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published accounts of more than two hundred and thirty
species of fishes before undescribed, and has attained
distinction in general literature.

Pogge, lie. See POGGIO.

Poggendorf, pog'gen-doRf, (JoKANN CHRISTIAN,) 3.
German savant and professor of natural philosophy at
Berlin, was born at Hamburg in 1796. He became in
1824 editor of the " Annals of Physics and Chemistry."
Among his principal works is a treatise " On the Mag-
netism of the Voltaic Pile," in which he was the firs'.
to explain the principles of the multiplicator and its
application. Died January 24, 1877.

Foggi, de', da pod'jee, (GIUSEPPE,) CHEVALIER, an
Italian writer, born near Piacenza in 1761. He was a
member of the French legislative body from 1811 to 1814.
He wrote " On Sincere Reformation," (" Delle Emende
sincere," 3 vols., 1791,) and other works. Died in
France in 1842.

Poggiani, pod-ja'nee, (GiULio,) an Italian scholar,
corn at Suna, on Lake Maggiore, in 1522. He was
secretary of Carlo Borromeo. He left " Epistles and
Orations," in Latin, (4 vols., 1756-62,) which are said to
be elegant. Died in 1568.

Poggio Bracciolini, pod'jo brat-cho-lee'nee, [Fr.
LE POGGE, leh pozh,| (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO,) a dis-
tinguished Italian scholar and reviver of learning, was
born near Florence in 1380. He was a pupil of John of
Ravenna, was appointed apostolic secretary about 1413,
and served several successive popes in that capacity.
He rendered important services to literature by the dis-
covery of ancient manuscripts, for which he searched in
monasteries. He discovered seven orations of Cicero,
twelve plays of Plautus, the commentaries of Asconius
Pedianus, the history of Ammianus Marcellinus, and
other classic works. He wrote satires against the monks
and clergy, and against Filelfo, with whom he was in-
volved in a long and acrimonious controversy. In 1435
he married a young lady named Selvaggia Buondelmonti.
After this event he resided many years at Florence, and
published in 1437 a collection of letters, which were
greatly admired. Having passed several years in Rome,
ae returned to Florence about 1450, and was appointed
chancellor there in 1453. Among his works, which are
all in Latin, are a " Dialogue on Nobility," (" De No-
bilitate Dialogus,") a " History of Florence from 1350
to 1455," ("Historia Florentina," etc., 1476,) and "On

the Mutability of Fortune," (" De Varietate Fortunae.")
He died in Florence in October, 1459.

See WILLIAM SHEPHERD, "Life of Poggio Bracciolini," 1801;
THORSCHMIDT, " Dissertatio de F. Poggii Bracciolini Vita,' 1713 ;
J. LENFANT, "Poggiana," etc., 2 vols., 1720: NICSRON, 0*6-
moires;" C. NISARD, "Les Gladiateurs dc la Re>ublique des Let
(res ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" " Edinburgh Review foi
October, 1836.

Pogodin, po-go-deen', (MIKHAIL PETROVITCH,) a
Russian historical writer, born at Moscow in 1800. In
1833 he was appointed a professor in the Moscow Uni-
versity, and ten years later devoted himself to archaeo-
logical studies. His " Isledovania, Zamietchaniya i
Lektzie" (7 vols., 1846-54) is highly valued as an autho-
rity on Old Russian history. He also wrote novels and
dramas, and a celebrated series of panslavistic letters.
Died in 1875.

Pohl, pol, (CARL FERDINAND,) a German musician,
composer, and writer on music, born at Darmstadt, Sep-
tember 6, 1819. He published " Mozart and Haydn in
London," (1867,) and other works, and prepared a
biography of Haydn, (vol. i., 1875.)

Pohl, pol, (JoiiANN CHRISTOPH,) a German physician,
born near Liegnitz in 1706; died in 1780.

Pohl, (JouANN EMANUEL,) a German botanist, born
at Vienna in 1784. He published, in Latin, "Descrip-
tions and Figures of Brazilian Plants," (2 vols., 1827-31,)
and, in German, "Travels in Brazil," (2 vols., 1832.)
Died in 1834.

Poilly, de, deh pwa'ye', (FRANCOIS,) an eminent
French engraver, born at Abbeville in 1622. He worked
in Rome and Paris, and engraved some works of Raphael,
Giulio Romano, and Poussin. In 1664 he received the
title of engraver to the king. Died in Paris in 1693.

Poilly, de, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a skilful engraver, a
nephew of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1669 ;
died in Paris in 1728.

Poilly, de, (NICOLAS,) an engraver, born at Abbe-
ville in 1626, was the father of the preceding. He was
not equal to his brother Fran9ois. Died in 1696.

FoLa'dex-ter, (GEORGE,) an able American states-
man and jurist, born in Louisa county, Virginia. Hav-
ing removed to Mississippi, he was appointed in 1813
United States judge for that district, and was elected
to Congress in 1817. He there distinguished himself
by his eloquent defence of the course of General Jack-
son in the Seminole war. He was afterwards elected
Governor of the State, and in 1831 a Senator of the
United States. He became an opponent of President
Jackson, and ceased to be a Senator in 1835. Died
in 1853.

Poin'sett, (JOEL ROBERTS,) a distinguished Ameri-
can statesman and diplomatist, born at Charleston, South
Carolina, in 1779. Having been several times elected
to Congress, he was sent in 1825 as minister to Mexico
by President Adams. In the contest between the Nul-
lification and Union parties he became the leader of the
latter. He was appointed secretary of war by President
Van Baren in March, 1837. He retired from that office
in March, 1841, after which 1 e was not employed in the
public service. He wrote " Notes on Mexico." Died
in December, 1851.

See the " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
vol. i. ; " Democratic Review" for February and March, 1838, (with
a portrait.)

Poinainet, pwiN'se'nJ', ( ANTOINE ALEXANDRK
HENRI,) a French dramatist, born at Fontainebleau in
1735. lie wrote several successful comedies and comic
operas, among which is "The Circle, or Soiree & 1>
Mode," (1771.) He was accidentally drowned at C<5r-
dova, in Spain, in 1769.

Poinsinet de Sivry, pwaN'se'ni' deh se'vRe',
(Louis,) a French litterateur, born at Versailles in 1733.
He produced a popular tragedy, named " Briseis,"
(1759,) and various other works of little merit. He
transited Pliny's "Natural History," (1771-81.) He
was a brother-in-law of Palissot Died in 1804.

Poinsot, pwaN'so', (Louis,) a French geometer, born
in Paris in 1777. He published in 1803 "Elements
of Statics," which presents new and ingenious ideas.
Among his other works is a " Memoir on the Applica-
tion of Algebra to the Theory of Numbers," (1820.)

as k: c as s; g hard: g as/; G, H, K,gvttural; N, ttasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23.)




He was elected to the Institute, in place of La Grange,
in 1813. In 1852 he became a senator. Died in De-
cember, 1859.

Poiret, pwa'rj', (JEAN Louis MARIE,) a French
naturalist, born at Saint-Quentin about 1755. He pub-
lished "Travels in Barbary," (2 vols., 1789,) a work of
merit, a "Botanical Dictionary," (20 vols., 1789-1823,)
which forms part of the "Encyclopedic Me'thodique,"
and "The Philosophical, Literary, and Economical
History of the Useful Plants of Europe," (7 vols., 1825
-29.) Died in 1834.

See QUBRARD, " La France Litte'raire.'

Poiret, (PIERRE,) a French philosopher and mystical
writer, born at Metz in 1646. He became a Protestant
minister, and preached at Hamburg and Amsterdam. It
is stated that he rejected the light and guidance of
reason. He wrote, in Latin, besides many other works,
"The Divine Economy," (7 vols., 1687.) Died in 1719.

See NIC^RON, "Me'moires;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Poirier, pwa're-i', (GERMAIN,) a French monk, was
born in Paris in~T724. He wrote a " History cf the
Reign of Henry I. of France." Died in 1803.

Poirson, pwaR'sdn', (AUGUSTE SIMON JEAN CHRY-
SOSTOME,) a French historian, born in Paris in 1795. He
was principal of the College Charlemagne from 1837 to
1853. His chief works are a " History of Rome," (2
vols., 1824-26,) and a " History of Henry IV.," (2 vols.,
1857.) Died at Versailles, July 19, 1871.

Poirson, ( JEAN BAPTISTE, ) a French geographer,
born in the Vosges in 1760. He excelled in the con-
struction of terrestrial globes. Died in 1831.

Pois, Le, leh pwa, (ANTOINE,) a French numismatist,
born at Nancy in 1525; died in 1578.

Poia, Le, (CHARLES,) [LaL CARO'LUS Pi'so,] a dis-
tinguished physician, born at Nancy, France, in 1563.
He published a work entitled " Book of Select Observa-
tions and Counsels," (" Selectiorum Observationum et
Consiliorum Liber," 1618,) which, says Weiss, "assures
to him the reputation of a great physician." Died in 1633,
Pois, Le, (NICOLAS,) the father of the preceding
born at Nancy in 1527, was a skilful physician. He
published a good work " On the Knowledge and Cure
of Diseases," (" De Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis,"
1580.) Died in 1587.

Poise, pwiz, (FERDINAND,) a French musical com-
poser, born at Nimes in 1828. He produced a number
of sparkling operettas, chief among which are "La Sur-
prise de I'Amour" (1878) and "L'Amour Medecin,"
(1880.) Died in Paris, May 13, 1892.

Poiseuille, pwj'zul' or pwa'ruh'ye, (JEAN Louis
MARIE,) a French physician and physiologist, bom in
Paris in 1799. He wrote, besides other works, "Re-
searches on the Course of the Blood in the Veins,"
(1831.) Died December 26, 1869.

Poissant, pwi'soN', (THIBAUT,) a French sculptor,
born near Crecy in 1605 ; died in 1660.

Poisson, pwa'soN', (NICOLAS JOSEPH,) a French
ecclesiastic, born in Paris in 1637, was a disciple of Des-
cartes. He published " Delectus Actorum Ecclesiae
Universalis," (2 vols., 1706.) Died in 1710.

Poisson, (RAYMOND,) a popular French comedian,
born in Paris in 1633 ; died in 1690. His grandson,
FRANCOIS ARNOUL, (1696-1753,) was a favourite comic
actor of the Parisian stage.

Poisson, (SIMEON DENIS,) an excellent and profound
French geometer, born at Pithiviers (Loiret) on the 2ist
of June, 1781. He entered the Polytechnic School in
1798, and attracted the notice of La Grange and La
Place. He became professor in the same school in
1802, a member of the Bureau of Longitudes in 1808, a
member of the Institute in 1812, and counsellor of the
University in 1820. In 1811 he published an excellent
treatise on mechanics, " Traite de Mecanique," (2 vols.)
In his "New Theory of Capillary Action" (1831) he
completes the researches of La Place by superadding
the consideration of the variation of density. He pub-
lished a " Mathematical Theory of Heat," (2 vols., 1835,)
and a treatise on the theory of probabilities applied to
judicial trials, " Recherches sur la Probability des Juge-
ments," etc., (1837.) He also contributed more than

three hundred memoirs to various journals and periodi-
cals. Among these is a remarkable treatise "On the
Invariability of the Mean Movements of the Grand
Planetary Axes." It was in the domain of mathematical
physics that the genius of Poisson was most signally
displayed. He brought this science to great perfection,
especially in its application to static electricity and mag
netism. In 1837 he was raised to the dignity of a peei
of France, although he never was a politician Died in
April, 1840.

See ARAGO, " Notices biographiques," tome ii. : " Notice sur
'oisson," Orleans, 1840; " Noavelle Biographic Gene'rale."

Poissonnier, pwa'so'ne-4', ( PIERRE, ) a French
chemist and physician, born~at Dijon in 1720. He was
sent by the king about 1760 on a secret mission to Eliza-
beth of Russia, and, on his return, received the title of
councillor of state. He invented r-n apparatus or pro
cess to convert sea-water into fresh water. In 1764 he
became inspector and director of medicine for all the
hospitals and maritime arsenals of France. Died in 1798.

Poitevin, pwafvaN',(jACQUES,) a French astronomer,
born at Montpellier in 1742. He published "An Essay
on the Climate of Montpellier," (1803.) Died in 1807.

Poitevin, (PIERRE ALEXANDRE,) a French architect,
born at Bordeaux in 1782 ; died in 1859.

Poitevin, (ROBERT,) a French physician, born proba-
bly in Poitou about 1390. He was employed by the
queen, and by Agnes Sorel. Died in 1474.

Poitevin de Maureillau, pwat'viN' deh mo'r|'y6N',
(CASIMIR,) VICOMTE, a French general, born at Mont-
pellier in 1772. He distinguished himself at Austerlitz,
in 1805, and at Borodino, in 1812. Died in 1829.

Poitiers, de, (DIANE.) See DIANE.

Poivre, pwavR, (PIERRE,) a French traveller, born at
Lyons in 1719. He visited China in 1740, after which
he became an agent of the French East India Company,
and went to the Moluccas, from which he transplanted
the nutmeg-tree and other spices to the Isle of France
He was intendant of the Isles of France and Bourbon
from 1767 to 1773. He is said to have exhibited thert
an almost perfect model of an administrator and public
benefactor. Died in 1786.

See DUPONT DB NEMOURS, " Notice sur la Vie de M. Poivre,'
1786; A. BOULLKE, " Notice sur Poivre," 1835.

Poivre, Le, leh pwavR, a geometer, born at Mons
Belgium, lived about 1700. He wrote a "Treatise on
Sections of a Cylinder and Cone," (1704.)

Comte de Noailles and Prince de Poix, a French diplo-
matist, bopi in Paris in 1777 ; died in 1846.

Poix, de, deh pwa, (Louis,) a learned French monk,
born in the diocese of Amiens in 1714. He published
a new version of the Psalms, (1762,) and " Principles
discussed to facilitate the Study of the Prophetic Books,"
(16 vols., 1755-64.) Died in 1782.

Fojarski. See POZHARSKI.

Folain, polaN', (MATHIEU LAMBERT,) a Belgian
historian, born at Liege in 1808. His chief work is a
" History of Liege," (" Histoire de 1'ancien Pays de
Li(*ge," 2 vols., 1844-48.) Wed April 4, 1872.

Polanco, po-lan'ko, the name of three good Spanish
painters, who were brothers and natives of Seville.
The latest work of Carlos Polanco is dated 1686.

Poland, (LUKE POTTER,) LL.D., an American judge,
born at'Westford, Vermont, November I, 1815. He was
admitted to the bar in 1836. In 1848 he was made a
judge of the Vermont supreme court, and in 1860 be-
came chief justice. He was United States Senator.
1865-66, and a Representative to Congress, 1866-72, and
again, 1883-84. Died July 2, 1887.

Pole. See SUFFOLK.

Pole, |Lat. PO'LUS,] (REGINALD,) a celebrated Eng-
lish cardinal and scholar, was born in Staffordshire in
1500. His mother, Margaret Plantagenet, was a niece
of Edward IV., a daughter of George, Duke of Clar-
ence, and cousin-german to Queen Elizabeth who was
the mother of Henry VIII. He was educated at Oxford,
and became Dean of Exeter at the age of nineteen. He
pursued his studies at Padua, where he formed friend-
ships with Erasmus, Bembo, and Sadolet, and returned
to England in 1525. About 1531 he lost the favour of

E, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, p, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; m<55>>




Henry VIII. by his opposition to the divorce of Queen j
Catherine. Having retired to the continent for safety,
he wrote a famous treatise " For the Unity of the
Church," ("Pro Unitate Ecclesiae,") printed at Rome
without date, in which he controverted the pretensions
of Henry to be the head of the Church. His mother
and brother were executed by order of the king, and he
was attainted. On the accession of Queen Mary (1553)
he was sent by the pope as legate to England. He suc-
ceeded Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1555
or 1556. Historians are divided in opinion in relation
to his complicity in the persecutions of this reign ; and
his character is commonly represented as mild and
humane. Died in 1558.

See BETCAPHLLI, "Vita Poll Cardinalis," 1553; an English ver-
sion of the same, published by PYE in 1766; FROUDK, " History of
England;" THOMAS PHILLIPPS, "Life of R. Pole," 1764: HUME,
" History of England;" "*Jouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Pole, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., a versatile English author,
born in 1814. He was a professor of civil engineering
in Elphinstone College, Bombay, from 1844 to 1847, an d
in University College, London, from 1859 to 1867, and
in the latter year graduated as doctor of music at Saint
John's College, Oxford. Among his works are a "Trea-
tise of the Steam-Engine," (1844,) " Life of Sir William
Fairbairn," (1877,) " Philosophy of Music," (1879,) and
a celebrated treatise on whist.

Polemburg. See POELEMBURG.

Pol'e-mo or Pol'e-mon, [Gr. llo/lc/iuv; Fr. POLB-
MON, po'la'mdN',] a Greek philosopher, born at Athens,
or in Attica. He succeeded Xenocrates as the head
}( the old Academy about 315 B.C., and wrote several
works, which are not extant. Among his disciples
were Zeno the Stoic, and Arcesilaus. Died about
272 B.C.


Folemo, a Greek writer, who is supposed to have
lived between 100 and 250 A.D. He left a work on
Physiognomy, which is extant. He is quoted by Origen.

Folemo or Polemon, surnamed PERIEGE'TES, [Fr.
POLEMON LE PERIEGETE, po'li'moN' Ich pa're'a'zhjt',]
a Greek geographer, born at Samos or Sicyon, obtained
the citizenship of Athens, and lived about 200 P.C. He
wrote many works on geography, etc., of which fragments
are extant.

Polemo, or Polenio the Sophist, a celebrated
Greek rhetorician, born at Laodicea, flourished about
130 A.D. He taught rhetoric at Smyrna, and obtained
the favour of Trajan and Hadrian. He wrote several
works, which are lost, except two orations. He died
at the age of fifty-six.

See PHILOSTRATUS, "Vitas Sophistarum ;" FABRICIUS, " Biblio
theca Grseca."

Polemon. See POLEMO.

Poleni, po-la'nee, (GIOVAKNI,) MARQUIS, an Italiar
natural philosopher, born at Venice in 1683. He be-
came professor of physics at Padua in 1715, and suc-
ceeded N. Bernoulli as professor of mathematics in 1719.
Among his numerous works are a "Dialogue on Celes-
tial Vortices," (1712,) and "On the Mixed Motion of
Water," ("De Motu Aqua? mixto," 1717.) He was a
Fellow of the Royal Society of London. Died in 1761.

See P. COSSALI, " Elogio del Professor Poleni," 1813: FABRONI,
"Vita; Italorum doctrina excellentium ;" G. GENNARI, " Elogio del
Marchese G. Poleni," 1839.

Polenta, da, da po-len'ta, (Gumo NOVELLO,) became
Lord of Ravenna in 1275. He befriended the exiled
Dante, who came to his court in 1319 and remained
there until his death in 1321. Died in 1323.

Polentone, po-len-to'na, [Lat. POLENTO'NUS,] (SEC-
CO or Xicco,) an Italian scholar and writer, born at
Padua about 1390. Among his works are a " Life of
Seneca," and a comedy called "Catinia," (1842.) Died
about 1462.

See J. E. KAPP, "Dissertatio de X. Polentono," 1733.

Polevoi, po'leh-voi', ( NIKOLAI ALEXIEVITCH, ) a
Russian littlrateur and journalist, born in Siberia in 1796,
became in 1825 editor of the "Moscow Telegraph," a
periodical of great ability and influence, which was after-
wards suppressed by the government on account of its
liberal views. Among his works, which are very nume-
rous, we may name a " Life of Soov6rof," (Suwarow,)

a " Life of Peter the Great," (4 vols., 1843,) regarded as
the best life of that sovereign that has been written, the
dramas of " Parasha the Siberian Girl" and "The
Grandfather of the Russian Fleet," and a " History of
the Russian People," a part of which only has been
published. He also translated " Hamlet," and wrote
a number of valuable critical essays on Russian litera-
ture. Died in 1846.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Polheni, pol'hem, or Polhelm, pol'helm, (KRisro-
FER,) a Swedish engineer and mechanician, born in
Gothland in 1661. He invented several useful machines,
constructed the docks at Carlscrona, and obtained a title
of nobility. Died in 1751.

Poll, po'lee, (GIUSEPPE S.\ VERIO,) an Italian natural-
ist and physiologist, born at Molfetta, in the kingdom of
Naples, in 1746. He became professor of geography and
history in a military school at Naples about 1776, aftei
which he was sent by the king to France and England
to examine educational institutions and procure scientific
apparatus. He was the preceptor of the prince who
reigned as Francis I. His reputation is chiefly founded
on an excellent work on testaceous mollusca, " History
and Anatomy of the Testacea of the Two Sicilies,"
("Testacea utriusque Sicilian eorumque Historia et
Anatome," 2 vols., 1791-95.) The third volume was
published in 1826. "This magnificent work," says Cu-
vier, " represents their anatomy with much accuracy, and
throws new light on their physiology." Died in 1825.

See P. N. GIAMPAOLO, "Elogio di S. Poli," 1825; SERAPINO
GATTI, " Biografia di G. S. Poli," 1825 ; TIPALDO, " Biografia degli
Italian! illustn."

Poli, (MARTINO,) an Italian chemist, born at Lucca
ji 1662 ; died at Paris in 1714.

Po'H-as, [Gr. IloAiuf, from mi/lie, a "city,"] (the " protec
tress of cities,") a surname of Athena, (Minerva.) There
was at Athens a celebrated temple of Athena Polias.

Polibio See POLYBIUS.

Polidoio. See CARAVAGGIO.

Polier, po'le-4', (ANTOINE NOE,) a Swiss writer,
born in 1713, was a friend of Voltaire. He became
pastor of Lausanne in 1754, and wrote articles for the
" Encyclopedic." Died in 1783.

Polignac, de, deh po'len'ySk', (AUGUSTS JULES An-
WAND MARIE,) PRINCE, a French minister of state, born
at Versailles in 1780. His mother, the Duchess of Po-
lignac, was a favourite of Marie Antoinette. He became
minister of foreign affairs in August, 1829, and the chief
minister before the end of the year. His ultramontane
and absolutist policy rendered him very unpopular. In
consequence of the victory of the liberals and insurgents
over Charles X. in 1830, he was arrested, tried for treason,
and condemned to imprisonment for life. He was re-
leased in 1836, and retired to England. Died in 1847.

See " Quarterly Review" for October, 1832, (by SOUTHKY.)

Polignac, de, (MELCHIOR,) a French diplomatist and
Latin poet, born at Puy-en-Velay (Upper Loire) in 1661.
He was sent in 1695 as ambassador to Poland, where
by his address he induced a majority of the electors to
choose the French prince De Conti as king in 1697. He
succeeded Bossuet in the French Academy in 1704. In
1712 he was sent as plenipotentiary to the Congress of
Utrecht. He became a cardinal in 1713. He acquired
a high literary reputation by his Latin poem (in refu-
tation of Lucretius) entitled "Anti-Lucretius, sive de
Deo et Natura Libri novem," (1745.) Died in 1742.
Voltaire, in his "Temple du Gout," praises Polignac
as a successful opponent of Lucretius, and as one wh
combined the qualities of Virgil and Plato :

" Re*unissant Virgile avec Platon,

Vengeur du Ciel et vainqueur de Lucrece."
See CHRYSOSTOME FAUCHER, " Histoire du Cardinal de Polignac,"
2 vols., 1777; DORTOUS DE MAiRAN, " E"loge du Cardinal de Po-
lignac," 1742; SAINT-SIMON, " Me"raoires ;" "Nouvelle Biographic

Poliniere, pole'ne^iR', (PiERRK.) a French natural
philosopher, born near Vire in 1671. He gained dis-
tinction at the College of Harcourt as a teacher of natural
philosophy by the experimental method, and published
''Experiments in Physics," (1709.) Died in 1734.


Folit, po'le', Polite, po'ltt', or Le Poli, leh pole',

eas,- casj; f>Aard; gas/;G, H,K.,gJitturat; N, nasal: 9, trilled: sass; thasin//4;j. (jJ^'See Explanations, p. 23.)




| Lat. POLI'TUS,] (JEAN,) a Flemish poet, born at or
near Liege about 1554; died after 1601.

Polita, po-lee'tee, (ALESSANDRO,) an Italian scholar,
born at Florence in 1679. He became professor of
eloquence at Pisa in 1733. He published, besides other
works, an edition of Eustathius's " Commentary on
Homer," with a Latin version and notes, (3 vols., 1730-
35.) Died in 1752.

See FABRONI, "Viue Italorum doctrina eicellentium."


Politian, po-lish'e-an, [It. POLIZIANO, po-let-se-J'no;
Lat. POLITIA'NUS; Fr. POLITIEN, po'le'se^N',] (An-
GELO,) a celebrated Italian classical scholar and poet,
born at Montepulciano, (Mons Politianus,) in Tuscany, in
July, 1454. His family namewasAMBRor.INI. Hestudied
Latin under Cristoforo Landino, and Greek under An-
dronicus of Thessalonica. About 1468 he wrote stanzas,
in Italian, in honour of Giuliano de' Medici, which were
much admired. He was patronized by Lorenzo de'
Medici, who employed him as preceptor of his sons and
treated him as a friend as long as he lived. As pro-
fessor of Greek and Latin at Florence, he acquired a
high reputation. He produced elegant Latin versions
of the History of Herodian, of the Manual of Epictetus,
and of the " Charmides" of Plato. He wrote notes on
Ovid, Catullus, Pliny the Younger, and other Latin

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 234 of 425)