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ceding, and was born at Hayes, in Kent, in May, 1759.
At the age of seven, when he heard that his father was
raised to the peerage, he said, " I am glad that I am not
the eldest son. I want to speak in the House of Com-
mons, like papa." He received the rudiments of educa-
tion at home, under the diligent supervision of his father,
and acquired great proficiency in Latin, Greek, and
mathematics, before he entered Pembroke Hall, Cam-
bridge, in 1773. Having chosen the profession of the
law, he took chambers in Lincoln's Inn, and was called
to the bar in 1780. In 1781 he entered Parliament for
Appleby, as an opponent of the ministry, and before the
end of the second session assumed his place in the first
rank of debaters. His talents and conduct amply justi-
fied and responded to the partiality with which the public
regarded the son of the Great Commoner. He acquired
a new claim to public favour by a motion (in May, 1782!
for a reform in the representation, which was rejectee'
by a small majority. His principles at that time were
the same with those of the Whigs. On the formation
of the ministry of Lord Shelburne, in July, 1782, Mr.
Pitt was appointed chancellor of the exchequer. By r
coalition between Lord North and Mr. Fox, this ministry
was forced to resign in March, 1783, and Pitt becamt
the leader of the opposition in the House. The king
after procuring the defeat of Fox's India bill, dismissed
Fox and Lord North, whose coalition was very unpopular,
and appointed Pitt first lord of the treasury (prime min-
ister) in December, 1783. He had to contend against 2
large majority in the House, led by Fox, Burke, North,
and Sheridan, who triumphed in sixteen divisions. Thit
important contest lasted until March, 1784, when Parlia-
ment was dissolved. His appeal to the people resulted
in a great triumph of the minister, who, thus sustained
by the favour of the court and by that of the nation,
became at the age of twenty-five the most powerful
subject of Europe.

The first eight years of his administration were peace-
ful and prosperous. A new constitution for the East
India Company was framed in 1784, and a new sinking-
fund established in 1786. He changed his course on the
question of parliamentary reform, which he opposed at
several periods after 1792. He supported with his elo-
quence and his vote the motions of Wilberforce for the
abolition of the slave-trade. " All authorities agree,"
says Brougham, "in placing his speech on the slave-
trade, in 1791, before any other effort of his genius."
Yet he permitted, for many years, every one of his col-
leagues to vote against the abolition, and thus furnished
the ground of the gravest charge to which his memory
is exposed. His ascendency was confirmed by the ex-
cesses of the French Revolution, and by the division
which that subject produced in the Whig party ; but the
ride of his success began to ebb when he involved Eng-
land in a war with the French republic in 1793, a war
which, according to Alison, added three hundred millions
to the national debt. (See BONAPARTE, and GEORGE III.)
" His conduct of the war," says Brougham, " betrayed
no extent of views, no commanding notions of policy.
To form one coalition after another in Germany, and
subsidize them with millions of free gift, or aid with
profuse loans, until all the powers in o~ur pay were de-
feated in succession, and most of them either destroyed
or converted into allies of the enemy, such were all tha
resources of his diplomatic policy." In 1800 an act for



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the union of Ireland with Great Britain was passed in
the Parliament of the latter. He resigned office in
March, 1801, and was succeeded by Addington. The
ostensible cause of his resignation was that the king
objected to the measures which Pitt proposed for the
relief of the Roman Catholics. Alison intimates that
he retired to make way for a pacific administration.

A combination of Whigs and Tories having been
formed against Addington, he resigned, and Pitt was
again appointed prime minister, in May, 1804. The new
ministry was formed exclusively of Tories. The pre-
mature death of Pitt appears to have been hastened by
the vexation which he suffered from the failure of the
new coalition, and the victories of Bonaparte at Ulm and
Austerlitz. He died on the 23d of January, 1806, having
never been married.

" Unequalled in the ability with which he overcame
the jealousies and awakened the activity of cabinets,"
says Alison, " he was by no means equally felicitous in
the warlike measures wTiich he recommended for their
adoption. Napoleon has observed that he had no turn
for military combinations ; and a retrospect of the cam-
paigns which he had a share in directing, must confirm
the justice of the opinion. By not engaging England as
a principal in the contest, and trusting for land operations
to the continental armies put in motion by British sub-
sidies, he prolonged the war for an indefinite period."
("History of Europe.") He is admitted by all parties
to have been a consummate debater, and almost un-
equalled as a master of sarcasm. His declamation was
copious, polished, and impressive. He poured forth a
long succession of round and stately periods, with a full
and sonorous voice and with an unbending dignity of
manner. " Yet, with all this excellence," says Brougham,
" the last effect of the highest eloquence was for the
most part wanting : we seldom forgot the speaker, or
lost the artist in the work." His private character is
described as amiable. Pride appears to have been his
principal fault.

See BROUGHAM, "Statesmen of the Time of George III. ;" "Me-
moirs of W. Pitt," by GEORGE TOMLINR, 1821 ; MACAULAY, article
"William Pitt," in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica;" LORD STAN-
WOPE, (MAHON,) "Life of William Pitt." 1862; JOHN GIPPORD,
" History of the Political Life of William Pitt," 3 vols., i8og : PIERRE
CUANIN, "Viede-M. Pitt," 1805; AUGUSTR VIDAUN, "Etude sur
la Carriere de W. Pitt," 1851 ; ALISON, " History of Europe :"
"Edinburgh Review" for April, 1856. and "The Addington and Pitt
Administrations," in the " Edinburgh Review" for January, i -

Pit'ta-cus, [ITiTTa/c6f,] a celebrated Greek statesman,
philosopher, and poet, called one of the Seven Wise
Men of Greece, was born at Mitylene, in Lesbos, about
650 B.C. He distinguished himself in a battle against
the Athenians (whose leader, Phrynon, he killed) in 606
B.C. About 590 he was chosen supreme ruler by the
popular party, which had expelled the aristocratic party.
The poet Alcaeus belonged to the latter, and was exiled
in the time of Pittacus. Having governed the state
wisely for ten years, he resigned his office in 580 B.C.
He was famous as an elegiac poet ; but only a few of his
lines are extant. Died in 569 B.C.

See DIOGENES LAERTIUS; SUIDAS, "Pittacus."

Pitthee. See PITTHEUS.

Pit'theus, (Gr. IliT-tfrwf . Fr. PITTHEE, pe'ti',1 a son
of Pelops and Hippodami'a, was a king of Trcezene, the
father of /Ethra, and grandfather of Theseus. Pausaniai
ascribes to him a work on the art of speaking.

Pit'tia, (THOMAS,) an English clergyman, born in the
Isle of Wight, entered Trinity College, Oxford, about
1652. Died in 1687.

Pittoni, pet-to'nee, (BATTISTA,) an Italian painter
and engraver, born at Vicenza about 1520 ; died after
1585.

Pittoni, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian painter,
born at Venice in 1687. Among his best works is "The
Miracle of the Loaves." Died in 1767.

Pittorio, pet-to're-o, or Fittori, pet-to'ree, [Lat.
PICTO'RIUS,) (Lonovico BIGI,) a Latin poet, born at
Ferrarain 1454. He wrote "Candida," (1491,) "Moral
Epigrams," (" Epigrammata moralia," 1516,) and other
poems. Died about 1524.

Pitts, (WILLIAM,) an English sculptor, called "the
British Cellini," was born in London in 1 790. He learned



the trade of gold-chaser. He displayed a fine fancy for
design, and remarkable executive skill. Among his
works are "The Creation of Eve," (1824,) "The Shield
of /Eneas," (1828,) "The Shield of Hercules," (1834,)
and the " Apotheoses of Spenser, Shakspeare, and Mil-
ton," in bas-relief. He committed suicide in 1840.

Pi'us [It. Pro, pee'o; Fr. PIE, pee] 1, Pope or
Bishop of Rome, was born at Aquileia. He succeeded
Hyginus in 142 A.D., and died in 157. His successor
was Anicetus.

Pius (or Pio) IT, POPE, (/ENE'AS SYLVIUS Ficco-
lomini pek-ko-lom'e-nee,) was born at Corsignano,
Tuscany, in 1405. He was liberally educated, and was
familiar with the ancient classics. In 1535 he produced a
history of the Council of Bale. He was a partisan of
this council in its contest against Pope Eugenius IV.,
and became the secretary of Felix V., who was elected
pope in place of Eugenius, whom the council deposed.
About 1442 he entered the service of the emperor Fred-
erick III., of whom he wrote a history, " Historia Rerum
Friderici III." In the pontificate of Nicholas V., jUneas
Sylvius was sent as nuncio to Germany. He distin-
guished himself as a negotiator and orator on various
occasions. He became a cardinal in 1456, and was
elected pope in 1458, in place of Calixtus III. In 1459
he procured the meeting of a European congress on
the subject of a crusade against the Turks ; but the
jealousies and dissensions among the Christian powers
rendered his efforts abortive. He issued a bull in which
he retracted and condemned what he had formerly writ-
ten in favour of the supremacy of councils. He died in
August, 1464, and was succeeded by Paul II. Pius II.
was an eminent historian and scholar. Among his nu-
merous works are "Epistolse," (1473,) a "d a "History
of Bohemia," (1475,) which are highly prized.

See " Pii II. Commentarii Rerum memorabilium," an auto-
biography, published by his secretary, GOBBLINUS. 1477 and 1614:
CAMP-ANUS or CAMPMANUS, "Vita Pii II.:" PLATINA, "Vita
Pontificum ;" HBLWING, " De Pii II. Rebus gestis," 1825;
VOIGT, " Eneas Piccolomini," Berlin, 1859 : " Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale."

Pius m., POPE, (FRANCESCO Todeschini Piccolo-
mini to-des-kee'nee pek-ko-lom'e-nee,) born at Sienna
in 1439, was a nephew of Pius II. He succeeded Alex-
ander VI. in September, 1503, and died in October ol
the same vear. His successor was Julius II.

Pius rV., POPE, (GIOVANNI ANGELO de' Medici
da med'e-chee,) was born at Milan in 1499, and was an
uncle of the eminent Carlo Borromeo. He was elected
pope, in place of Paul IV., about the end of 1559. He
convoked the Council of Trent which reassembled in
1561 and finished its labours in 1563. The decrees of
this council in relation to discipline, etc. were rejected
by the French. He is represented by some historians
as an able but rather unscrupulous pontiff. He died
in December, 1565, and was succeeded by Pius V.

See RANKK, " History of the Popes."

Pius V., POPE, (MICHELE Ghislieri ges-le-a'ree,)
was born at or near Alessandria in 1504. He became
a cardinal in 1557, and Inquisitor-General of Christen-
dom. In 1566 he was elected pope. He was a rigorist
in discipline, and a violent persecutor of dissenters.
Palearius, Zanetti, and other learned men were put to
death by his inquisitors. He published in 1568 the bull
"In Ccena Domini," which asserts the extreme ultra-
montane doctrines in relation to the papal supremacy.
The publication of this bull was forbidden by the Kings
of France and Spain and the Emperor of Germany.
Pius V. was one of the allies whose fleet gained the
victory of Lepanto over the Turks, in 1571. He died
in 1572, and was succeeded by Gregory XIII.

See RANKE, " History of the Popes :" AGATIO DI SOMMA, " Vida
di PioQuinto:" J. B. FEUILI.ET, "Vie du Pape Pie V," 1674: Da
FALLOUX, " Histoire de Saint Pie V," 2 vols., 1844; "Life and
Ponti6cate of Saint Pius V.," by REV. JOSEPH MENDHAM, iSsa.

Pius VL, POPE, (Cardinal ANGELO Braschi bris-
kee,) was born at Cesena in 1717. He succeeded Clem-
ent XIV. in February, 1775. He drained the Pontine
marshes, and enriched the Museum of the Vatican.
In 1782 he went in person to Vienna to treat with the
emperor Joseph, who had suppressed convents and
meddled with spiritual affairs in a manner which dis-



a, e, i, o, u. ^.lottg; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, >>, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon:



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pleased the pope. He failed in his effort to change the
purpose of the emperor. The French Revolution in-
vo'.ved him in a still greater trouble. He entered into
alliance with Austria and other powers against the
French republic. After his states had been invaded by
Bonaparte, he sued for peace, which he obtained by the
treaty of Tolentino, in 1797. To avenge the death of
General Duphot, (who was killed by a Roman mob,)
the French army entered Rome in February, 1798, and
deposed the pope, who w,as conveyed to Valence, in
France, where he died in August, 1799.

See FERRARI, " Vita Pii VI.," 1802 ; TAVANTI, " Fasti del Papa
Pio VI.," 3 vols., 1804; ARTAUD DE MONTOR," Histoire de Pie
VI," 1847; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Pius VII., POPE, (GREGORIO BARNABA LUIGI Chi-
aramonti ke-a-ra-mon'tee,) was born at Cesena in
August, 1742. He became a cardinal, and Bishop of
Imola, in 1785. After the French had become masters
of Imola, he exhorted his people to submit to the new
regime. He was elected pope by a conclave of car-
dinals assembled at Venice in March, 1800, and ap-
pointed Cardinal Consalvi secretary of state. The first
important event of his reign was a treaty with Bonaparte,
by which the Roman Catholic religion was re-established
in France. This treaty, called the Concordat, was signed
on the I5th of July, l8oi. In compliance with the re-
quest of Bonaparte, Pius went to Paris and crowned or
anointed him as emperor in December, 1804. He re-
fused to comply with the will of Napoleon when the
latter required him to banish the English, Russians, and
Swedes from the Papal States, (1806,) and resisted him
in other designs. The French army occupied Rome in
February, 1808, but permitted the pope to retain some
temporal power. In May, 1809, Napoleon issued a
decree that the Papal States were united to the French
empire. The pope, having resorted to a bull of ex-
communication against his adversaries, was seized and
abducted from Rome in July, 1809. He was detained at
Savona, near Genoa, until 1812, and was then removed to
Fontainebleau. In his captivity the pope firmly resisted
the will of the emperor, who probably wished him to
transfer his court from Rome to Avignon. Pius refused
to give canonical institution to the bishops appointed
by Napoleon. In January, 1813, he was persuaded to
sign a new concordat and to make concessions, which,
however, by the advice of his cardinals, he soon re-
tracted. In January, 1814, he received an order or
permission to return to Rome, which he entered in May.
He afterwards made some laudable reforms. He died
in August, 1823, and was succeeded by Leo XII. Pius
VII. left a fair reputation for moderation and other
virtues.

See ARTAUD DB MONTOR, " Histoire de Pie VII," 2 vols., 1836:
COHEN, " Precis historique sur Pie VII," 1823 ; A. DE BEAUCHAMP,
" Histoire des Majheurs de Pie VII," 1814 ; GUADET, " Esquisses
historiques et politiques sur Pie VII," 1823; "Nouvelle Biographie
Ge'ne'rale;" " Quarterly Review" for October, 1858; "Recollections
of the Last Four Popes," by CARDINAL WISEMAN, London. 1858.

Pius VTU., POPE, (Cardinal FRANCESCO Castiglioni
kas-tel-yo'nee,) was born at Cingoli in 1761. He suc-
ceeded Leo XII. in March, 1829, and issued an encyclical
letter in which he denounced religious toleration, the
freedom of the press, and civil marriage, as impious.
He died in November, 1830. His successor was Greg-
ory XVI.

Pius IX., [Ital. Pio NONO, pee'o no'no.J POPE, (Gio-
VANNI MARIA Mastai Ferretti mis'n fer-ret'tee,)
was born, of a noble family, at Sinigaglia, near Ancona,
on the I3th of May, 1792. He visited South America
in 1823 on a religious mission, and was made Archbishop
of Spoleto in 1827. In 1840 he obtained the dignity of
cardinal. He was elected by acclamation the successor
of Pope Gregory XVI. in June, 1846. He granted an
amnesty to political transgressors, and acquired great
popularity by various measures of reform which he
commenced soon after his election. His first secretaiy
of state, Cardinal Girzi, was a friend of progress and a
liberal policy. The expenses of the papal court were
reduced, the censorship of the press was modified, and
the Jews were relieved from some oppressive regulations.
His reforms were partly frustrated by the ill will of many
of his functionaries, who opposed innovation. His



larity began to decline before the end of 1847. Excited
and elated by the French revolution, the Italian liberals
required greater concessions than the pope was willing
to grant After several violent demonstrations of the
populace, Pius IX. escaped from Rome in disguise in
November, 1848, and retired to Gaeta. A republic was
organized at Rome in February, 1849, but was subverted
by a French army which took the city in July of that
year and restored the pope. Among the later events of
his pontificate was the formal definition and recognition
of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception as a
part of the Roman Catholic creed, (1854.) During the
war which Austria waged against the French and Sar-
dinians in 1859, the people of the Romagna and the
legations revolted against the pope, and the Papal States
were annexed to the kingdom of Victor Emmanuel. In
January, 1860, the pope issued an anathema, or bull,
against those who abetted the invasion of his dominions.
This was probably aimed at Napoleon III., who sup-
pressed the journal in which it was published. Rome
was declared the capital of the new kingdom of Italy
in 1860, after which the question of the pope's tem-
poral power remained for some time one of the great
problems of European diplomacy. The recognition of
the kingdom of Italy by the French court (1861) was
accompanied by the reservation that " French troops
shall continue to occupy Rome so long as the interests
which caused their presence shall not be protected by
sufficient guarantees." The pope was the only power
that recognized the "Confederate States of North Amer-
ica." The results of the war between the Emperor of
Austria and the allied Kings of Prussia and Italy in 1866
were unfavourable to papal domination. About the loth
of December, 1866, the French army departed from
Rome, and Italy was relieved from the presence of for-
eign soldiery, for the first time probably in a thousand
years. He convoked by an encyclical letter an cecu-
menical council which met at Rome in December, 1869,
to assert or define the dogma of the pope's infallibility,
which, after a long deliberation, was finally established
in T"ly, 1870. The Italian army took Rome on the zoth
of September, without serious resistance, and the tem-
poral power of the pope was then abolished, but Pius
remained in Rome until his death, February 7, 1878.

Fix, (MARY,) originally GRIFFITH, an English drama-
tist, born in Oxfordshire about 1665 ; died about 1720.

Pix'is, (JoHANN PETER,) a German pianist and com-
poser, born in 1788 at Mannheim, where his father,
Friedrich Wilhelm, was a musician of some local repute.
The son's chief fame was won as a teacher of the piano,
both in Paris and in Baden-Baden, at which latter place
he died December 21, 1874.

Pix'ley, (ANNIE,) an American actress, born at
New York city in 1855. She married Robert Fulford,
an actor, in 1 87 1 , and appeared with him on the stage in
1876. She became a favourite in the character of
M'liss, also in "The Deacon's Daughter." Died in
1893.

Pizarre. See PIZARRO.

Pizarro, pe-zar'ro, [Sp. pron. pe-thar'ro; *r. ]
ZARRE, pe'zi-R',] (FRANCISCO,) the conqueror of Peru,
was born at Truxillo, in Spain, about 1475. He was th
natural son of Gonzalo Pizarro, who was a colonel
the Spanish army. He was employed as a swineherd in
his youth, and never learned to read or write. The date
of his emigration to the New World has not been pre-
ferred ; but in 1510 he took part in the expedition of
Ojeda from Hispaniola to Terra Firma. He afterwards
served under Balboa, with whom he performed an ai
duous march across the mountains from Danen to the
Pacific Ocean. In 1522 Pizarro, who had risen to it
rank of captain, associated himself, at Panama, with
Almagro and a rich priest named De Luque, in an enter-
prise to explore and conquer the region which lies south
of the Isthmus of Darien. Having enlisted in his service
about one hundred desperadoes, he sailed from Panama
with one small vessel in November, 1524.
pedition was unsuccessful and attended with great hard-
ships. He renewed the enterprise in_ 1 526, but made
slow progress and lost many men.



He landed at the



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dry of Trmbez without opposition, and was stimulated
to pursue his project by the sight of the gold trinkets
and utensils which the natives displayed in great pro-
fusion. Having explored the coast as far as Truxillo,
about 9 south latitude, he found it inexpedient to pro-
ceed with his reduced force, and returned to Panami
in 1528. With the consent of Almagro and De Luque,
Pizarro went to Spain to solicit aid from the king. In
this mission he was successful. He procured for himself
an appointment as governor and captain-general' of the
region which he might conquer for a distance of two
hundred leagues south of Santiago ; but he neglected to
obtain any high office for Alrr.agro, who was disgusted
with this perfidious conduct. In January, 1531, Pizarro
sailed from Panami with one hundred and eighty men
and about thirty horses, leaving Almagro behind to
muster reinforcements. A civil war which raged in Peru
between Atahualpa and Huascar presented a favour-
able opportunity for his design. Having marched across
the sierra of the Andes to Caxamarca, he met the Inca
Atahualpa in November, 1532. The treacherous and
audacious Spaniard seized the Inca, who had come to
the Spanish camp for a friendly interview. To obtain
his liberty, the Inca offered to fill a room twenty-two
feet long and sixteen feet wide with golden vessels and
utensils, etc. up to a line as high as he could reach.
Pizarro assented to this proposal, and obtained about
1,326,000 pesos of gold, the value of which Prescott
estimates at over fifteen millions of dollars ; but he caused
Atahualpa to be put to death by the garotc. "The
blood-stained annals of the conquest," says Prescott,
"afford no such example of cold-hearted and systematic
persecution, not of an enemy, but of one whose whole
deportment had been that of a friend and benefactor."
In November, 1533, Pizarro entered Cuzco, the capital,
and the conquest of Peru was virtually effected. Civil
war broke out in 1537 between Pizarro and Almagro,
who was defeated and executed in 1538. (See ALMAGRO.)
To avenge his death, a conspiracy was formed by Alma-
gro the Younger, and Pizarro was assassinated at Lima
in June, 1541. "The name of Pizarro became a by-word
of perfidy," says Prescott, who, however, praises his
invincible constancy.

See PRESCOTT, "Conquest of Peru;" ROBERTSON, "History
of America;" ZARATB, " Historia de la Conquista de Peru ;" HER-
RERA, " Novus Orbis ;" GARCJLASSO DK LA VEGA, "Comentarios
Reales :" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Pizarro, (GoNZAT.o,) a brother of the preceding, was
bom about 1506. He went to the New World in 1530,
and served under Francisco Pizarro in Peru. According
to Prescott, he was inferior in talent to his brother, but
quite as unscrupulous. He was appointed governor
of Quito in 1540, and discovered the river Napo. In
1544 he became the leader of malcontents who revolted
against the viceroy Nunez. About the end of 1545 the
latter was defeated and killed in battle by Pizarro, who
remained master of Peru. He in turn was defeated near
Cuzco by the viceroy Gasca in April, 1548, and beheaded
in the same month.

See PRESCOTT, " History of the Conquest of Peru ;" HERRERA,
" Novus Orbis."

Pizarro, (HERNANDO,) was a half-brother of the pre-
ceding. He left Spain in 1530, and took a prominent
part in the conquest of Peru. With a force of about
seven hundred men he defeated Almagro at Las Salinas
in April, 1538. He returned to Spain in 1539, and was
imprisoned twenty years, probably for the execution of


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 230 of 425)