual force. He is fre-
quently identified with Hephaestos, or Vulcan, since he
was the artificer of the gods.

Phul or Ful, King of Assyria, reigned from 759 to
742 B.C. Menahem, King of Israel, was tributary to him.
Phull, (KARL LUDWIG,) BARON, born in Wiirtem-
berg, became a lieutenant-general in the Russian
service, and was the author of several military works.
Died in 1826.

Phyfe, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an American phi-
lologist, born at New York in 1855. He published
" Seven Thousand Words often Mispronounced,"
" Five Thousand Words often Misspelled," and sev-
eral works on pronunciation.

PhjMar'chus, [Gr. $v\apw, Fr. PHYLARQUE, fe'-
liRk',] a Greek historian, born at Athens or Naucratis,
in Egypt, lived about 215 B.C. He wrote a History of
Greece from 272 to 220 B.C., of which only fragments are
extant His style was graphic and animated. Plutarch's
lives of Cleomenes and Agis are said to be copied, or
taken without much change, from Phylarchus.

Phylarque. See PHYLARCHUS.

Phyl'lis, [Gr. 4>vWif,] in classic mythology, a daugh-
ter of Sithon, King of Thrace, was betrothed to Demo-
phoon, a son of Theseus. The poets feigned that she
killed herself because he failed to come at the appointed
time, and she was changed into an almond-tree.

Fhjf-rom'a-ehuB, [$vpo/Mxo;,] an able Athenian
sculptor, lived about 410 B.C. He made the bas-reliefs
on the frieze of the temple Athena Polias. He is prob-
ably the same as the Pyromachus mentioned by Pliny.

FhjfS'ick, (PHILIP SYNG.) one of the most eminent



of American surgeons, was born in Philadelphia in 1768.
His father, Edmund Physick, was keeper of the great
seal under the colonial government of Pennsylvania, and,
after the Revolution, had charge of the estates of the
Penn family. In 1785 he took the degree of A.B. in the
University of Pennsylvania. Soon after, he commenced
the study of medicine under Dr. Adam Kuhn. It is
said that the first time he witnessed the amputation of a
limb he fainted, and was obliged to be taken out of the
room ; but he afterwards succeeded so completely in
conquering this weakness of the nerves as to equal, if
not surpass, any other surgeon of his time in steadiness
of hand and perfect self-possession while performing
an important operation. During his attendance at the
Philadelphia College of Medicine, he had for his in-
structors Dr. Shippen and Dr. Rush, who, with Dr.
Kuhn, were lecturers in that institution. Early in the
year 1789 Mr. Edmund Physick, accompanied by hi
son, visited London, where the young student was placed
under the care of the celebrated John Hunter, by whose
recommendation he was subsequently appointed to the
post of house-surgeon at Saint George's Hospital. In
one of Hunter's papers he compliments Dr. Physick on
the accuracy of some physiological experiments which
he had performed while house-surgeon at the hospital ;
and such were the esteem and confidence which the great
anatomist entertained for him that he actually invited
him, we are told, to remain in London and take a share
in his own extensive professional business. But this
offer Dr. Physick thought proper to decline. Having
in 1791 received his license from the Royal College of
Surgeons, in London, he repaired to Edinburgh, where
he attended the medical lectures of the University, and
in May, 1792, took his degree of doctor of medicine.
He returned to Philadelphia in September of the same
year. He distinguished himself by his faithful atten-
tion to his professional duties during the frightful mor-
tality caused by the yellow fever in 1793. The alarm
was so great on that occasion that not only nearly all
the citizens, who had it in their power to go away, fled
from the city, but many of the physicians left also. Dr.
Physick himself had an attack of fever; but it appears
to have been comparatively light. In 1798 he received
a flattering testimonial to his courage and faithfulness
during the epidemic* of that and preceding years, from
the managers of the Marine and City Hospitals, ac-
companied by a present of plate valued at more than
a thousand dollars. In 1800 he commenced, in Phila-
delphia, a course of lectures on surgery, which were
continued for several years. His success induced the
trustees of the University to establish a professorship
of surgery in the medical department of that institution,
and to appoint Dr. Physick to the new chair. In 1819
he was transferred from the chair of surgery to that of
anatomy, made vacant by the death of Dr. Dorsey. He
resigned this position in 1831 ; and the trustees of the
University, on accepting his resignation, unanimously
elected him "Emeritus professor 'of surgery and anat-
omy." In 1825 he was elected a member of the French
Royal Academy of Medicine, and was, it is said, the
first American who received this honour. He closed
his long and useful life on the I5th of December, 1837.
He had married in 1800 Miss Emlen, of Burlington, by
whom he had four children.



Pia, pe'a", (PHILIPPE NICOLAS,) a French chemist,
born in Paris in 1721. He introduced reforms in public
hygiene, and invented methods or apparatus for restoring
the drowned. Died in 1799.

FiacentLni, pe-J-chen-tee'nee, (DiONlsio GREGORIO,)
an Italian antiquary, born at Viterbo in 1684. He pub-
lished an "Epitome of Greek Palseography," (1735.)
Died in 1754.

Piacentino. See PLACENTINUS.

Fiaceuza, DUKE OF. See LEBRUN, (CHARLES FR.)

Piali Pasha, pe-i'lee pa'shj', an admiral, born in
Hungary about 1520. He became capudan pasha in



Yellow fever.



t, r, 1, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, 5?, short: a, e, i, 9, obscurt; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; m65n:



PIANKHI



1949



PICCINI



the service of the Sultan, who sent him in 1555 to aid
Francis I. of France. He gained in 1560 a decisive vic-
tory over the fleet of Philip II. of Spain and his allies.
In 1570 he commanded a fleet which Selim II. sent
against Cyprus. Died in 1571.

Fiankhi, a king of Ethiopia, who conquered Egypt at
the close of the twenty-second dynasty, after a bloody
contest. Thereafter he ruled Egypt with great clemency.

Piarron. See CHAMOUSSET, DE.

Pi'att, (JOHN JAMES,) an American poet, born at
James's Mills, (now Milton,) Dearborn county, Indiana,
March I, 1835. He studied at Kenyon College and
Capitol University, Ohio, and became a printer and
journalist. He was librarian to the United States House
of Representatives from 1870 to 1875, and in 1882 was
appointed United States consul at Queenstown, Ireland.
He has published " Poems of Two Friends," (1860, by
himself and W. D. Howells,) " Nests at Washington,"
1864, partly by Mrs. Piatt,) " Poems in Sunshine and
Twilight," (1866,) " Western Windows," (1869,) " Poems
of Heart and Home," (1878.) and " Idyls and Lyrics of
the Ohio Valley," (1884.)

Piatt, (SARAH MORGAN BRYAN,) an American poet,
wile of John J. Piatt, was born near Lexington, Ken-
tucky, August u, 1836, and graduated at Henry Female
College, New Castle, Kentucky, in 1857. Among her
works are "A Woman's Poems," (1871,) "A Voyage to
the Fortunate Isles," (1874,) "That New World," etc.,
(1876,) "Poems in Company with Children," (1877,)
"Dramatic Persons and Moods," (1879,) etc.

Piazza, pe-Jt'si, (ANDREA,) a painter of the Venetian
school, born at Castelfranco ; died, at an advanced age,
in 1670.

Piazza, (CALISTO,) a painter of the Venetian school,
called CALISTO DA LODI, was born at Lodi. He was
a pupil and successful imitator of Titian, and was a
good colorisL His works are dated 1524-56. He ex-
celled in fresco. Among his best works is " The Mar-
riage at Cana," a fresco at Milan.

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy ;" RIDOLFI, " Vite degli
Pittori VenetL"

Piazza, (GIROLAMO BARTOLOMMEO,) an Italian Prot-
estant, who taught French and Italian at Cambridge,
England, and published "An Account of the Inqui-
sition," (1722.) Died about 1745.

Piazza, (PAOLO,) an Italian painter, born at Castel-
franco in 1557. He was employed by the emperor Ru-
dolph II. and by Pope Paul V. Having become a
monk, he took the name of COSIMO. Died in 1621.

Piazza, (ViNCENZo,) MARQUIS, an Italian poet, was
born in the Romagna in 1670. Among his works is the
"Capture ol Bona," ("Bona espugnata," 1694.) Died
at Parma in 1745.

Piazzetta, pe-at-set'ti, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) a dis-
tinguished painter, born at Venice in 1682. He was
skilful in chiaro-oscuro. His master-piece is " The Be-
heading of John the Baptist." The shades of his pictures
have become too dark, from the effect of time. Died

in I7S4-

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy."

Piazzi, pe-Jt'see, (JOSEPH,) an eminent astronomer,
born at Ponte, in the Valtelline, Switzerland, in July,
1746. He entered the monastic order of Theatins, and
studied under Tiraboschi and Lesueur. In 1780 he
became professor of the higher mathematics at Palermo,


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 225 of 425)