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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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authors. Among his works are Latin odes and epi-
grams, and a Latin poem called "Rusticus." "In his
Latin poems," says Ginguene', " we find the fire of an
imagination truly poetic, and that taste and elegance
which were the natural attributes of his mind." Died
at Florence in 1494.

"In 1480 or 1483," says Hallam, " Politian was placed
in the chair of Greek and Latin eloquence at Florence,
a station perhaps the most conspicuous and the most
honourable which any scholar could occupy. It is
beyond controversy that he stands at the head of that
class in the fifteenth century. The envy of some of his
contemporaries attested his superiority. In 1489 he
published his once celebrated ' Miscellanea," consisting
of one hundred observations illustrating passages of
Latin authors." (" Introduction to the Literature of
Europe.") He was characterized by Erasmus as " rarum
naturae miraculum," ("a rare miracle of nature.")

See SBRASSI, "Vitadi A. Poliziano;" F. OTTO MENCKEN. "His-

FELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" N. A. BONAPOOS, " De
A. Politiani Vita et Operibus," 1845: BAYLE, "Historical and
Critical Dictionary;" TIRABOSCHI, " Storia della Letteratura Ita-
liana;" "Nouvelle Biographic G^ne'rale:" "Lives of the Italian
Poets," by REV. HENRY STEBBING ; " Italian Narrative Poetry,"
in the " North American Review" for October, 1824, (by PRKSCOTT.)

Politianus or Politiano. See POLITIAN.

Politien. See POUTIAN.

Politus. See POLIT.

Politz or Poelitz, po'lits, (KARL HEINRICH Lun-
wic,) a German historian, born at Ernstthal in 1772.
He became professor of history and statistics at Leipsic
in 1815. Among his numerous works are a "History
of Saxony and the Duchy of Warsaw," (3 vols., iSoS-io,)
and " Political Sciences according to the Ideas of oui
Epoch," (5 vols., 1823-28.) Died in 1838.

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations-Lexikon. "

Poliziano. See POLITIAN.

Polk, pok, ([AMES KNOX,) the eleventh President
of the United States, was born in Mecklenburg county,
North Carolina, on the 2d of November, 1795, and re-
moved with his father to Middle Tennessee in 1806.
He graduated in the University of North Carolina
about 1816, and studied law. He was elected a member
of Congress from Tennessee in 1825 and at several suc-
ceeding elections. In 1835 he was chosen Speaker of
the House of Representatives by the Democrats. He
was also Speaker of the twenty-fifth Congress, (1837-38.)
In 1839 he was elected Governor of Tennessee for two
years. At the election of 1841 he was defeated by the
Whig candidate for Governor. In 1844 Polk and Dallas
were nominated for the offices of President and Vice-
President by the Democratic National Convention, which
on the first ballot had not given Mr. Polk a single vote.
His competitor was Henry Clay. The principal issue in

this election was the annexation of Texas, Which Mr.
Polk was pledged to promote. He was elected, receiving
one hundred and seventy electoral votes out of two
hundred and seventy-five, which was the whole num-
ber. He appointed James Buchanan secretary of state,
and afterwards the formal annexation of Texas to the
Union (1845) involved the country in an aggressive war
against Mexico, which began in May, 1846. The army
of the United States, commanded by General Scott, after
several victories, took the city of Mexico in September,
1847. The Mexicans obtained peace by the cession of
Upper California and New Mexico. A dispute with the
British government about the boundary of Oregon was
settled during his administration, by an agreement that
the parallel of 49 should be the dividing line. He re-
tired from office in March, and died at Nashville in
June, 1849.

See L. CHASE, " History of the Administration of James K.
Polk," 1850 ; LEVI WOODBURY, " Eulogy on James K. Polk," 1830.

Polk, (LEONIDAS,) an American who became famous
for his twofold character of bishop and general, was
born at Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1806, and graduated
at West Point in 1827. He was ordained an Episcopal
clergyman about 1831, and was chosen Bishop of Loui-
siana in 1841. In 1861 he took arms against the Union,
with the rank of major-general, and distinguished him-
self by his activity and zeal in the Confederate service.
He occupied Columbus, Kentucky, in September, 1861,
and evacuated it about the 1st of March, 1862. He
commanded a division at the battle of Shiloh, April,

1862, and served as lieutenant-general at the battle of
Stone River, which ended January 2, 1863. He led a
corps at the battle of Chickamauga, September 19-20,

1863. He was killed near Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia,
in June, 1864.

Polk, (LEONIDAS L.,) agriculturist, was born in
Anson county, North Carolina, in 1837. He was in
the Confederate army during the war, began publish-
ing " The Progressive Farmer" in 1886, and organ-
ized in his State in 1887 five hundred clubs of the
Farmers' Alliance. He presided over the conventions
of the Alliance in 1890 and 1891. Died in 1892.

Pol'ko, (ELISE,) a German novelist, a sister of
Eduard Vogel, (q. v.) She was born at Minden, Jan-
uary 31, 1823. Among her works are "Musical
Sketches," (1852 ft seq.,~) "New Novels," (1861 ct
seq.,) " Fair Women," (1865-69,) etc.

Follajuolo, pol-la-yoo-o'lo, (ANTONIO,) an eminent
Italian painter and sculptor, born at Florence in 1426 or
1431, was also a skilful goldsmith. His master-piece of
painting is " The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian." He
was invited to Rome by Innocent VIII., for whom (with
the aid of his brother Pietro) he made a monument to
Sixtus IV. He excelled in composition and in knowledge
of anatomy. Died in 1498.

Pollajuolo, (SiMONE.) See CRONACA.

Pollard, (JOSEPHINE,) an American author, born
at New York city about 1842. She early engaged in
literary work, writing religious and children's books;
also "Vagrant Verses," (1887,) "Favourite Birds,
and what Poets sing of them," (1888.) Died in 1892.

Pollet, poli', (JOSEPH MICHEL ANGE,) a French
sculptor, born at Palermo in 1814. He became a resi
dent of Paris about 1844, and obtained a first medal it
1850. His works adorn the Tuileries and other imperial
palaces. Died December 31, 1870.

Pollet, (VICTOR FLORENCE,) a French painter and
engraver, born in Paris about 1810. He gained by his
engravings the prize of Rome in 1838, and a medal of
the first class in 1849. Died December n, 1882.

Pollich, pol'liK, (JoHANN ADAM,) a German natural-
ist, born at Lautern in 1740. He published a good Flora
of the Palatinate, " Historia Plantarum in Palatinatu
Electoral! sponte nascentium," (1776.) Died in 1780.

Pollich, [Lat. POLLICH'IUS,] (MARTIN,) a German
physician, eminent for learning, born at Mellerstadt,
was an ancestor of the preceding. He became in 1503
professor of theology in the University of Wittenberg,
of which he was the first rector. He published " T ~-
conismi," (1504,) and other works. Died in 1513.


a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 5, ii, y 1 , short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fat; mftt; nflt; good; moon;




Pollichius. See POLLICH.

PolTI-o, (AsiNiys,) a sophist or philosopher, born at
Tralles, in Asia Minor. He taught at Rome about 50
B.C., and, according to Suidas, wrote a commentary on
Aristotle's treatise "On Animals."

FolTI-o, [Fr. POLLION, po'le'6N',] (CAius ASINIUS,)
an eminent Roman orator, author, and patron of litera-
ture, was born at Rome in 76 B.C. He was a partisan
of Cssar in the rivil war which began in 49 B.C., and
crossed the Rubicon with that chief. He took part in
the battle of Pharsalia, in 48, and commanded in Spain
against Sextus Pompey at the time of Caesar's death, 44
B.C. Having taken arms for Antony and Octavius, he
obtained the office of consul by their influence in 40
B.C. and saved the patrimony of Virgil from confiscation.
Virgil addressed to him the fourth eclogue in 40 B.C.,
and the eighth eclogue soon after that date. Pollio
retired from the public service about the year 38, and
remained neutral in the war between Octavius and An-
tony. He founded the first public library at Rome, and
patronized Virgil, Horace, and other poets. He wrote a
valuable history of the civil wars of Rome, and several
poems, which were praised by Virgil. None of these
works are extant. His excellence as an orator is attested
by Quintilian and other ancient writers. He was also
distinguished as a critic He had a son named C. Asi-
nius Callus. (See CALLUS.) Died in 4 A.D.

See THORBECKE, " Commentatio de C. A. Pollionis Vita et Stu-
diis," 1820; EKERMAN, " Dissertatio de C. A. Pollione," 1745:
APPIAN, " De BeMo Civili;" DE BUGNY, "Pollion, ou !e Siecle
d'Auguste," 4 vols., 1808 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Gtne>ale."

Pollio, (TREBELLIUS,) a Roman historian who lived
in the reign of Constantine 1. He was one of the
authors of the " Historia Augusta," to which he con-
tributed the lives of the two Valerians, of the two
Gallieni, of the Thirty Tyrants, and of Claudius.

Pollion. See POLLIO.

PolLuitz or Foellnitz, pol'nits, (KARL LUDWIG,) a
German adventurer and historical writer, born at Isso-
uiin (Prussia) in 1692. He sought fortune at several
courts of Europe, and was appointed grand master of
ceremonies by Frederick the Great. He wrote, besides
other works, " Saxe galante," (1737,) which narrates the
amours of King Augustus, and Memoirs of his own
life and times, (" Memoires du Baron de Poellnitz," 3
vols., 1734.) Died in 1775.

Pol'lpck, (Sir FREDERICK,) an English judge, born
in London in 1783. He became attorney-general in 1834,
and lord chief baron of the exchequer in 1844, which
position he held until 1866. Died in 1870.

Pol'lock, (JAMES,) an American Governor, born in
Pennsylvania, graduated at Princeton College in 1831.
He represented a district of Pennsylvania in Congress
from 1843 to '^49, and was elected Governor of that
State by the People's party, or Republicans, for three
years, (1855-58.) Died April 19, 1890.

Pollock, (WALTER HERRIES,) an English author,
son of Sir Frederick, was born at London in 1850.
He became sub-editor of the " Saturday Review," and
was its editor 1884-94. He published several collec-
tions of poems, " Lectures on French Poets," etc., and,
with Walter Besant, "The Ballad-Monger," a play.
His brother, Sir FREDERICK, was author of legal and
other works.

Fol'lok, (ROBERT,) a British poet, born at Muirhouse,
in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in 1798 or 1799. He studied
at the University of Glasgow, and chose the profession
of minister of the gospel. He obtained a license as
minister in the United Secession Church in 1827, but
his health was already fatally impaired by excessive
study. His reputation is founded on " The Course of
Time," (1827,) a didactic poem, which found many ad-
mirers, especially among those who take an interest in
religious poetry. It contains some beautiful and many
powerful passages, but it has great defects, and is not
considered very attractive as a poem, apart from its
religious and moral doctrines. "The Course of Time,"
tays Moir, " is a very extraordinary poem, vast in its
conception, vast in its plan, vast in its materials, and
vast, if very far from perfect, in its achievement." " The

casj; ghard; gas/;G, H, K.,guttural;; -e.,trilleJ; sasz; thasinM.

Course of Time," says Professor Wilson, " for so young
a man, was a vast achievement. . . . He had much to
learn in composition. . . . But the soul of poetry is
there, though often dimly enveloped ; and many passages
there are, and long ones too, that heave and hurry
and glow along in a divine enthusiasm." He wrote,
in prose, "Tales of the Covenanters." Died near
Southampton in September, 1827.

See " Life of R. Pollok," by his brother, 1842 ; CHAMBERS,
" Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen :" " Blackwood'e
Magazine" for June, 1827.

Pollux, a demi-god of classic mythology, and a
brother of Castor. See CASTOR and POLLUX.

Fol'lux, ( JULIUS,) a Greek grammarian, whose proper
name was POLYDEUCES, was born at Naucratis, in Egypt,
about 130 A.D. He enjoyed the favour of Marcus Aure-
lius and Commodus, and taught rhetoric at Athens in
the reign of the latter. His works are all lost, except
his " Onomasticon," a kind of dictionary of Greek words,
(not in alphabetical order,) which is highly prized. He
died at the age of fifty-eight.

See FABRICIUS, "Bibliotheca Graeca."

Pollux, (JULIUS,) a Byzantine writer, who lived in
the tenth or eleventh century. He wrote a "Chronicle,
or Universal History from the Creation to the Time of
Valens," which is extant.

Po'lo, (CASPAR GIL,) a Spanish poet and novelist,
born at Valencia about the middle of the sixteenth
century. He was a lawyer and a professor of Greek.
He gained celebrity by a poetical romance, entitled
" Diana in Love," (" Diana enamorada,") which was
translated into English, French, and Latin.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Polo, (JAYME,) called THE ELDER, a Spanish painter,
born at Burgos in 1560, was a good colorist. Died
in 1600.

Polo, ( JAYME,) THE YOUNGER, a painter, born at
Burgos in 1620 ; died at Madrid in 1655.

Po'lo, (MARCO,) [Fr. MARC POL, mtuk pol, (or PAUL,
pol,)] a famous Venetian traveller, born about 1252,
was a son of Niccol6 Polo, a merchant of noble rank.
About 1255 Niccol6 and his brother Matteo, or Maffeo,
commenced an extensive expedition, with a stock of
precious stones, which they sold to a Tartar chief on
the Volga. They arrived in 1261 at Bokhara, where
they learned the Mongol language. Accepting the in-
vitation of a Persian envoy whom they met at Bokhara,
they accompanied him to the court of Kooblai Khan,
the Great Mogul, who ruled over China and Tartary.
This prince received them favourably, and accredited
them as his ambassadors to the pope, whom he desired to
send to him a hundred learned men to teach his Mongol
subjects. They returned home in 1269, and found that
the pope had died in 1268. His successor, who was
not elected until 1271 or 1272, gave them letters to
Kooblai Khan, to whom they returned accompanied by
young Marco. They arrived at the court of Kooblai
in 1275. Marco learned several Asiatic languages, and
obtained the favour of the Khan, who sent him on im-
portant missions to China and other provinces. He
was the first European that entered China, in which
he passed several years. Having obtained the consent
of Kooblai Khan, the three Venetians quitted his ser-
vice about 1292, and, embarking on the coast of China,
came to Ormuz by water, and reached Venice in 1295,
with many diamonds, rubies, etc. of great value. Marco
commanded a galley in a battle against the Genoese, by
whom he was taken prisoner. During his long cap-
tivity he composed a narrative of his adventures, by the
aid of notes which he had written previously. It is said
that a French version of his book was made under his
direction. His narrative produced a great sensation,
and was translated into many languages, but for several
ages was regarded as a tissue of fictions or gross ex-
aggerations. The researches and revelations of suc-
cessive centuries have more and more confirmed his
veracity ; and it is now recognized that his services had
great influence on the progress of navigation and com-
merce. " When in the long series of ages," says M.
Walckenaer, "we search for three men who by the
grandeur and influence of thtir discoveries have con-

Explanations, p. 23.)




tributed most to the progress of geography or of our
knowledge of the globe, the modest name of the
Venetian traveller presents itself in the same line with
the names of Alexander the Great and Christopher
Columbus." He died about 1324. Among the best
editions of his book is that of Baldelli, " II Milione di
Messer Marco Polo," (4 vols., 1827.) An English ver-
sion, by Marsden, was published in 1818.

See PLACIDO ZURLA, "Di M. Polo e degli altri antichi Viag-

patori," etc., 1818 ; STEIN. "Ueber den VenetianerM. Polo," 1821 ;
G. B. BALDELLI, "Vita di M. Polo," 1827; G. PAUTHJBR, article
"Polo," in the " Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale. "

Polonoeau, po'ldn'sS', (ANTOINE RJMI,) a French
engineer, born at Rheims in 1778. As engineer-in-chief
of the department of Mont Blanc, he constructed a road
over Mont Cenis about 1812. Among his works is the
Pont du Carrousel at Paris, (1834.) He wrote several
professional works. Died in 1847. His son, JEAN BAR-
THELEMY CAMILLE, (1813-59,) was distinguished as a
railway engineer and director.

Poltrot de Mer6, pol'tRo' deh meh-ra', (JEAN,) a
French fanatic, who assassinated Francis, Duke de
Guise, in 1563. He was executed the same year.

Polus. See POLE.

Polus, a Sophist of Agrigentum, lived about 400 B.C.,
and was a disciple of Gorgias. He wrote a work on

Polus, (MATTHEW.) See POOLE.

Folwhele, pol'wheel, (Rev. RICHARD,) an English
antiquary and poet, born at Truro in 1759 or 1760.
Among his works is a " History of Cornwall." Died
in 1838.

Folyaenus, pol-e-ee'nus, [noAtxHvof,] OF LAMPSACUS,
was an eminent mathematician ; but, having become a
friend and disciple of Epicurus, he renounced geometry,
as unworthy of his notice.

Polyaenus, a Macedonian writer, who lived about
150 A.D. He wrote a work on "Stratagems in War,"
which he dedicated to Marcus Aurelius and Verus. It
is extant, and is prized for the numerous anecdotes and
facts which he has collected, and which are not found

Polybe. See POLYBIUS.

Polybius. See POLYBUS.

Po-lybl-us, [Gr. IlotoSiof ; Fr. POLYBE, po'leb 7 ; It,
POLIBIO, po-lee'be-o,] a celebrated Greek historian, born
at Megalopolis, in Arcadia, about 206 B.C. He was a
son of Lycortas, who succeeded his friend Philopcemen
as general of the Achaean League in 182 B.C. Polybius
obtained in 169 B.C. command of the cavalry raised to
fight for the Romans against Perseus ; but his ser-
vices were declined by the Roman general. In 167 the
Romans transported to Italy, as hostages or exiles, one
thousand Achaeans, among whom was Polybius. He
found a home in the house of Paulus jEmilius, and
became the preceptor of his son Scipio, afterwards the
famous Scipio Africanus the younger. A warm friend-
ship was formed between this pupil and Polybius, who
accompanied him in all his campaigns. He witnessed the
conquest and destruction of Carthage, (146 B.C.,) soon
after which he went to Greece and exerted his influence
with some success to procure favourable terms for the
conquered Achaeans. He afterwards devoted himself
to the completion of a general history, for which he had
been preparing himself for some years by studies and
by journeys to Egypt, Spain, Gaul, etc. The exact date
of his death is unknown. Lucian states that he died at
the age of eighty-two. His great work, entitled Kaft>-
fa<il, noivil iaropia, (" Universal History,") comprised the
period from 220 to 146 B.C., and consisted of forty
books, the greater part of which are lost. We have the
first five books entire, and many fragments and extracts
of several other books. His impartiality, his love of
truth, his sound judgment and experience in military
and civil affairs, render this one of the most valuable
and reliable histories that have ever been written by an
uninspired writer. He is thus briefly characterized by
Cicero : " Polybius bonus auctor in primis." Livy's
account of events after the second Punic war appears
to be much like a translation from Polybius. The latter
despised or neglected rhetorical ornaments, and was
deficient in imagination. His style, consequently, is

not attractive. He aimed only to instruct, and, accora-
ing to some critics, carried too far his didactic ami
moralizing tendency. He wrote, also, a " Life of Phi-
lopoemen," and a " Treatise on Tactics." " Polybius
and Arrian," says Macaulay, " have given us authentic
accounts of facts ; and here their merit ends. They
were not men of comprehensive minds ; they had not
the art of telling a story in an interesting manner."
("Essay on History," 1828.) An English version of
Polybius, by Hampton, (1772,) is commended.

See K. \V. NITZSCH, " Polybius zur Geschichte antiker Politik,"
etc., 1842; L. F. HKVD, "Vita Polybii," 1812; VAN HBUSDB,
" School van Polybius of Geschiedkunde voor the negentiende
eeuw," -841: F. H. BOTHB, " Polybiana," 1844; "Nouvelle Bio
graphic Generale."

Fol'y-bus, [Gr. IloteSof; Fr. POLYBE, po1eb',| a
king of Corinth, who was said to have educated or
adopted CEdipus.

Polybus [IIoAtiSoc] or Polybius, a pupil and son-in-
law of Hippocrates, lived in the island of Cos about 400
B.C. He was one of the founders of the sect of Dogmatic!.
Several treatises usually printed with the works of Hip-
pocrates are ascribed to Polybus by many critics.

Pol'y-carp, [Gr. IIoAwcapjrof ; Lat. POLYCAR'PUS; Fr.
POLYCARPE, po'le'ktRp',] an eminent martyr and Father
of the Christian Church, of whose early history we
have no authentic record. Irenaeus states that Polycarp
had intercourse with John and others of the apostles,
and was appointed Bishop of Smyrna by the apostles.
According to some writers, he was ordained by Sainl
John. He was Bishop of Smyrna when Ignatius of
Antioch passed through that city on his way to Rome,
which occurred between 107 and 116 A.D. Polycarp
visited Rome in his old age, and had a conference with
Anicetus, the Bishop of Rome, who differed from the
Eastern churches in relation to the time or the obser-
vance of Easter. He suffered martyrdom by fire at
Smyrna about 166 A.D. A letter from the church of
Smyrna on the subject of his death is still extant. The
only work of Polycarp that remains is a short Epistle
to the Philippians, which is prized because numerous
passages of the New Testament are quoted in it.

See TILLBMONT, " Memoiresecclesiastiques :" CRUCIGER, "Ora-
tio de Polycarpi Vita," 1543 ; " Life of Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna,"
London, 1847 ; COMTE DB COETLOSQUET, " Vie de S. Ignace et de
S. Polycarpe," 1852.

Polycarpe or Polycarpua. See POLYCARP.

Fol-y-ehar'mus, [UoXvxappof,] a Greek sculptor of
unknown date. Pliny mentions his statue of " Venus
washing herself," which was at Rome in his time.

Polycleitus. See POLYCLETUS.

Pol'y-clel, [Ho'M/iM/f,] a Greek sculptor, who lived
about 370 B.C., was probably an Athenian. He is men-
tioned by Pliny, who says he made a celebrated statue
of a hermaphrodite.

Another sculptor named POLYCLES is mentioned by
Pliny as flourishing about 155 B.C. Pausanias notices
some works of Polycles ; but it is doubtful which of these
two he refers to.

Polycl^te. See POLYCLETUS.

Pol-y-cle'tua or Pol-y-cli'tus, [Gr. noM/cAni-of ;
Fr. POLYCLETE, po'leTcl^t',] a Greek statuary of great
celebrity, was also a sculptor and architect. He was a
native of Sicyon or Argos, and was a pupil of Ageladas,
the Argive statuary, who was at the same time the mas-
ter of Phidias. The works of Polycletus were probably
executed between 452 and 412 B.C. He surpassed all
statuaries of his time except Phidias, and equalled the
latter in beauty if not in sublimity. He once gained
the first prize for a statue of an Amazon, in competition
with Phidias and other artists. His master-pieces in
bronze were a statue of a young man called " Diadu-
menos" binding his head with a fillet, " Doryphorus the
Spear-Bearer," the Amazon noticed above, and a statue
called the K.avuv, ("Canon,") because it was recognized
as a perfect model of the human figure. Some critics
maintain that this last statue was the " Doryphorus."
None of his works was more celebrated than a colossal
ivory and gold statue of Juno, which adorned a temple
near Argos. He was architect of a theatre at Epidaurus,
which was, according to Pausanias, the most beautiful
in the world Cicero and Pliny agree in the ooinion

i, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, ?, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; mSt; 6t; good, moon;




that Polycletus brought the art of statuary to perfection.
Among his pupils were Aristides, Canachus, Atheno-
dorus, and Phrynon.

See PLINY, "Natural History ;" E*MERIC DAVID, "Vies des
Aitistes anciens et moderaes;" K. O. MULLER, " Handbuch der
Archaologie der Kunst."

Polycletus, another statuary of Argos, is mentioned
by Pausanias as a different person from him "who made
the statue of Juno," and as a pupil of Naucydes, (who
flourished about 410 B.C.) Several works are variously
attributed to this Polycletus and to his more celebrated

Polycletus OF LARISSA, a Greek historian of un-
known date. He wrote a history of Alexander the Great,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 235 of 425)