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where he founded an observatory. He visited Paris
and London in 1787 and 1788. In 1803 he published a
"Catalogue of Fixed Stars," which obtained for him a
high reputation as an accurate observer. He discovered,
on the 1st of January, 1801, the first of the asteroids, or
mall planets, whose orbit is between the orbits of Mars
and Jupiter. He gave it the name of Ceres. Among
his works is a "Discourse on Astronomy," (1790.) He
became director of an observatory at Naples in 1817.
Died at Naples in 1826.

See SCROPANI, "Elogio del Piazzi," 1836; TIPALDO, " Biografia
degli Italian! illustri," vol. i.

Pibrao, de, deh pe'bRik', [Lat. PIBRA'CHIOS,] (Gin
du Faur dii f5R,) SEIGNEUR, a French poet, orator,
and lawyer, was born at Toulouse in 1529. He was

sent as ambassador to the Council of Trent by Charles
IX. in 1562, and obtained the office of president <J mot-
tier in 1577. He wrote a popular poem called "Fifty
Quatrains, containing Useful Precepts," etc., (1574,) and
other works. Died in 1584.

Fibrachius. See PIBRAC.

Pic de la Mirandole. See Pico.

Picard, pe'kaV, (ERNEST,) a French advocate acj
radical politician, born in Paris in 1821. He was elected
to the legislative body by the voters of Paris in 1858, in
1863, and in 1869. He became minister of finance Sep-
tember 4, 18*70. Died May 13, 1877.

Picard, (JEAN,) an eminent French astronomer, born
at La Fleche, July 21, 1620. He was a priest and prioi
of Ville, in Anjou, when he observed with Gassendi
the solar eclipse of August 25, 1645. He succeeded
Gassendi as professor in the College de France in 1655.
He was the first who applied the telescope to the meas-
urement of angles, and was the inventor of the lunetU
flprcirvc. He is said to have invented the transit in-
strument. His most important work was the measure-
ment of an arc of the meridian of Paris between Amiens
and 1669-70, of which he wrote an account,
entitled "LaMesurede la Terre," (1671.) " When he
had," says Delambre, " so good reason to regard himself
as the first astronomer of France, and even of Europe,
he used his influence with Colbert to attract to France
Cassini, whose reputation was already established."
Died in 1682.

See CONDORCET, " filoge de Picard ;" ARAGO, " Notices bio-
graphiques," tome iii. : DBLAMBRK, " Histoire de 1'Astronomie

Picard, (Louis BENotr,) a popular French dramatist,
born in Paris in 1769. He produced in 1792 a comic
opera called " Visitandines," which had great success.
Among his popular comedies, in verse, are "The Col-
lege Friends," (" Les Amis de College," 1795,) " Ordi-
nary and Mean," (" Mediocre et Rampant," 1797,) and
" The Ambitious Husband." He wrote dramas, in prose,
entitled "The Small Town," ("La petite Ville," 1801,)
and "The Puppets," ("Les Marionnettes," 1805.) In
1807 he was admitted into the French Academy. He
delineates the manners of his time with much success,
and displays a rich fund of witty sallies. Died in 1828.

Picard-Cambridge, (OerAvms,) an English
naturalist, born in Dorsetshire in 1828. He became
a clergyman, but devoted himself to the study of
spiders, and published " Spiders of Dorset," (2 vols.,
1879-81,) and other works and papers on the subject
of his studies.

Picart, pe'kiR', (BENOfr,) a French historical writer
and monk, born at Toul in 1663. He wrote a " History
of the City and Diocese of Toul," (1707,) and other
works. Died in 1720.

Picart, (BERNARD,) a French designer and engraver,
born in Paris in 1673. He had a talent for the imi-
tation of various masters, and obtained a high reputation.
Having removed to Amsterdam in 1710, he worked for
the booksellers, and lapsed into a degenerate manner.
He engraved after his own designs, and after Poussin,
Le Brun, and others. Died in 1733.

Picart, (F.TIENNE,) an eminent engraver, called LE
ROMAIN, born in Paris in 1631, was the father of the
preceding. He worked some years at Rome, and settled
at Amsterdam in 1710. His works, which consist of
portraits and history, display more firmness than har-
mony. Died at Amsterdam in 1721.

Piccart, pik'kjRt, (MICHAEL,) a learned German
philologist and philosopher, born at Nuremberg in 1574.
He was professor of philosophy at Altdorf. He pub-
lished, besides other works, a "Commentary on the
Political Works of Aristotle," (1615,) which is com-
mended. Died in 1620.

Picchena, pek-ka'na, (CURZio,) an Italian philolo-
gist, born in Tuscany about 1550. He published a
good edition of Tacitus, (1607.) Died in 1629.

Piccini, pet-chee'nee, (LuiGl,) a musician and com-
poser, born at Naples in 1766, was a son of Niccol6. I
composed operas which obtained little success. He was
chapel-master to the King of Sweden from 1796 to 1801.
Died in 1827.

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1 95


Ficcini, pet-chee'nee, or Piccinni, pet-cheen'nee,
(NicOH.6,) a popular Italian composer, born at Bari, in the
kingdom of Naples, in 1728. He studied under Leo and
Durante at Naples. His serious opera " Zenobia" (1756)
obtained a complete success. His reputation was widely
extended by the comic opera "Good Little Daughter,"
("La buona Figliuola," 1760,) which some consider his
master-piece. In 1776 he removed to Paris, where he
produced the operas of " Roland," (1778,) "Atys," etc.
A great commotion and wordy warfare was raised by
the rivalry between Piccini and Gluck. The French
literati and the general public were divided into two par-
ties, the Piccinists and the Gluckists. Piccini became
singing-master to the queen Marie Antoinette about
1780. He returned to Naples in 1791. Among his
most admired works are " Olimpiade," and the French
opera of "Didon," (1783.) Died at Passy, near Paris,
In 1800.

See GINGUKNB, " Notice sur la Vie et les Ouyrages de Piccinni,"
1800; Fins, " Biographic Universelle des Musiciens;" " NouveUe
Biographic G^nerale."

Ficcinino, pet-che-nee'no, (Niccoi.6,) an able Ital-
ian general, born at Perugia in 1375. He served some
years under Braccio da Montone. In 1425 he entered
the service of Filippo Maria Visconti, of Milan, to whom
he remained loyal to his death. He defeated Carmagnola
and the Venetians in 1431, and gained a decisive victory
over the Florentines and Venetians near Imola in 1434.
Died in 1444.

See SISMONDI, " Histoiredes Re'publiques Italiennes."

Piccinni See PICCINI.

Piccinni, pet-cheen'nee,? (ALEXANDER,) a French
composer, born in Paris in 1779, was a grandson of
Niccolb Piccini, noticed above.

Ficcolomini See Pius II.

Piccolomini, pek-ko-lom'e-nee, (ALESSANDRO,) an
Italian writer and prelate, eminent for learning, was
born at Sienna in 1508. He was the first who wrote on
philosophy in the Italian language. In 1574 he was
appointed Archbishop of Patras. Among his works are
a treatise "On the Sphere of the World," (1540,) and
"Commentaries on Aristotle," (1575.) Died in 1578.

See FABIANI, "Vita di Piccolomini," 1749.

Piccolomini, (ALFONSO,) Duke of Monte Marciano,
an Italian condottiere, born about 1550. He was the
leader of an army of brigands. In 1581 he defeated
the army of the pope. He was defeated by the Duke of
Tuscany, and hung, in 1591.

Piccolomini, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian scholar, born
at Sienna in 1520, was a professor of philosophy. He
wrote "Universal Philosophy of Morals," etc., ("Uni-
versa Philosophia de Moribus," etc., 1583,) and other
works. Died in 1604.

Piccolomini, (GIACOMO,) a cardinal, whose proper
name was AMMANATI, was born near Lucca in 1422.
He left "Commentaries and Epistles," (" Commentarii
et Epistolae," 1506.) Died in 1479.

Piccolomini, (MARIA,) an Italian operatic singer,
born at Sienna about 1835. She performed in London
about 1856, and in Paris. In 1861 she married and re-
tired from the stage.

Piccolomini, (OTTAVIO,) an Austrian general, of
Italian origin, was born in 1599. He led a regiment at
the battle of Lutzen, in 1632, and was one of the principal
agents in the conspiracy which procured the ruin of
Wallenstein. He contributed to the victory at Nord-
lingen, (1634,) and was defeated byTorstenson in Silesia
in 1641 or 1642. In 1643 he entered the service of
Spain, and obtained the chief command in Flanders.
He became a field-marshal of the Austrian army in 1648.
Died in Vienna in 1656.

See CRASSO, " Elo^ii di Capitani illustri :" SCHILLER, " History
of the Thirty Years' War," and his tragedy of "Wallenstein."

Pichat, pe'shS', (LEON LAURENT,) a French poet,
critic, and novelist, born in Paris in 1823. He became
in 1854 editor and proprietor of the " Revue de Paris,"
which was suppressed by government in 1858. Among
his works are political verses entitled " Free Words,"
("Libres Paroles," 1847,) and "La Pa'ienne," a novel,
(1857.) Died June 12, 1886.

Pichat, (MICHEL,) a French dramatic poet, born at
Vienne in 1786. Among his works is "Le'onidas," a
drama, (1825.) Died in 1828.

Fichegru, pesh'gRoo or pesh'gRii', (CHARLES,) a
French general, born at Arbois (Jura) in 1761. He en-
tered the army in 1783, and became a zealous partisan of
the Revolution in 1789. He was raised to the rank of
general of division in 1793, an( ^ obtained command of the
army of the Rhine in October of that year. About the end
of the same year he became general-in-chief of the united
armies of the Rhine and the Moselle. He was a favour-
ite of the Jacobins at this period. In February, 1794,
he succeeded Jourdan as commander of the army of
the North, with which, by rapid and skilful movements,
he gained advantages at Cassel, Courtrai, and Menin.
In the winter of 1794-95 ne crossed the Waal on the
ice and reduced Holland to submission. Having taken
command of the army of the Rhine in 1795, he incurred
suspicion of treason, and was superseded by Mpreau in
1796. He continued to intrigue against the Directory,
by which he was transported to Cayenne in September,
1797 ; but he escaped from that place in 1798. He con-
spired with Cadoudal and others against Bonaparte, and
was arrested by the police in Paris in February, 1804.
Before his trial was finished, he was found dead in prison,
in April, 1804.

See COUSIN D'AVALLON, " Histoire du General Pichegru," 1801 ;
FAUCHH-BORBL, " Notices sur Pichegru et Moreau," 1807 ; GAS-
SIER, " Vie du Ge'neVal Pichegru," 1814 ; SAVARY, Due DK ROVIGO,
"M^moires sur la Mort de Pichegru," 1825: " Nouvelle Biographic

Pichler, pJK'ler, (CAROLINE,) originally named VON
GREINER, (fon gRi'ner,) a popular German novelist, born
in Vienna in 1769. She was married in 1796 to Andreas
Pichler, and in 1802 produced " Idyllen." She illustrated
the salutary influence of Christianity in " Agathocles,"
a novel, (1808,) which was much admired. In 1814
she published "The Count von Hohenburg," the first
of numerous historical novels, the subjects of which
are taken from the national history. Among her later
works are " Pictures of the Times," (" Zeitbilder," a
vols., 1840,) and "Memoirs of my Life," (4 vols., 1844.)
Died in 1843.

See " Edinburgh Review" for February, 1843.

Pichler or Pikler, (JoHANN.) a son of the following,
was born at Naples in 1734, and was probably the most
skilful engraver of gems of his time. He lived at Rome,
and engraved several pictures after Raphael. Among
his works are many portraits of modern persons, of which
the resemblance was the least merit He was also a
painter. Died at Rome in 1791.

See JBAN GERARD DK Rossi, " Histoire de la Vie de J, Pikler,
Rome, 1792.

Pichler, (JOHANN ANTON,) a celebrated engraver of
gems, born at Brixen, in the Tyrol, in 1697. He worked
at Naples and Rome. Died in 1779.

Pichon, pe'sh6N', ( PIERRE AUGUSTE, ) a French
painter of history and portraits, was born at Sorreze
(Tarn) in 1805. He received a first medal (for history)
in 1846.

Pichon, (THOMAS,) a French littirattur, born at Vire
in 1700. He was the second husband of Madame Le
Prince de Beaumont. He published a work " On the
Natural and Civil History of Cape Breton," ( 1760.)
Died in 1781.

Pichou, (THOMAS JEAN,) a French writer and priest,
born at Mans in 1731 ; died in 1812.

Pichot, pe'sho', (AMEDEE,) a French litterateur, born
at Aries in 1796. He became in 1843 chief editor of the
" Revue Britannique." Among his works are "Travels
in England," (1825,) and a "Chronicle of Charles V.,"
(1853.) Died at Paris, February 12, 1877.

Pick'en, (ANDREW,) a Scottish writer of fiction, born
at Paisley in 1788. Among his works is "The Domi-
nie's Legacy." Died in 1833.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen,"

Pick 'ens, (ANDREW,) a distinguished American
general, born at Paxton, Pennsylvania, in 1739. He
:o-operated with General Marion in his partisan warfare
against the British, and commanded the militia at the

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J95 1


battle of Cowpens. He was elected to Congress In
1794. Died in 1817.

Pickens, (FRANCIS W.,) a grandson of the preceding,
was born in Saint Paul's parish, South Carolina, in
1807. He was a member of Congress from 1834 to
1844. He was appointed in 1857 minister to Russia,
and in December, 1860, was elected Governor of South
Carolina for two years. Died January 25, 1869.

Fick'er-ing, (CHARLES,) M.D., an American natu-
ralist, a grandson of Timothy Pickering, was born in
Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, in 1805. Having
travelled in India and Eastern Africa, he published, after
his return, the " Races of Man and their Geographical
Distribution," (1848,) and "Geographical Distribution
of Animals and Man," (1854.) Died in 1878.

Pickering, (EDWARD CHARLES,) an American
astronomer, was born at Boston in 1846. He became
professor of astronomy at Harvard Observatory in
1877. He established an auxiliary observatory at
Arequipa, Peru, and there, in 1899, made the signal
discovery of a new satellite of Saturn.

His brother, WILLIAM HENRY, born in 1858, be-
came his assistant at Harvard. He led several solar
eclipse expeditions, and erected Mr. Lowell's ob-
servatory at Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1894.

Pickering, (HENRY,) an American poet, born at
Newburgh, New York, in 1781 ; died May 8, 1838.

Pickering, (JOHN,) LL.D., an American jurist and
scholar, born at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1777, was a
son of Timothy Pickering. He was the founder and
first president of the American Oriental Society, and
president of the American Academy of Arts and Sci-
ences. He published a " Greek-and- English Lexicon,"
(1826,) " Remarks, on the Indian Languages of North
America," (1836,) and " Vocabulary of Americanisms."
Died in 1846.

Pickering, (PERCIVAL SPENCER,) an English
physicist, born at London in 1858. He was elected
to the Royal Society in 1890, and was the author of
very numerous papers on physical subjects.

Pickering, (TIMOTHY,) an American statesman, born
at Salem, Massachusetts, on the I7th of July, 1745. He
graduated at Harvard College in 1763, studied law, and
became a judge of the common pleas in 1775. In the
autumn of 1776 he joined the army of Washington as
colonel. He was appointed adjutant-general in 1777,
and took part in the battles of Brandywine and Ger-
mantown, October, 1777. He was elected a member of
the board of war by Congress in November, 1777, and
quartermaster-general in August, 1780, as successor to
General Greene. He performed the arduous duties of
this office until 1785. During the Revolution he kept
a journal of public events. He was identified with the
Federal party, and was appointed postmaster-general
by Washington in August, 1791, and secretary of war in
January, 1794. In December, 1795, ne became secre-
tary of state. He was continued in the department
of state by President Adams, but did not obtain his
confidence or approve his measures. He was removed
from that office in May, 1800, and settled on a farm
which was situated near Salem, and which he cultivated
with his own hands. He was elected a Senator of the
United States by the legislature of Massachusetts in
1803, and continued to serve in the Senate until 1811.
From 1814 to 1817 he was a member of the national
House of Representatives. He had a fair reputation
for ability and moral character. He died at Salem in
January, 1829, leaving several sons.

Se: " Life and Correspondence of Timothy Pickering," by his son
CCTAVIUS, 2 vols., 1867.

Pick'ers-gill, (FREDERICK RICHARD,) an eminent
painter of history, born in London in 1820. He gained
a ori.'.e of one hundred pounds for his " Death of King
Lear," (1843,) and a prize of five hundred pounds for
his " Burial of Harold," (1847,) which was purchased for
the House of Lords. He was elected a Royal Acade-
mician in 1857. Among his best works is " Samsou
Betrayed," (1850.) He was keeper of the Royal
Academy from 1873 until his retirement in 1887.

Pickersgill. (HENRY WILLIAM,) an English por-
trait-painter, born about 1782. He painted many
eminent authors, statesmen, etc., and won a high
reputation. He was elected a Royal Academician in
1825. Died in 1875.

Pickett, (GEORGE E.,) a Confederate general, born
at Richmond, Virginia, January 25, 1825. He graduated
at West Point Military Academy in 1846, and served
with great credit in the Mexican war. In 1861 he left
the United States service and entered that of the Con-
federates. He became a general of division, and was
throughout the war of 1861-65 distinguished for braver-
and activity. Died at Norfolk, Virginia, July 30,' 1875.

Pick'nell, (WILLIAM L.,) an American painter,
born at Hinesburg, Vermont, in 1854. Among his
best paintings are " On the Borders of the Marsh,"
"The Route of Concarneau," which received a gold
medal at Atlanta in 1896, and "Morning on the
Loing," which brought him a gold medal at the Paris
Salon in 1895. Died in 1897.

Pico della Mirandola, pee'ko del'll me-ran'do-li,
[Fr. Pic DE LA MIRANDOLE, pek deh It me'rftN'dol',]
(GIOVANNI,) an Italian theologian and philosopher, born
in 1463. He had a prodigious memory and great learn-
ing, but was rather superficial as a thinker. He offered
to dispute at Rome with all comers on a great number
of theses, " On all Things that may be known," (" De
Omni Re Scibili,") to which Voltaire added " and Some
Things besides," ("et de Quibusdam aliis.") Died in
1494. He left several works on theology, etc.

Ficot, pe'ko', (FRANgois EDOUARD,) a French his-
torical painter, born in Paris in 1786. He gained a first
medal in 1819. The palaces of the Louvre and of Ver-
sailles contain some of his works. Died March 15, 1868.

Ficot, pe'ko', (JEAN,) a Swiss historian, born in 1777.
He was for many years professor of history at Geneva.
He published a " History of the Gauls," (3 vols., 1804,)
and a "History of Geneva," (3 vols., 1811.)

Picot, (PiERRE,) a Swiss writer, and professor of the-
ology, born at Geneva in 1746, was the father of Jean,
noticed above. He published " On the Manifold Utility
of Mountains," (" De multiplici Montium Utilitate," 1790,)
and Sermons, (1823.) Died in 1822.

Picou, pe'koo', (HENRI PIERRE,) a French painter,
born at Nantes, February 27, 1824. He painted with
much success, his specialty being historical, antique, and
mythological pictures.

Fictet, (FRANgois JULES,) a Swiss naturalist, born at
Geneva about 1790. He became professor of anatomy
and zoology in his native city. Among his works are
" Itinerary to the Valleys around Mont Blanc," (1818;
3d edition, 1840,) and a "Treatise on Palaeontology," (4
vols., 1845.) Dle d May 15, 1872.

Pictet, (JEAN Louis,) an astronomer, born at Geneva
in 1739. He was employed by the Academy of Saint
Petersburg to observe the transit of Venus in Siberia,
and wrote " Observations on the Transit of Venus in
1769." Died at Geneva in 1781.

Pictet, (MARC AUGUSTE,) a Swiss natural philoso-
pher, born at Geneva in 1752, was a brother of Charles,
(de Rochemont,) noticed below. He was a friend of
Saussure, whom he succeeded as professor of philosophy
in 1786. He wrote, besides other works, an "Essay
on Fire, (or Heat,") (1791,) and "Travels in England
and Scotland," (1803.) He founded in 1796 a periodical
entitled "Bibliotheque Britannique," and changed the
name in 1816 to " Bibliotheque Universelle," which still
exists. He gave special attention to meteorology. Died
in 1825.

See VAUCHER, " Necrologie de M. A. Pictet," 1815.

Fictet de Rochemont, pek'ti' deh rosh'moN',
(CHARLES,) a Swiss rural economist, born at Geneva in
1755. As envoy-extraordinary, he attended the Congress
of Vienna in 1814, and that of Paris in 1815. He wrote
a " Picture of the Present Condition of the United States
of America," (1796,) and a "Treatise on Agriculture."
He was one of the editors of the "Bibliotheque Univer-
selle." Died in 1824.

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Pic'tpn, (Sir THOMAS,) a British general, born in
Pembrokeshire about 1758. He served with distinction
in Spain, at Badajos, Ciudad Rodrigo, and Vitona.
Having obtained command of a division, he was killed
at Waterloo in 1815.

See H. B. ROBINSON, " Memoirs of Sir Thomas Picton," 1835.

Picumne. See PICUMNUS.

Pl-cum'nus and PHum'nua, [Fr. PICUMNE, pe -
kiimn', and PILUMNE, pe'lumn',] two Roman or Latin
gods of matrimony, were regarded as brothers. To Pi-
cumnus was ascribed the discovery of the art of ma-
nuring land.

Pi'cua, [Gr. IE/tof,] a fabulous king of Latium and
prophetic divinity, was represented as a son of Saturn,
the husband of Canens, and the father of Faunus. Ac-
cording to the fable, Circe was enamoured of him, and
changed him into a woodpecker (pifus) because her
passion was not requited.
Picus della Mirandola. See Pico.
Pidou de Saint-Olon, pe'doo' deh saNt / o'I6N / ,
(FRANC.OIS,) a French diplomatist and writer, born in
Touraine in 1646. He wrote " An Account of the Em-
pire of Morocco," (1694.) Died in 1720.

Pie, pe, (Louis FRANC.OIS DSsiRft EDOUARD,) a
French cardinal, born at Pontgouin, September 26, 1815.
In 1849 he became Bishop of Poitiers. In the Vatican
Council of 1870 he was the most active of the French
infalliblists. In 1879 he was made a cardinal-priest.
Died at Angouleme, May 17, 1880. He was author of
various theological works.

Piel, pe'el', (Louis ALEXANDRA) a French architect,
born at Lisieux in 1808. He restored the church of
Saint-Nicolas at Nantes, and other churches, and wrote
several professional works. Died in 1841.

Fiemont, pe'a'm6N', (NiKLAAS OPGANG,) a Dutch
andscape-painter, born at Amsterdam in 1659. He
worked some years in Rome. Died in 1709.

Pierce, perss or peerss, (BENJAMIN,) born in New
Hampshire iii 1757, was elected Governor of that State
in 1827 and 1829. He was the father of President
Franklin Pierce. Died in 1839.

Pierce, peerss, (EDWARD,) an English painter of his-
tory and portraits, lived in the reigns of Charles I.
and Charles II. Died near the close of the seventeenth

Pierce, (FRANKLIN,) the fourteenth President of the
United States, was born at Hillsborough, New Hamp-
shire, on the 23d of November, 1804. He was a son
of General Benjamin Pierce, who was Governor of New
Hampshire. He graduated at Bowdoin College, Maine,
in 1824, studied law under Levi Woodbury, and was
admitted to the bar in 1827. He practised first at Hills-
borough. In 1833 he was elected a member of Congress
by the Democrats. Having been re-elected, he served
in the House of Representatives until 1837, and in that
year was chosen a Senator of the United States by the
legislature of New Hampshire. He became a resident
of Concord about 1838, and resigned his seat in the
Senate in 1842, after which he devoted himself to the
practice of law. He had married about 1834. He
favoured the annexation of Texas to the United States,
(1844-45.) a "d served in the Mexican war with the rank
of brigadier-general, (1846-47.)

At the National Democratic Convention, June, 1852,
the prominent candidates for the Presidency were Cass,
Buchanan, and Douglas. After thirty-five ballots with-
out decisive result, the name of General Pierce was pro-
posed, and he was nominated on the forty-ninth ballot
His Whig competitor was General Winfield Scott
General Pierre was elected President, receiving two
hundred and fifty-four electoral votes out of two hundred
and ninety-six, which was the whole number. He ap-
pointed W. L. Marcy secretary of state, James Guthrie
secretary of the treasury, Jefferson Davis secretary of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 226 of 425)