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after, he was banished and cruelly treated for his opposi
tion to Bardas, an uncle of Michael III., who appointed
in his place the ambitious Photius. The schism between
the Greek and Roman Churches began while Photius
was in office, and has continued ever since that time. In
867 the emperor Basilius reinstated Ignatius, who as-
sembled in 869 an oecumenical council at Constantinople,
which condemned Photius and his party. Died in 877

See DAVID NICETAS, "Vita S. Ignatii," 1604.

Ignatius Loyola. See LOYOLA.

Igor (ee'gor) I., third Grand Duke of Russia, a son
of Rurik, was born about 875, and succeeded Oleg ir
912 A.D. He led an expedition against Constantinople in
941, and compelled the Greek emperor to sue for peace,
which was granted by a treaty in 945. Igor was killed
in an ambuscade in 945. After his death his widow Olga
was converted to Christianity.

See SOLOVIHP, " Histoire de Russie."

Igor II., or Igor Olgovitch, Grand Prince of Russia,
began to reign at Kief about 1145. His claim was con
tested by Iziaslaf, who defeated him in 1146. Igor was
confined in a convent, and assassinated in 1 147.

See KARAMZIN, "Histoire de Russie."

Ihre, ee'reh, (JoHAN,) a Swedish scholar, eminent in
philology, born at Lund in 1707, graduated with the
highest honour at Upsal in 1730. After visiting France,
England, etc., he returned to Upsal and became professor
of poetry and of theology in the university of that place.
In 1 738 he obtained the chair of belles-lettres and political



science, which he occupied about forty years, acquiring
great celebrity as i lecturer and author. In 1769 he
published his " Swedish Glossary," (" Glossarium Suio-
gothicum,") a monument of his immense learning and
critical sagacity, containing a philosophic treatise on the
filiation of languages, besides remarks on the origin
and affinity of Swedish words. He also wrote several
hundred excellent academical dissertations, and is justly
ranked among the best critics of the eighteenth century.
In 1759 he was decorated with the order of the Pola)
Star. Died in 1780.

See FLODERUS, "Parentaiion ofver J. Ihre," 1781 ; CEZBLIUS
" Biographiskt- Lexicon dfver namnkunnige Svenska Man."

Hire, (THOMAS,) a Swedish writer, father of the pre.
ceding, born at Wisby in 1659 ; died in 1720.

See T. RUDBN, " Trognas Strid och Seger, Likpredikan ofver T
Ihre," 1720.

Iken, ee'ken, (CONRAD,) a German theologian, born
at Bremen in 1689. He became professor of theology at
Bremen, and wrote, besides other works, " Antiquitatei
Hebraicae," (1730.) Died in 1753.

Iken, (HEINRICH FRIEDRICH,) a German religious
writer, born at Neuenkirchen in 1791; died in 1820.

Ildefonse. See ILDEFONSO.

Il-de-fon'so, [LaL ILDEFON'SUS ; Fr. ILDEFONSE,
41-deh-foNs',] SAINT, a Spanish prelate, born at Toledo
in 607 A.D., was a pupil of Saint Isidore. He became
Archbishop of Toledo in 658. He wrote, besides several
theological treatises, a continuation of Saint Isidore's
work "De Viris illustribus." Died in 669.

See Cm LA, "Vita Ildefonsi :" GREGORIO MAYANS, " Vida de S
Ildefonso," 173-,.

Hepooshin or Uepouschic, il-e-poo'shen, a Rus-
sian poet of the present age, lived near Saint Petersburg
He wrote pastoral poems.

Ilgen, il'gen, (KARL DAVID,) a distinguished philolo-
gist, born in Prussian Saxony in 1763. He became in



mina convivialia Graecorum.") Died in 1834,

See F. C. KRAPPT, "Vita CD. Ilgeni," 1837; R, STERN, " Nar
ratio de C. D. Ilgenio." 1839 ; " ll^emana: Erinnerungen an Dr. C
D. Ilgen," Leipsic, 1853.

nia. See RHEA SILVIA.

I-lith-jM'a or Eileithyia, |Gr. FJXfi9Dwj,J written
also Eleithy'ia and Eleutho, a Greek goddess, who
presided over birth. Though originally distinct from
Diana, (Artemis,) she seems later to have become identi-
fied with her. (See LUCIVA.)

Dive, I'liv, ? (JACOB,) an English printer, who became
noted by his fictitious" Book of Jasher," (1751,) which he
pretended to have translated from Alcuin. Died in 1763.

Ulescas, el-yes'kas, (GONSALVO,) a Spanish monk,
wrote a " History of the Popes," (1570.) Died in 1580.

Blgen, il'gen, (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH,) a German
Protestant divine, born at Chemnitz in 1786, wrote sev-
eral works, and edited a journal at Leipsic. Died in 1844.

Ulyricus. See FRANCOWITZ.

Umoni, il-mo'nee, (IMMANUEL,) a Finnish physician,
born in 1797, wrote " Contributions to the History of the
Nosology of the North," (3 vols., 1846-53.) Died in 18561

Ilus, [Gr. 'l?.oc,| the founder of Ilium, (Ilion,) or Troy,
was a son of TROS, (which see.)

Imad-ed-Deen, (-Eddyn or -Eddin.) e-mid' ed-
deen', (i.e. the " Pillar of Religion,") (Mohammed,
mo-ham'me'd, ) surnamed AL-KATEB, was born at Is-
pahan in 1125 A.D. He went in 1167 to Damascus,
where he became the secretary of Noor-ed-Deen. Afier
the death of Noor-ed-Deen, he enjoyed the favour of the
famous Saladin, whose victories he celebrated in an ode,
and whom he served as private secretary until the death
of that prince. ImSd-ed-Deen wrote a " History of the
Conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin," and " Memoirs of
the Moslem Poets of the Sixth Century of the Hejrah.'-
Died in 1201.

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, " Biographical Dictionary."

Imad-ed-Dowlah, (or -Eddaulah.) e-mSd'ed-dflw'-
lah, (i.e. "Pillar of the State,") (Alee-Abool-Hasaan
Alee-Ibn-Booyah, J'lee a'bool has'san a'lee Ib'n boo'
yah,) King of Persia, was the founder of the dynasty of



a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far. fall, fit; met; not; RcSoil; moon.



IMBERDIS



INCHBALD



Uouides, and began to reign in 933 A.D. Pie conquered
the Caliph of Bagdad, and died in 949, leaving the throne
to his nephew, Adhad-ed-Dowlah.

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary;" WEIL, "Ge-
chichte des Chalifen."

Imberdis, aN'beVdess', (ANDRE,) a French writer,
born at Ambert about 1810, published a " History of the
Religious Wars in Auvergne during the Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Centuries," (2 vols., 1841.) Died in 1878.

Imbert, ax'baiR', (BARTHELEMY,) a French poet, born
at Mimes in 1747. He produced at the age of twenty
"The Judgment of Paris," a graceful poem, which was
much admired. The plan was ingenious, and the style
natural and elegant. Died in 1790.

See QUHRARD, "La France Litte'raire."

Imbert, (GUILLAUME,) a French litifratcur, born at
Limoges about 1743 ; died at Paris in 1803.

Imbert, (JEAN,) a French jurist, born at La Rochelle
about 1522, published " Institutiones Forenses," (1542,)
often reprinted. Died about 1600.

Imbert, (JOSEPH GABRIEL,) an eminent French
painter, born in Marseilles in 1654, was a pupil of Le-
brun and of Van der Meulen. At the age of thirty-four
he took the monastic vows, after which he painted only
sacred subjects. His chief work is a " Calvary." Died
in 1740.

Imbouati, em-bo-na'tee, (CARLO GIUSEPPE,) an Ital-
ian bibliographer, born at Milan, wrote "Bibliotheca
Latino-Hebraica," (2 vols., 1696.) Died after 1696.

Imhof or ImhoS, im'hof, (GusTAV WILLEM,) born
in Amsterdam in 1705, was appointed Governor of Cey-
lon in 1736. Having gained general confidence by hi3
conduct and capacity, he became about 1742 Governor-
General of the Dutch East Indies. Died in 1750.

Imhof, von, fon im'hof, (JAKOB WILHELM,) a Ger-
man genealogist, born at Nuremberg in 1651. He was
well versed in the history of the royal and noble families
of Europe, and wrote many works on genealogy, among
which is one in 2 vols., (1684.) Died in 1728.

See KOELHR, " Lebensgeschichte Imbofs."

Im-ho-tep, a god of the ancient Egyptians, supposed
to be the god of science, and chiefly honoured at Mem-
phis. He was the son of Ptah and Pakht.

Imilcon. See HIMILCO.

Im'I-son, (JOHN,) an English mechanician, wrote a
valuable work entitled "The School of Arts," which
passed through several editions. In 1807 Professor J.
Webster published an improved edition, with the title
of "Elements of Art and Science." Died in 1788.

Im'lah, (JOHN,) a Scottish song-writer, born at Aber-
deen, November 15, 1799. He published "May-Flow-
ers," a volume of lyrics, (1827,) and "Poems," (1841.)
Died in Jamaica, January 9, 1846.

Immermann, im'm?r-man', (KARL LEBRECHT,) a
German dramatist and poet, born at Magdeburg in 1796,
was the author of a comedy entitled "The Princes of
Syracuse," (1821,) "The Valley of Ronceval," "King
Periander," (1823,) and other tragedies. He also pub-
lished a number of tales and lyric poems. Died in 1840.

See KARL IMMBRMANN, " Memorabilien," 3 vols., 1840-43; F.
FREILIGRATH, "C. Immermann, Blatter der Erinnerung an ihn,"
1842 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for April, 1843.

Imola. See FRANCUCCI.

Imparato, em-pa-ra'to, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian
painter, born at Naples about 1530, was a pupil of Titian,
whose style he imitated with some success. Died after
1565.

Imperials, cm-pa-re-a'li, (FRANCESCO,) born at
Genoa about 1370, went to Spain, and became attached
to the court of Henry III. of Castile. He was regarded
as one of the best Spanish poets of that time.

Imperiali, em-pa-re-a'lee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an
Italian physician and author, born at Vicenza in 1568,
graduated at Padua, and practised with success in his
native city. He wrote Latin poems, which were admired,
also a collection of observations entitled "Exotericae
Exercitationes," (1603.) Died in 1623.

His son GIOVANNI, born at Vicenza in 1602, was also
a physician, and wrote " Musaeum Historicum et Physi-
cum," consisting of eulogies and memoirs of eminent
literary men. Died in 1670.



Imperiali, (GIOVANNI VINCENTS,) an Italian poet,
born at Genoa about 1570, served the state as a diplo-
matist, and held a high command in the navy. He wrote,
besides other poems, "Lo Stato rustico," (1611,) which
was received with favour. Died about 1645.

See SOPRANI, "Scrittori Liguri."

Imperiali, (GIUSEPPE RENATO,) an Italian cardinal,
distinguished for his patronage of learning, was born of
a noble family at Genoa in 1651. It is said he would
have been elected pope in 1730, if the court of Spain
had not interposed against him. Many learned men were
recipients of his bounty. Died in 1737. He left a noble
library, which, by his will, was kept open to the public

See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiaui illustri."

Imperiali-Lercari, em-pa-re-a'lee IdR-ka'ree, (FRAN-
CESCO MARIO,) was Doge of Genoa when that city was
bombarded by the fleet of Louis XIV. in 1684. Hos-
tilities having been suspended by the mediation of the
pope, the Doge went as ambassador to Paris, and a
treaty of peace was signed in 1685.

Im'pey, (Sir ELIJAH,) an infamous judge, who offi-
ciated in India during the administration of Warren
Hastings; was recalled, 1782; impeached, 1788; died
in 1812.

See "Memoirs of Sir Elijah Irapey," by E. B. IMPHY, 1846;
MACAULAY, " Essay on Warren Hastings."

Impiccati, degli, a surname of ANDREA DEL CAS-
TAGNO. (See CASTAGNO.)

I'na or I'nas, King of the West Saxons, and one of
the chiefs of the Heptarchy, succeeded Ceadwalla in 689
A.D. He appears to have possessed superior talents,
and is regarded as one of the principal legislators among
the ancient Anglo-Saxons. He waged war successfully
against the people of Kent and the Britons about 710,
In 728 he resigned his crown, and died at Rome the
same year.

See WILLIAM OF MALMHSBURY, " Gesta Regum Anglorum."

In'a-ehus, [Gr. 'Iva^of,] a mythical personage, the
son of Oceanus, and father of lo, is said to have been
the first King of Argos. Having been chosen as umpire
by Neptune and Juno when they disputed about the
possession of Argos, he decided in favour of Juno.

Inca, ing'ki, (plural Incas,) a Peruvian or Quichua
word, signifying " chief," and applied to the dynasty reign-
ing in Peru on the arrival of the Spaniards in that coun-
try in the early part of the sixteenth century. As the
Peruvians did not possess the art of writing, we have no
means of ascertaining, or even forming a satisfactory
conjecture respecting, the earliest date of their power. The
Incas claimed to be the descendants of Manco Capac and
his wife Mama Ocllo, who were the children of the sun.
(See MANCO CAPAC.) The empire of the Incas, at the
period of their greatest power, extended through nearly
forty degrees of longitude, and contained an area of
between one and two million square miles. Their sub-
jects, though unacquainted with letters, had in many
respects advanced to a high degree of civilization. They
understood the working of the precious metals, archi-
tecture, and many other arts, and were especially dis-
tinguished for the general liberality and wisdom of their
state policy; though some of their laws and regulations
were, according to the standard of Christian civilization,
both unjust and inhuman.

See PRBSCOTT'S " Conquest of Peru," book i. chap. i.

Inch'bald, (ELIZABETH,) a popular English actress,
novelist, and dramatist, born at Stanningfield in 1753,
was the daughter of a farmer named Simpson. At the
age of sixteen she came to London with the intention of
becoming an actress, and was married to Mr. Inchbald,
who had obtained some success on the stage. After
performing with her husband several seasons at Edin-
burgh and other towns, she made her dlbut at Covent
Garden in 1780, and was very successful. Her success
is ascribed in a great measure to her personal beauty
and virtuous character. In 1789 she retired from the
stage. She wrote " Such Things Are," " Every One
has his Fault," "To Marry or Not to Marry," and many
other plays. Her greatest productions are two novels,
"A Simple Story," (1791,) and "Nature and Art," (1796,)
which obtained extensive and durable popularity. Her
" ' Nature and Art,' " says Hazlitt, " is one of tie most



easi; yas.s; ghard; gas/; G, H, K,guttural; vi, nasal; R, trilled; sas; thasin//iu-. (^[^"See Explanations, p. 23.)



INCHIQUIN



1346



INGEN



interesting and pathetic stories in the world." The
other work is highly commended by Miss Edgeworth.
Died in 1821.

See her Life, by BOADHN, 1833; MRS. ELWOOD, "Memoirs of
the Literary Ladies of England from the Commencement of the
Last Century," voL i., 1843.

Inch'j-quin, (MoRROGH O'BRIEN,) BARON OF, a
famous Irish soldier, born about 1618. He acted a
prominent part in the civil war, fighting alternately for
Charles I. and against him. He was a royalist from 1640
to 1645, and gained several victories. About 1649 he
entered the French service, with the rank of general.
Died in 1674.

Inchpfer, ing'Ko'fer, (MELCHIOR,) a Jesuit, born in
Vienna in 1584, lived in various cities of Italy, and wrote
several learned works, among which is the " Ecclesias-
tical History of Hungary," (1644, unfinished.) He had
more learning than critical judgment. Died in 1648.

See BAYLH, "Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Incledon,ink'el-don, (BENJAMIN CHARLES,) an Eng-
lish vocalist, born in Cornwall in 1764, served several
years in the royal navy. He first appeared in a London
theatre in 1790, and performed many years with success.
Died in 1826.

Indaco, 1', len'da-ko, (FRANCESCO,) a painter of the
Florentine school, flourished about 1530.

Indaco. 1', ( JACOPO DA FIRENZE,) a Florentine painter,
a brother of the preceding, was a pupil of Ghirlandaio,
and worked at Rome.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters."

India, en'de-i, (TuLUO, ) called THE ELDER, a
painter of the Venetian school, was born at Verona, and
flourished in 1545. He was a skilful painter in fresco,
and an excellent copyist

His son BERNARDINO, a painter, was born at Verona.
One of his later works is dated 1584.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters."

In-dibl-lia, a Spanish chief, who flourished during
the first Punic war, in which he fought for and betrayed
both sides. He fought for the Carthaginians in the
battle at which Publius Scipio was killed, in 213 B.C.
His army was defeated by the younger Scipio in 207.
He was killed in battle by the Romans in 205 B.C.

See LIVY, " History of Rome," books xxii. and xxv.-xxix.

Iiidicopleustes. See COSMAS.

Indra, In'clRa, [etymology doubtful ; possibly related
to the Latin imber, (Gr. o/43poc,) a "shower" or "rain-
itorm,"] the regent of the firmament, in the Hindoo
mythology, is the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. As the
god of storms and thunder, he may be said to correspond
very nearly to the Roman Jupiter and Greek Zeus. In
the early period of the Hindoo mythology he was (like
Jupiter) regarded as the most powerful of the gods ; but,
after the introduction of the deities of the Hindoo triad,
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, Indra, Varuna, and Agni
were deposed from their high rank and made to occupy
a far inferior position. Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, is
represented, while still an infant, as baffling with the
utmost ease the mightiest efforts of the god of thunder.
(See KRISHNA.) Indra is supposed to preside over all
atmospheric changes ; the clouds are his war-elephants,
one of which, represented with three trunks and called
Irivat,* (1-ra'vat,) is his vShan, (or "vehicle,"!) and his
most terrible weapon is his vajra, (pronounced by the
modern Hindoos vuj'ra or buj'ra,) or "adamantine thun-
derbolt."} The heaven or paradise of Indra is called
Swarga or Swerga, (pronounced swur'ga.) Here dwell
the Apsaras, the beautiful dancing-girls of his court, who
may be said to correspond to the Hoorees (Houris) of
Mohammed's paradise, and the Gandharvas, or celestial
minstrels. The consort of Indra is named IndrSnl, (in-
dRa'nee.) His capital city is called Amrivati, (im-ra'-
va-tee,) or the "city of immortality."

See MOOR'S " Hindu Pantheon;" COLBMAN'S " Mythology of the
Hindus;" SIR WILLIAM JONES'S Works, vol. xiii., (or vol. vi of
another edition;) H. H. WILSON'S "Translation of the Rig- Veda,'
and " Essays on the Religion of the Hindus,"

Iravat signifies " watery," " full of rain," (in Latin, plmwut.)
T See note under GARUDA.

t This word (vajra) signifies both " thunderbolt" and " adamant,'
or "diamond."



Induno, en-doo'no, (DoMENico,) an Italian painter
of history and genre, born at Milan in 1815. He gained
the grand prize in 1837. He died in 1878.

Ifies (en'ySs) or Ifiez de Castro, en'ySth di kas'tRo,
sometimes Anglicised as AGNES DE CASTRO, a beautiful
Spanish lady, whose tragical fate is commemorated by
Camoens in the " Lusiad," was born of a noble famiiy
in Castile in the fourteenth century. Having been a
maid of honour at the court of Alphonso IV. of Por-
tugal, she won the love of his son Don Pedro, who
privately married her. The king, on learning the fact,
was violently enraged, and, after vain efforts to dissolve
their union, authorized her assassination in 1355. She
was eminent for virtue, grace, and intelligence. Her
story is the subject of numerous dramas, legends, etc.

Infantado, de, di en-fan-ta'oo, DUQUE, a Spanish
statesman, born in 1773, was an intimate friend of the
Prince of Asturias, (Ferdinand VII.) In 1808 he ac-
companied that prince to Bayonne, and signed the con-
stitution which Napoleon imposed on Spain. In 1809
he commanded an army which was defeated by the
French at Saint Sebastian. Ferdinand VII. appointed
him president of the council of Castile in 1814. He
resigned in 1820, and was prime minister for a short
time in 1825. Died in 1841.

Ingalls, (JOHN JAMES,) an American politician,
born at Middleton, Massachusetts, in 1833. He en-
gaged in law practice, became a resident of Kansas,
was State Senator in 1861, and was elected to the
United States Senate in 1873, 1879, and 1885. He
officiated as president pro tempore of the Senate 1887-
91 . He subsequently became a lecturer and journalist.
Died July 16, 1900.

Ingalls, ing'galz, (RuFUS,) an American general, born
in Oxford county, Maine, about 1820, graduated at West
Point in 1843, and was appointed a brigadier-general
of volunteers in 1862. He served in the army of the
Potomac in 1863-65. Died January 15, 1893.

Ingeburga, mg'eh-bdoR'ga, sometimes written Ing-
elburge or Ingerburga, a Danish princess, was the
sister of Canute VI. In 1192 she became the wife of
Philip Augustus of France, who soon after divorced
her without good reason. She appealed to the pope,
Innocent III., who decided in her favour ; and after the
kingdom of Philip had been laid under an interdict,
he was induced to reinstate her. Died in 1236.

Ingegneri, en-jSn-ya'ree, (ANGIOLO,) an Italian litte-
rateur, born in Venice about 1550, was secretary of Car-
dinal C. Aldobrandini at Rome, whose service he quitted
in 1598. He wrote a pastoral called "The Dance of
Venus," (" La Danza di Venere,") " Buon Segretario,"
and a few other works, in prose and verse. He was a
friend of Tasso. Died in 1613.

Ingegno, L'. See LUIGI, (ANDREA.)

In'ge-low, (JEAN,) a popular English poetess, was
born at Boston, England, in 1820. Her first volume of
poems, containing " Divided," " Songs of Seven," " The
High Tide," etc., at once established her reputation.
Her other publications are "Studies for Stories," (1864,)
"Poor Mat," (1866,) "A Story of Doom, etc.," (1867,)
"A Sister's Bye-I louir.." (1868,) " Mopsa the Fairy,"
(1869,) "Off the Skelligs," (1872,) "Fated to be Free,"
(1875,) and "Don John," (1881.) Died July 12,
1897.

lugemann, ing'eh-man', (BERNHARD SEVERIN,) a
popular Danish poet and novelist, was born in the island
of Falster, May 28, 1789. He produced a volume of
lyric poems (" Digte") in 1811, and an epic poem, called
"The Black Knights," (" De sorte Riddere,") in 1814.
His tragedies " Blanca" and " Masaniello" (1815) were
performed with great success. About 1820 he published
a dramatic poem, called " The Deliverance of Tasso." He
was chosen professor of Danish at the Academy of Soroe
in 1822. He wrote several popular historical novels,
among which are " Waldemar the Victor," (1826,) and
" Prince Otho of Denmark," (1835.) Died May 24, 1862.

See WiLLiAMand MARY HOWITT, "The Literatureand Romance
of Northern Europe," vol. ii., 1852; LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry
of Europe ;" ERSLEW, "Almindeligt Forfatter- Lexicon :" MdLLBR.
"Dansk Pantheon ;" " Forei.cn Quarterly Review" for April, 1838.

Ingen or Inghen, van, vSn ing'gen or ing'Hen, (WiL-



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mdt; n&t; good; moon;



INGENHOUSZ



1347



INGLIS



LKM,) a Dutch painter, born in 1651, studied under C.
Maratta at Rome. He worked in Venice and Naples,
and settled in Amsterdam. His works have considera-
ble merit. Died about 1710.

Ingeuhousz, ing'gen -hows', (JAN,) an eminent Dutch
physician and chemist, born at Breda in 1730. About
1767 he visited London, where he became intimate with
Dr. Pringle, president of the Royal Society, by whose
recommendation he became physician to the empress
Maria Theresa in 1772. He was made a member of
the aulic council in Vienna, and received a pension for
life. After remaining in Vienna a number of years, he
travelled in France, Italy, etc., pursuing his scientific
studies and experiments, and at last settled in London,
and was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society. He in-
vented an electrophorus, and discovered that growing
plants exposed to the light exhale oxygen gas, (1779.)
His principal works (which are all written in English)
are " Experiments on Vegetables, discovering their Power
of Purifying the Air," (1779,) an " Essay on the Food of
Plants," and " Experiments and Observations on Various
Physical Subjects." The invention of the plate electrical
machine is attributed to him. Died in 1799.

See " Biographic Me"dicale,"

Ingersoll, ing'ger-spl, (CHARLES JARED,) a lawyer
and writer, a son of Jared, noticed below, was born in
Philadelphia in 1782. He was elected to Congress in
1812, and was appointed district attorney for Pennsyl-
vania by President Madison in 1815. He was chosen
a Democratic member of Congress in 1840, 1842, and

1844. Among his works are "Chiomara," a poem,
(1800,) and a "Historical Sketch of the Second War
between the United States of America and Great Britain,"
(4 vols., 1845-52.) Died in 1862.

Ingersoll, (ERNEST,) an American author, born at
Monroe, Michigan, March 13, 1852, studied at Oberlin
and Harvard Colleges, was attached to United States
geological surveys as a naturalist, 1874-1877, and after-
wards was attached to the United States fish commission.
In 1880 he was a special agent of the tenth census. His
principal works are " A Natural History Series" for the
young, "Natural History of Nests and Birds," (in parts,
1878 it ieq.,) " Friends Worth Knowing," " Oyster In-
dustries of the United States," (1881,) "The Ice
Queen," (1884,) "Wild Neighbours," (1897,) etc.

Ingersoll, (JARED,) LL.D., an American jurist, born


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 23 of 425)