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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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by Mr. Ticknor. He is called by a critic in the " Edin-
burgh Review" "the greatest of the Spanish poets of
this age, and perhaps one of the noblest lyric poets that
ever existed." Died in 1591.

See TICKNOR, "History of Spanish Literature;" LONGFELLOW,
" Poets and Poetry of Europe :" " Lyric Poelty of Spain," in the
"Edinburgh Review" for July, 1824.

Ponce de Leon, (RoDRico,) Marquis de Cadiz, a
famous Spanish general, born in 1443. He served in
many campaigns against the Moors, surprised the for-
tress of Alhama in 1482, and took a prominent part in
the conquest of Granada, which was effected in 1492.
Died in 1492.

Ponce Pilate. See PILATE.

Poncelet, p6Nss'l</, (FRANCOIS FREDERIC,) a French
jurist, born at Mouzay (Meuse) in 1790. He pub-
lished several works on Roman law. Died in Paris
in 1843.

Poncelet, (JEAN VICTOR,) an eminent French geom-
eter and engineer, born at Metz in 1788. He served in
the army in Russia, (1812.) He became a member of
the Institute, and, about 1834, professor of mechanics at
the Faculty of Sciences, Paris. In 1848 he obtained the
rank of general of engineers, and was elected to the
Constituent Assembly. Among his works are "Traite
des Proprietes projectives des Figures," (1820,) and
a "Course of Mechanics applied to Machines," (1826.)
He rendered great service to the industrial arts by his
improvements in hydraulics and practical mechanics.
Died at Paris, December 27, 1867.

Poncelet, (POLYCARPE,) a French rural economist,
born at Verdun, lived in the second half of the eighteenth
century. He wrote a "Natural History of Wheat,"
(1779,) and other works.

Foncelin, p6.\ss'liN', JEAN CHARLES,) a French
editor and compiler, born in Poitou in 1746; died in
1828.

Poncet de la Grave, p6N's' deh li gRiv, (GuiL-
LAUME,) a French writer, born at Carcassonne in 17251
wrote a " History of the Royal Navy," (2 vols., 1780,)
and other works. Died in 1803.

Poncher, pAN'sha', (ETIENNE,) a French prelate,
born at Tours in 1446. He became Bishop of Paris in
1503, and keeper of the seals of France in 1512. He
was employed as a diplomatist by Francis I. Died
in 1524.

Ponchielli, pon-ke-Jl'lee, (AMILCARE,) an Italian
musical composer, born near Cremona, September 1, 1834.
Among his numerous operas the most popular were "I
promessi Sposi," (first produced in 1856, but entirely
rewritten in 1872,) "Gioconda," (1876,) and "II Figliuol
prodigo," (1880.) Died January 19, 1886.

Ponchino, pon-kee'no, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an
Italian painter, sometimes called BOZZATTO or BAZZACCO,
was born at Castel-Franco about 1500. He was a pupil
of Titian. Died in 1570.

FoncoL, de, deh poN'sol', (HENRI SIMON JOSEPH
ANSQUER,) a French writer, born at Kemper in 1730;
died in 1783.

Poucy, poN'se', (Louis CHARLES,) a French poet,
born at Toulon in 1821, worked as a stone-mason, and
published " Les Marines," (1842.) Died in 1891.

Pond, (ENOCH,) D.D., an American Congregational
divine, born at Wrentham, Massachusetts, in 1791. In
1828 he edited the " Spirit of the Pilgrims," a religious
journal, in which he engaged in a controversy with the
Jnitarians. He became in 1856 president and professor
A ecclesiastical history, etc. at Bangor Theological Semi-
lary, Maine. He published a " Memoir of Count Zin-
zendorf," (1839,) "Memoir of John Wickliffe," (1841,)
"The Morning of the Reformation," (1842,) " Plato, hU
Life, Works, Opinions, and Influence," (1846,) and
numerous other works. Died January 21, 1882.

Pond, (JOHN,) an English astronomer, born in Lon-
don about 1767, studied at Trinity College, Cambridge.



After he left college he passed several years at West-
bury, near Bristol, where he made observations. Ho
was the first astronomer who depended on masses of
observations for the determination of all fundamental
data. He succeeded Maskelyne as astronomer-royal in
iSn, and directed his attention chiefly to a determina-
tion of the places of fixed stars. In 1833 he completed
a standard catalogue of 1113 fixed stars. He has a high
reputation as an observer. Died in 1836.

Fongerville, de, deh poN'zheVvel', (JEAN BAPTISTS
AlMft SANSON,) a French poet, born at Abbeville in
1792. He produced in 1823 an excellent translation of
Lucretius's "De Rerum Natura" into verse, and was
admitted into the French Academy in 1830. Among



See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Foniatowski, po-ne-a-tov'skee, (JOSEPH ANTONY,)
PRINCE, an able Polish general, born at Warsaw in 1762,
was a nephew of Stanislas Augustus, King of Poland.
His father, Andreas, was a general in the Austrian ser-
vice. He commanded the Polish army in the war against
Russia in 1792, and served under Kosciusko in 1794-
In 1806 he raised an army of Poles to fight for Napoleon,
who had persuaded him that he intended to restore
the independence of Poland. He and his army of Poles
fought against the Russians in 1807, and opposed the
Austrians with success in 1809. He commanded a corps
of the grand army which invaded Russia in 1812, and
rendered important services in that campaign. In Oc-
tober, 1813, he became a marshal of France. He was
wounded at Leipsic, and, in the retreat from that battle,
was drowned in the Elster, (1813.)

See BOGUSLAWSKI, " Biographic de Poniatowski," 1831 ; L.
CHODZKO, " La Pologne illustree ;" "Nouvelle Biographic CWni-
rale."

Poniatowski, (JOSEPH MICHAEL XAVIER FRANCIS
JOHN,) Prince of Monte Rotondo, a musical composer,
born in Rome, of Polish parentage, February 20, 1816.
He was a nephew of Prince Joseph Antony Poniatow-
ski. He produced a number of operas, among which
are "Giovanni da Procida," (1838,) " Ruy Bias," (1842,)
" Pierre de Medicis," (1860,) " L'Aventuner," (1865,) etc.
Died July 3, 1873.

Poniatowski, (STANISLAS,) COUNT, a celebrated
Polish statesman, born in 1677. He espoused the cause
of Charles XII. of Sweden, and Stanislas Leszczynski,
against Augustus II. of Poland, and accompanied Charles
in his Russian campaign. After the defeat at Poltava
he was sent on a mission to Constantinople, where he
promoted the interests of the Swedish king by inducing
the Sultan to make war upon Russia. He was subse-

?uently appointed to several high offices by Augustus
II. of Poland. Died in 1762.

See VOLTAIRK, " Histoire de Charles XIL "

Foniatowski, (STANISLAS AUGUSTUS.) See STAN-
ISLAS AUGUSTUS, King of Poland.

Foninski, po-nen'skee, (A. L.,) a Polish poet, born
in the seventeenth century. He wrote Latin poems,
"Opera Heroica," (1739.) Died in 1742.

Ponroy, piN'Rwa', (PIERRE GABRIEL ARTHUR,) a
French litterateur, born at Issoudun in 1816. He pro
iuced several poems, dramas, etc. Died March 13, 1876.

Pons, p6N, (ANDRtf,) Comte de Rio, a French his-
torical writer, born at Cette in 1772. He was prefect
of Lyons in 1815. Among his works is a "History of
the Residence of Napoleon at Elba." Died in 1853.

Pona, (JEAN Louis,) a French astronomer, born at
Peyres (Hautes-Alpes) in 1761. He became director of
the Observatory of Marseilles, where (according to the
"Nouvelle Biographic Gene>ale") he discovered twenty-
three comets. In 1825 he was appointed director of an
observatory at Florence. Died in 1831.

Pons, de, deh p6N, (JEAN FRANC.OIS,) a French ec-
clesiastic and writer, born at Marly-le-Roi in 1683;
died in 1732.

Pons de Verdun, p6N d$h veVduN', (ROBERT,) a
French revolutionist, born at Verdun in 1749, acquired
some distinction as a poet. He was a member of the
Convention, (1792-95.) Died in 1844.



a, e, I, o, li, y, long ; a, e. 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, fi, y, short; a, e. i, 0. obscurt; far, fill, (at; me't; not; good; mo7>n;



PONSARD



1983



PONTIS



Ponsard, pdN'sia', ( FRANCOIS,) a French dramatic
poet, born at Vienne (Isere) in 1814. He produced a
successful tragedy of " Lucrece," (1843,) a "d another
called "Charlotte Corday," (1850,) which is admired.
Among his most popular works is a comedy of " Honour
and Money," (" L'Honneur et 1'Argent," 1853,) which
opened to him the French Academy. Died in 1867.

Ponsludon, de, deh p6N'lu'd6N', (JOSEPH ANTOINE
IIEDOUIN,) a French litterateur, born at Rheims in 1739 ;
died in 1817.

Pon'son-by, (Sir FREDERICK CAVENDISH,) an Eng-
lish officer, born in 1783, was a brother of the Earl of
Besborough. He distinguished himself in Spain, and
led a regiment of dragoons at Waterloo, where he was
Bounded. Died in 1837.

Ponsonby, (GEORGE,) a. lawyer, born in Ireland in
1755. He became leader of the opposition in the Irish
House of Commons, and in 1806 was appointed lord
chancellor of Ireland. About 1807 he entered the British
House of Commons, in which he was the leader of the
Whig party. Died in 1817.

Ponsonby, (JoHN,) BARON, a diplomatist, born in
1770. He entered the British House of Lords in 1806,
and acted with the Whig party. He performed diplo-
matic missions to Brazil, Belgium, and Naples between
1828 and 1832, and negotiated a treaty of commerce
with Turkey about 1838. He was minister at Vienna
i'rom 1846 to 1851. Died in 1855.

Ponsonby, (Sir WILLIAM,) a British general, born
in 1782, was a younger brother of the preceding. He
was aide-de-camp of Wellington, and commanded a
nrigade of cavalry at Waterloo, where he was killed
in 1815.

Ponson du Terrail, de, deh p6N's6N' dii t^'ril',
(PIERRE ALEXIS,) VISCOUNT, a French novelist, born at
Montmaur, July 8, 1829. He produced sensational and
very popular stories in immense numbers, besides dramas,
etc. Died at Bordeaux, January 30, 1871.

Pontano, pon-ta'no, [Lat PONTA'NUS,) (GIOVANNI
GIOVIANO,) an eminent Italian author and statesman,
born at Cereto, in Umbria, in 1426. He became secre-
tary of Ferdinand I. of Naples about 1458, and prime
minister about 1487. He had the reputation of an able
negotiator, and an elegant writer in prose and verse.
His " History of the War between Ferdinand I. and the
Duke of Anjou" (1519) is called a master-piece. He
wrote, in Latin, moral essays, elegies, odes, and other
poems, among which is " Urania," an astronomical
poem. Died in Naples in 1503. " A far superior name,"
says Hallam, " is that of Pontanus, to whom, if we attend
to some critics, we must award the palm above all the
Latin poets ut the riiteenth century." (" Introduction ta
the Literature of Europe.")

See ROBERTO DASARNO, " Vita J. J. Pontani," 1761 : F. COLAN-
GELO, "Vita di G. G. Pontano," 1820; TIRABOSCHI, "Storia delta
Letteratura Italiana:" NICHRON, " Me'moires ;" " Nouveile Biogra-
phic Generale."

Pontanua. See DUPONT, PONTE, and PONTANO.

Pontanus, pon-ti'nus, (JAKOB,) a Jesuit and philolo-
gist, born in Bohemia in 1542. He published "Progym-
nasmata Latinitatis," (4vols., 1588,) "Poetic Institutes,"
(" Institutiones Poeticse," 1594,) and other works. Died
in 1626.

Pontanus, pon-ta'nus, (JoHAN ISAAC,) a Danish phi-
lologist and historian, born at Elsinore about 1570, be-
came professor of physics and mathematics at Harderwyk
in 1604. He wrote a " History of Denmark," (in Latin,
1631,) and several criticisms on the classics. Died in 1639.

See "Vita Pontani," anonymous, 1640; NICERON, "Memoires."

Pontas, p6N'ta', (JEAN,) a French casuist, born in
the diocese of Avranches in 1638. His principal work
is a " Dictionary of Cases of Conscience," (3 vols., 1715,)
which was highly esteemed. Died in 1728.

Pontault, de. See BEAULIEU, DE, (SEBASTIEN.)

Pontchartraiu, de, deh pAN'shSR'tRiN', (Louis
PHELYPEAUX,) COMTE, a French minister of state, born
in 1643. He was appointed controller-general of the
finances about 1690, and chancellor of France in 1699.
His talents and virtues are eulogized by Saint-Simon,
who says " he performed more than he promised." He
was grandfather of the prime minister Maurepas. Died
in 1727.



Pontchartrain, de, (PAUL PHELYPEAUX,) SEIGNEUR,
born at Blois, France, in 1569, was grandfather of the
preceding. He became secretary of state in 1610, and
wrote memoirs of events from 1610 to 1620, (1720.)
Died in 1621.

Pont de Veyle, de, deh p6N deh vll, (ANTOINE DB
Ferriol fgr're'ol',) COMTE, a French dramatist, born
in 1697, was a brother of the Count of Argental. He
wrote three successful comedies, one of which is called
"The Somnambulist," ("La Somnambule," 1739.) He
was a member of the literary council of Voltaire. Died
in 1774.

Ponte, da. See BASSANO, (FRANCESCO and JACOPO.)

Ponte, da, da pon'ti, (GIOVANNI,) an eminent Ital-
ian architect, born in Venice in 15:2. He built the
famous bridge of the Rialto across the Grand Canal,
the church of Santa Croce, and other fine edifices in
Venice. Died in 1597.

Ponte, da, [Lat. PON'TICO VIRU'NIO,] (LODOVICO,)
an Italian scholar, born at Belluno in 1467. He wrote
a "Secret History of Italy," and other works. Died
ir. 1520.

Ponte, da, (LORENZO.) See DA PONTE.

Ponte, de, di pon'ti, (Luis,) a Spanish religious
writer, born at Valladolid in 1554. He wrote several
popular works, among which is "Meditations on the
Mysteries of the Faith," (1605.) Died in 1624.

Ponte, de, deh poNt, [Lat. PONTA'NUS,] (PIERRE,)
a Flemish philologist, born at Bruges about 1480, was
blind from infancy. He published several works. Died
after 1529.

Pontecoulant, de, deh pAN'tiTcoo'lflN', (GUSTAVE
Doulcet dool'si',) COMTE, a French astronomer, born
about 1795. He served as an officer in the army, from
which he retired about 1830. He published "Analytic
Theory of the System of the World," (4 vols., 1829-46.)
and other works on astronomy, etc. Died in 1874.

Pontecoulant, de, (Louis GUSTAVE Doulcet,)
COMTE, a French Girondist, born at Caen in 1766, was
the father of the preceding. He was elected to the
Convention in 1792, was proscribed and outlawed in
1793, became a member of the senate in 1805, and a
liberal member of the Chamber of Peers in 1819. He
left " Memoires," which were published in 1862. Died
in 1853.

Pontedera, pon-ti-da'ra, (GlULlo,) an Italian bota-
nist, born at Vicenza in 1688. He became in 1719 director
of the botanic garden and professor of botany at Padua,
He published a " Compendium of Botanical Plates,"
("Compendium Tabularutn botanicarum," 1718,) and
" Anthology, or, On the Nature of the Flower," (" An-
thologia, sive De Floris Natura," 1720.) The genus
Pontederia was named in his honour by Linnaeus. Died
in 1757.

See FABKONI, "Vita Italoram doctrina excellentium ;" GSNNARI,
" Lettera intorno la Vita del fii G. Pontedera," 1758.

Pon'tl-ac, a North American Indian chief, of the
Ottawa tribe, born about 1712, was an ally of the French.
In 1762 he formed a coalition of many western tribes,
which, at his instigation, attacked various English gar-
risons and frontier settlements. He besieged Detroit
without success in 1763. He was killed in Illinois in
1769.

See PARKMAN, "History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac," 1851.

Pontianus, pon-she-a'nus, [Fr. PONTIEN, pdN'se'aN', I
became Bishop of Rome in 230 A.D. He was banished
by Maximin in 235, and died in exile soon after that date.

Pontico Virunio. See PONTE, DA, (Looovico.)

Pontien. See PONTIANUS.

Poutier, p6N'te-i', (PIERRE,) an able French surgeon,
born at Aix (Provence) in 1711 ; died at Abe in 1789.
His son, PIERRE HENRI, was a chemist, and wrote
several scientific treatises. Died at Aix in 1826.

Pontin, de, deh pon-teen', (MAGNUS MARTIN,) a Swe-
dish physician, born at Askeryd in 1781. He became
first physician to the king in 1825. He published several
works in prose and verse. Died in 1858.

Pontis, de, deh poN'tess', (Louis,) a French gentle-
man, born in Provence in 1583, was an officer in ihe
army. He left interesting Memoirs, (2 vols., 1676,) often
reprinted. Died in Paris in 1670,



e as k; c as s: g hard; g as/; G, H, K,gvttiiral; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in tAii.



e Explanations, p. 23.)



PONTIUS



1984



POOSHKIN



Pontius, pon'she-u,s, a deacon of the church of Car-
thage, lived about 250 A.D. He was the author of a
"Life of Cyprian."

Pontius, pon'te-us, or Du Pont, (dii poN,) (PAUL,) an
eminent Flemish engraver, born at Antwerp in 1596 or
1603, was a pupil of Vosterman. He engraved many
works after Rubens, among which is the "Massacre
of the Innocents," and many portraits after Van Dyck.
These prints are greatly admired.

Pontius de la Fuente, pon'te-oos' da la fwSn'ta, [Lat.
PON'TIUS FON'TIUS,] (CONSTANTINE,) a Spanish Prot-
estant, who wrote in defence of the reformed doctrines,
and was sentenced to death, but died in prison (before
the sentence was executed) in 1559.
Pontius Pilate. See PILATE.
Poutmartin, de, deh p6N'miR'taN', (ARMAND Au-
GUSTIN JOSEPH MARIE,) a French litterateur, born at
Avignon in 1811. He published several novels, and
"Causeries litteYaires," (1854.) Died in 1890.

Pontoppidan, pon-top'pe-dan, (ERIC, ) a Danish
poet and prelate, born in Funen about 1620. He wrote
many Latin poems, among which are " Aucupium Se-
landiz," (1636,) "Sacred Pastorals," ("Bucolica Sacra,"
164?,) and "Florilegium Cimbricum," (1646.) He be-
came Bishop of Drontheim in 1673. Died in 1678.
See KRAFT og NYKRUP, " Litteraturlexicon."
Pontoppidan, (ERIK,) THE YOUNGER, a celebrated
Danish prelate, historian, and antiquary, born at Aarhuus,
in Jutland, in 1698. He was successively appointed
professor of theology at Copenhagen in 1738, Bishop
of Bergen in 1748, and chancellor of the University
at Copenhagen. Among his principal works are his
" Annals of the Danish Church," " Theatre of Denmark,
Ancient and Modern," (1730,) "Achievements of the
Danes out of Denmark," (1740,) and a "Description
of Copenhagen," (all in Latin,) also a treatise on the
natural history of Norway, and a "Danish Atlas,"
("Danske Atlas," in 7 vols.,) in the Danish language.
Died in 1764.

Pontormo, da, da pon-toR'mo, (JACOPO CARUCCI or
CARRUCCi,)_an eminent Florentine painter, born at Pon-
tormo about 1498, was a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci and
Andrea del Sarto. He imitated Michael Angelo. He
had three manners, the last of which was an imitation
of that of Albert Durer. Among his works are a
" Descent from the Cross," a " Holy Family," and "The
Deluge," a fresco at Florence. Died in 1558.

Ponz, ponth, (ANTONIO,) a Spanish painter, distin-
guished as a writer on the fine arts, was born in Valencia
in 1725. He passed about ten years at Rome (1751-60)
in the study of art and antiquities. Having returned to
Madrid, he was commissioned by Charles III. to paint
portraits of Spanish authors for the Escurial. He pub-
lished a valuable work entitled " Viage de Esparto," (18
vols., 1771-94,) which treats of Spanish works of art,
topography, etc. Died in 1792.

Ponzio, pon'ze-o, a Tuscan sculptor, called by the
French MAITRE PONCE, worked in France from 1530
to 1571.

Ponzio, (FLAMINIO,) an Italian architect, born about
1575. He designed the Capella Borghese at Rome, and
the Palazzo Sciara on the Corso. lie was employed by
Pope Paul V. to continue the works of the Quirinal,
in which he constructed the double staircase. Died
about 1620.

Poogatchef, Pougatchef, Pugatschew, or Fuga-
tschev, poo-ga-cheF , (YEMEUAN,) a Cossack rebel and
impostor, born in 1726. Having been told that he re-
sembled Peter HI., he undertook to pass himself off for
that Czar, and incited the Cossacks to revolt in 1773'
He raised a large army, took several towns, gained
some victories, and massacred thousands of people
He was taken prisoner and executed in 1775-

Pool, (MARIA LOUISE,) an American writer, born
at East Abington, Massachusetts, in 1841. Of her
books, two "Dolly" and "Against Human Nature"
deal with life in the Carolina mountains. Others are
" Rowena in Boston," " The Two Salomes," " Katha-
rine North," and "Friendship and Folly," (1898.)
She died in 1898.



Poole, (JOHN,) an English dramatist and author,
born about 1786. Among his numerous farces and
plays are "Hamlet Travestie," (1810,) "Who is
Who ?" (1815,) " Paul Pry," (1825,) " Patrician and
Parvenu," (1835,) etc. He also wrote works of hu-
mourous fiction, etc. Died in 1872.

Poole, pool, (Lat. PO'LUS,! (MATTHEW,) a learned
English nonconformist divine, born at York about 1624.
He" was rector of the church of Saint Michael-le-
Querne, London, from which he was ejected in 1662,
His principal work is " Synopsis Criticorum Biblico-
rum," (5 vols., 1669-76,) in which he designed to present
a synopsis or abridgment of the writings and labours
of former biblical critics of all ages and countries. It
is esteemed a valuable work. He also left " Annota-
tions on the Holy Bible," ^2 vols., 1685.) He died at
Amsterdam in 1679.

See A. WOOD, " Fasti Oxoniensis ;" NIC^RON, " M^moires."

Poole, (PAUL FALCONER,) an English historical
painter, born at Bristol in 1810. He is accounted on
Df the most original and successful English artists of the
present time. He received in 1847 a prize of three
hundred pounds for his picture of " King Edward's
Generosity to the People of Calais." He was elected
a Royal Academician in 1861. Died in 1879.

Poole, (REGINALD LANE,) an English historian,
born at London in 1857. His works include "A His-
tory of the Huguenots of the Dispersion," (1880,)
"Sebastian Bach," (1882,) " Wycliffe and the Move-
ment for Reform," (1889,) " Historical Atlas of Mod-
ern Europe," (1897 ct *<y.)

Poole, (WILLIAM FREDERICK,) librarian, was born
at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1821. He became libra-
rian of several institutions, going to the Newberry
Library in Chicago in 1887. His " Index to Reviews
and other Periodicals" of 1848 was followed by sev-
eral expanded editions and supplements, becoming in
its final form the well-known " Poole's Index." He
became president of the American Library Association
in 1885. Died in 1894.

Poole, van, vin pol, (JURIAN,) a Dutch portrait-
painter, born at Amsterdam in 1666 ; died in i?45- His
wife, RACHEL, born in 1664, was an excellent painter of
flowers, fruits, etc. She was a daughter of Ruysch the
anatomist. Died in 1750.

Poore, (BENJAMIN PERLEY,) an American journalist,
born at Newburyport, Massachusetts, November 2, 1820,
became a printer, and was connected with various journals,
either as proprietor or editor, but especially as foreign
and Washington correspondent. He was for a time
major of volunteers in the war of 1861-65, anc ' f r man y
years was clerk of printing records in Washington.
Among his works are " Materials for American His-
tory in the French Archives," (1848,) "The Rise and
Fall of Louis Philippe," (1848,) "Early Life of Napo-
leon," (1851,) "Federal and State Charters," (2 vols.,
1877,) "Life of General Burnside," (1882,) and several
novels. He edited the annual Abridgment of the United
States Public Document* for many years, and prepared
and published an annual "Congressional Directory,"
(1864 ft *y.) Died May 29, 1887.

Pooshkin, Pushkin, Poucheklne, Puschkln, or
Pouschkin, poosh'kin or poosh'ken, (ALEXANDER
SERGEIVITCH,) a celebrated Russian poet, born at Saint
Petersburg in 1799. Having published several poems
of a too liberal tendency, he was banished to Odessa,
where he held an office under the governor-general, Count
Vorontsof. During his presence in Southern Russia
he studied the Spanish and Italian languages, and the
works of Byron, upon whose model he may be said to
have formed himself. His first considerable poem, en-
titled "Ruslan and Liudmila," (1821,) was very well
received ; it was followed by the " Prisoner of the Cau-
casus," ("Plennik Kavkaskoi," 1822,) "The Fountain
of Bakhtchisarai," (1824,) which brought him three
thousand rubles, " Eugene Onegin," a metrical romance,
the "Gypsies," ("Tsigani,") and the narrative poem of
" Poltava." After the accession of Nicholas, Pooshkin
was recalled to Moscow and appointed historiographer.



a, e.i, o, Q, y, long: i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, )', short; a, e, j, o, obscure: 0r, fall, fit; met; not; eood: moon-



POOST



1985



POPMA



His only historical production is an account of Poo-
gatchefs rebellion. Besides the above, he published
" Boris Godoonof," a dramatic poem, esteemed one of
his master-pieces, and a " History of the Iron Mask."
He was mortally wounded in a duel in 1837. A critic
in " Blackwood's Magazine" calls him " one of that small
but illustrious band whose writings have become part of
the very household language of their native land, and
whose expressions may be said, like those of Shakspeare,
of Moliere, and of Cervantes, to have become the natural
forms embodying the ideas which they have expressed,
and, in expressing, consecrated. In a word, Pooshkin is
undeniably and essentially the great national poet of
Russia."

See GALATHOP, " Chrestomathie Russe ;" PRINCE E. METCHM-
SKI, " Les Poetes Russes;" "Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale;"


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 237 of 425)