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correct, his execution good ; and with more elevation of
style he would have raised himself to the highest rank
of French sculptors. Among his best works are a
"Psyche," (1824,) "The Three Graces," (1831,) a mar-
ble group of "Venus and Cupid," (1836,) and a marble
statue of Sappho, (1852.) Died near Paris in 1852.

See GEORGE BBLL, " Pradier," Paris, 1852 ; " Nouvelle Biographic

Prado, pra'oo, (MARIANO IGNACIO,) a Peruvian presi-
dent, born at Huanuco in 1826, took part in the insur-
rection of 1854 which overthrew President Echenique,
and in 1865 headed the revolution which deposed Presi-
dent Pezet. Prado was proclaimed dictator, and gained
great renown by the repulse of the Spanish fleet from
Callao, May 2, 1866. He was chosen president for six
years, but was expelled by Balta in 1868, and retired
to Chili, where he was made a general of division, and
was subsequently Peruvian minister. Elected president
a second time in 1876, he was in 1879 director of the
Peruvian and Bolivian armies in the war against Chili.
After severe reverses and the loss of the province of
Tarapaca, he went to Europe in December, 1879, to seek
aid, and in his absence was deposed from the presidency.

Prado, del, del pRa'Do, (BLAS,) a Spanish painter,
born at Toledo in 1544, was patronized by Philip II.
Died about 1605.

Pradon, pRS / d6N', (NICOLAS,) a mediocre French
tragic poet, born at Rouen in 1632. He produced in
1674 " Pyramus and Thisbe," and attempted to rival
Racine in "Phedre et Hippolyte," (1677,) which was
applauded by a certain party or cobalt. Died in 1698.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Pradt, de, deh pRat, (Abbe DOMINIQUE DUFOUR,) a
French diplomatist and political writer, born in Auvergne
in 1759. He became almoner of Napoleon about 1804,
Bishop of Poitiers in 1805, and Archbishop of Malines
in 1808. In 1812 he was sent as ambassador to Warsaw,
and, according to some writers, incurred the displeasure
of Napoleon, with whom he had a curious conversation
during his retreat from Moscow. He published many
political and historical works, among which is a " His-
tory of the Embassy to Warsaw," (1815.) Died in 1837.

Praed, prad, (ROSA CAROLINE,) an Australian
novelist, was born (Prior) in Queensland, Australia,
in 1851, and married Campbell Mackworth Praed in
1872. Among her novels are " An Australian Hero-
ine," (1880,) "The Bond of Wedlock," (1887,)
"December Roses," (1893,) "The Scourge Stick,"
(1898,) etc.

Praed, prad, (WINTHROP MACKWORTH,) an English
poet and lawyer, born in London in 1802. He was the
chief contributor to " The Etonian," a monthly paper
issued in 1820; after which he entered Trinity College,
Cambridge. He gained prizes for the Greek ode and
epigram, and for English poems, entitled " Australia,"
(1823,) and "Athens," (1824.) In 1829 he was called to
the bar. He was returned to Parliament about 1830,
opposed the Reform bill, and was re-elected in 1835.
He became a successful debater and a zealous conserva-
tive. Died in 1839. His poems are highly commended
for wit and elegance,

Prajapatt, pra-ja'pa-ti, [from the Sanscrit pr&jA,
" people," or the " world," and p&tt, " master,"] in th
Hindoo mythology, a title given to certain divine per
sonages, called also BRAHMADIKAS, among vhom ar
Marichi, Bhrigu, Daksha, and Narada.

See WILSON. " Sanscrit Dictionary."

Pram, pRam, (CHRISTIAN HENRIKSEN,) a distin-
guished litterateur and journalist, born in Guldbrands-
dal, in Norway, in 1756. He founded at Copenhagen,
conjointly with Rahbek, the periodical entitled " The
Minerva," and in 1811 became president of the Scandi-
navian Literary Society. Among his principal works,
which are written in Danish, are " Emilias Kilde," a
poem, (1782,) a heroic poem entitled " Starkodder,"
(1785,) and the tragedy of "Damon and Pythias." He
also published several treatises on political economy
and statistics. His genius and character are eulogized
by Oehlenschlager. Died in 1821.

See ERSLEW, " Forfatter-Lericon ;" I. K. HOKST, " C. H. Pram I
biografisk Omrids," 1820: HOWITT, "Literature and Romance of
Northern Europe."

Pram'zl-mas, a great divinity of the old Lithuanians.
He sent out the giants Wandu (wind) and Wejas (water)
to destroy mankind with a flood. But, seeing a few people
on a mountain-top, he took pity on them and sheltered
them in a nut-shell, and thus preserved the human race.

Praslin, de, deh pRflaN', (CESAR GABRIEL de
Choiseul deh shwa'zul',) Due, a French minister of
state, born in Paris in 1712, was a cousin of the Due
de Choiseul. He obtained in 1748 the rank of lieutenant-
general, became minister of foreign affairs in 1760, and
minister of the marine in 1766. He was removed in

1770. Died in 1785.
Prat, du. See DUPRAT.

Pratd, pRl'tee, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian lyric poet, born
at Dascindo, in the province of Trent, in 1815. He
composed " Edmenegarda," a poem, (1841,) which was
received with favour. Among his other popular poems
ire " A Hymn to Italy," " The Song of the Future,"
"Rodolfo," and "Count Riga," ("II Conte Riga," 1856.)
In 1861 he published a poem called " Ariberto," (2 vols.)
He was elected to the Italian Parliament in 1862, and
created senator in 1876. Died May 10, 1884.

Frafl-nas, [npaTiwic,] an Athenian dramatic and
lyric poet, lived about 500 B.C., and made an improve-
ment in the tragic art. He is regarded by some as the
inventor of the satiric drama.

Fratorius, or Praetorius, pRa-to're-oos, (MICHAEL,)
a German musical composer and writer on music, born
at Creutzburg, in Thuringia, in 1571. His " Syntagma
Musicum" ("Musical Treatise," in 3 vols.) is prized for
its rarity and historical value. Died in 1621.

Pratt, (ANNIE,) an English botanist, born at
Strood, near Rochester, in 1806. She published
"Flowers and their Associations," "Poisonous
Plants," and other works. One of the best known is
"Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britain."
Died in 1893.

Pratt, (BENJAMIN,) an American judge, born at
Boston in 1709. He gained distinction as a lawyer,
and became chief justice of New York. Died in 1763.


Pratt, (Sir CHARLES,) a British general, born in

1 77 1, served in the Peninsular war at Vitoria, Nivelles.
Orthes, etc. Died in 1839.

Pratt, (CHARLES,) an American philanthropist,
born at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1830. He grew
wealthy and famous through the introduction and sale
of astral oil. Chief among his charities was the W.
K. Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, (1887,) consisting of
library and industrial schools. He added to it an
immense tenement house, and left it by will an en-
dowment of $2,000,000. Died in 1891.

Pratt, (ENOCH,) an American philanthropist, born
at North Middleboro, Massachusetts, in 1808. He
grew wealthy in the iron business in Baltimore, and
founded various benevolent institutions, especially the
free public library of Baltimore, which he left endow-
ments aggregating over $1,000,000. Died in 1896.

Pratt, (SAMUEL JACKSON,) an English poet and novel-
ist, born in Huntingdonshire in 1749. He published,
under the assumed name of COURTNEY MELMOTH,
" Sympathy," and other poems, and several successful
novels, among which are "The Pupil of Pleasure,"
(1779,) and "Emma Corbett," (1781.) Died in 1814.

Praun, von, fon pRown, (GEORG ANDREAS SEPTI-

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon ;




MUS,) BARON, a German numismatist, born in Vienna in
1701. He published a "Treatise on Coins or Numis-
matics," (1739.) Died in 1786.

Prax-ag'p-ras, [Upa^ayopaf,] an eminent Greek phy-
sician of Cos, lived about 300 B.C. He was noted for his
skill in anatomy, and appears to have been the first who
explained the difference between veins and arteries. He
wrote several works, of which only a few fragments are
extant. Among his pupils was Herophilus.

See SPRENGBL, " Histoire de la Me'decine."

Frax-il'la, \Tlpal-Ma,] a Greek lyric poetess, born at
Sicyon, lived about 450 B.C. Her works are lost.

Piaxiphane See PRAXIPHANES.

Frax-iph'a-nes, [Gr. Tlpajic/iavw ; Fr. PRAXIPHANE,
pRtks'e'fJn',] a Greek philosopher, born at Mitylene,
was a pupil of Theophrastus, and a teacher of Epicurus.

See PRELLER, "De Praxiphane," 1842.

Fraxitele. See PRAXITELES.

Frax-it'e-les, [Gr. Ilpa&rt^c ; Fr. PRAXITELE,
pRiks'e'til',] one of the greatest of Grecian sculptors,
flourished about 360 B.C. The time and place of his
birth are unknown. He was probably a contemporary
of Apelles, and an Athenian. According to Pausanias,
he lived three generations after Alcamenes. The name
of his master has not been preserved. Praxiteles is
regarded as the founder of a school, or the author of a
new style of art. Ancient writers represent him as cele-
brated for refinement and softness of contour, grace in
attitude, and delicacy in the expression of tender affec-
tions. Cicero considered the expression which animated
the heads of Praxiteles as one of the most admirable
and difficult results which human skill could attain.
Among his best works in bronze were a statue of Bac-
chus, a Satyr or Faun, and a statue of Apollo, called
" Sauroctonos." An ancient copy (in marble) of the last
work is preserved in the Vatican. His master-piece was
a marUe statue of Venus (of Cnidos) without drapery,
which was destroyed by fire at Constantinople about 475
A.D. No work of Grecian sculptors, except the Jupiter
of Phidias, appears to have been so celebrated as this
Venus of Cnidos. He produced also a statue of Venus
draped, and a marble statue of Cupid, which was praised
by Pliny. His statue of Hermes was in 1878 recovered
from the ruins at Olympia. Of this statue the right arm
is lost. It is justly regarded as one of the most precious
relics of ancient art.

See PLINY, " Natural History;" K. O. MULLER. " Archaologie
ier Kunst;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'raJe."

Pray, pRoi, (GEORGE,) a Hungarian historian, born at
Presburg in 1723 or 1724. He published " Annals of the
Ancient Huns," (" Annales veterum Hunnorum," 1761,)
and a " History of Hungary from 997 to 1564," (5 vols.,
1764-70.) Died in 1801.

Pray, (ISAAC CLARK,) an American author, born in
Boston, Massachusetts, May 15, 1813. He studied at
Harvard and Amherst Colleges, graduating in 1833.
For many years he was a journalist in Boston. New
York, and Philadelphia, He wrote lives of J. G. Ben-
nett, Gustavus Brooke, Theresa Parodi, Catharine Hayes,
and Madame Ristori, and published five dramas, besides
poems, etc. He was also a successful stage-manager and
ctor. Died in New York, November 28, 1869.

Frgau. See DUPRBAU.

Freault, pRa'6', (AucuSTE,) a French sculptor, born
in Paris in 1809. Among his works are a bust of N.
Poussin in the Louvre, Charlemagne, (1836,) and "Ophe-
lia," a bas-relief, (1849.) Died January II, 1879.

Preble, preb'l, (EDWARD,) a celebrated American
commodore, born in Maine in 1761. Having been made
captain in 1799, he sailed in the Essex to Batavia,
whence he convoyed home a fleet of fourteen merchant-
vessels. In 1803 he was appointed to command a
squadron sent against Tripoli, having for his flag-ship
the Constitution. He attacked the batteries and gun-
boats which defended Tripoli several times in August
and September, 1804. He captured three gun-boats,
and sunk four others. For these services he received a
gold medal from Congress. Died in 1807.

See SPARKS. "American Biography;" " National Portrait-Gal-
lery of Distinguished Americans." vol. ii.

Precipiano, di, de pRa-che-pe-a'no, ( HUMBERT

GUILLAUME.) COUNT, a prelate, born at Besanjon in
1626. He became Archbishop of Malines in 1690, and
was an opponent of Quesnel. Died in 1711.

Precy, de, deh pRa'se', (Louis FRANCOIS Perrin
pi'RaN',) COMTE, an able French general, born near
Semur in 1742. He was chosen general-in-chief by the
insurgents of Lyons who revolted against the Conven-
tion in 1793. He defended Lyons for about sixty days
against the besieging army, and escaped to Switzerland.
Died in 1820.

Preisler or Freissler, pRls'ler, (GEORG MARTIN,) a
German engraver and painter, born at Nuremberg in
1700; died in 1754.

Preisler or Freissler, (JOHANN DANIEL,) a German
painter and designer, the father of the preceding, was
born at Dresden in 1665. Died in 1737.

Preisler or Freissler, (JOHANN GEORG,) an engraver,
born at Copenhagen in 1757, was a son of Johann Justin,
noticed below. Died in 1808.

Preisler or Freissler, (JOHANN JUSTIN,) an engraver
and painter, born at Nuremberg in 1698, was a brother
of Georg Martin, noticed above. He etched some works
of Rubens. Died in 1771.

Preisler or Preissler, (JOHANN MARTIN,) a skilful
engraver, a brother of the preceding, was born at Nu-
remberg in 1715. He was appointed court engraver at
Copenhagen, to which he removed in 1744. His en-
graving of " Frederick V. on Horseback" is esteemed
a master-piece. He executed some works of Raphael
and other masters. Died in 1794.
Freiasler. See PREISLER.

Preller, pRel'ler, (FRIEDRICH,) a German artist, born
at Eisenach in 1804. In 1831 he became professor of
painting at Weimar. His principal works are on classical
subjects, of which the most noted are his frescos and
cartoons at Weimar and Leipsic, representing scenes from
the Odyssey. Died April 23, 1878.

Preller, pRel'ler, ( LUDWIG, ) a German classical
scholar and antiquary, born at Hamburg in 1809. He
became professor at Jena in 1846. Among his works are
a " History of Greek and Roman Philosophy," (1838,)
and a "Greek Mythology," (2 vols., 1854.) Died in 1861.
Fremare, pRi'mSR', (JOSEPH HENRI,) a French mis-
sionary, born about 1670. He went to China in 1698,
and studied Chinese literature with success. He wrote
"Account of the Chinese Language," ("Notitia Linguae
Sinicae,") and "Letters on China." Died at Peking
about 1735.

Premontval, pRa'mdN'vSl', the assumed name of
ANDRE PIERRE LE GUAY, (gj,) a French writer, born at
Charenton in 1716. He removed to Berlin in 1752, and
was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of
that city. He wrote " Monogamy," (" La Monogamie,"
3 vols., 1751,) and other works. Died in 1764.

Frenner, von, fon pRen'ner, (ANTON JOSEPH,) a Ger-
man painter and engraver, born at Wallerstein in 1683.
He engraved the pictures of the Belvedere gallery of
Vienna. Died in 1743.

Frenner, von, (GEORG CASPAR,) a painter and en-
graver, a nephew of the preceding, was born in 1708.
He worked at Rome, where he died in 1766.

Prentice, prgn'tiss, (GEORGE DF.NISON,) an American
poet and journalist, born at Preston, Connecticut, in
1802, graduated at Brown University in 1823. He
founded in 1828 "The New England Review," and,
having removed to Kentucky, became in 1831 editor of
the " Louisville Journal," which soon acquired the repu-
tation of one of the ablest and most brilliant journals
in the country. He published a number of small poems
of great beauty. A collection of his witticisms, entitled
" Prenticeana," appeared in 1860. Died in 1870.
See GRISWOLD, " Poets and Poetry of America."
Pren'tiss, (BENJAMIN M.,) an American general, born
in Wood county, Virginia, in 1819. He became a citi-
zen of Illinois about 1842, and was appointed a brigadier-
general in 1861. He was taken prisoner at Shiloh, April
6, 1862. About July 3, 1863, he defeated Generals Holmes
and Price, who attacked him at Helena, Arkansas.

Prentiss, (ELIZABETH,) an American author, bom al
Portland, Maine, October 26, 1818, a daughter of Edward
Payson, already noticed. In 1845 she was married to

<&.- 9 as s: ghard: gas /: G, H, K, guttural: w, nasal; R, trilled: sas*: th asm this. (JJ^r^See Explanations, p. 23.)




Rev. G. L. Prentiss, a Congregationalist clergyman and
a brother of Seargent S. Prentiss. Among her numerous
works are "The Flower of the Family," (1856,) "Tales
of Early Childhood," "The Little Preacher," (1869,)
"Stepping Heavenward," (1869,) etc., mostly religious
tales for the young. Died at Dorset, Vermont, August
13, 1878. " Stepping Heavenward" is the work by which
she is best known.

Prentiss, (SEARGENT SMITH,) an American orator,
born at Portland, Maine, in 1808. He studied law, and
became about 1832 a resident of Vicksburg, Mississippi,
where he practised with success. He was elected a
member of Congress by the Whigs in 1837. In 1840 he
advocated the election of General Harrison by several
public speeches. He had a high reputation as an
orator, and as an advocate in jury-trials was equal or
superior to any lawyer in the Southwestern States.
Died near Natchez in 1850.

Pres'cott, (GEORGE BARTLETT,) an American
electrician, born at Kingston, New York, in 1830.
He became an expert in telegraphy, and was the
practical man in introducing Edison's duplex and
quadruplex systems. He published " Electricity and
the Electric Telegraph," (1877,) "The Electric
Telephone," (1890,) etc. Died in 1894.

Prescott, (OLIVER,) M.D., an American physician
and patriot of the Revolution, born at Groton, Mas-
sachusetts, in 1731. He served as an officer in the
Revolutionary war. Died in 1804.

Prescott, (WILLIAM,) COLONEL, an American officer
of the Revolution, born at Groton, Massachusetts, in
1725, was a brother of Oliver, noticed above. He fought
with distinguished bravery at the battle of Bunker Hill,
where he appears to have had the chief command, and
in other important engagements. Died in 1795.

Prescott, (WILLIAM,) LL.D., an American jurist,
son of the preceding, was born at Pepperell in 1762. He
was appointed in 1818 a judge of the court of common
pleas. He enjoyed a high reputation for legal attainments.
He was the father of William H. Prescott, the historian.
Died in 1844.

Prescott, (WILLIAM HICKLING,) an eminent American
historian, a son of the preceding, and grandson of Colonel
Prescott who commanded at Bunker Hill, was born at
Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of May, 1 796. Both his
parents were remarkable for their high moral qualities.
His father was distinguished for his manly beauty, as
well as for the dignity and gentleness of his character.
His mother, originally Miss Catherine Greene Hickling,
was a woman of great energy, vivacity, and active be-
nevolence ; and to her influence her son appears to have
owed not only much of the happiness of his life, but also
some of those admirable moral traits which formed the
crowning ornament to his rare intellectual endowments.
In the summer of 1808 his father removed to Boston,
and the following autumn sent his son to what was then
regarded as the best classical school in New England. It
was kept by Dr. Gardiner, an excellent scholar, who had
been educated in England under the celebrated Dr. Parr.
In 1811 young Prescott entered the Sophomore class
at Harvard College. In his knowledge ol Greek and
Latin he was far in advance of most of the members of
his class ; but he had no fondness for mathematics, and
never attained any proficiency in mathematical studies.
During his Jur.ior year at college an accident befell him
which was destined to influence the whole of his subse-
quent life. One day in the Commons Hall, while the
students as too often happened after the professors had
left the table were indulging in a rude frolic, Prescott
rose to go out of the room, but, attracted by the tumult
behind him, suddenly turned his head to see what it
was. At that instant a hard piece of bread, thrown at
random, struck him on his left eye, which, under the
peculiar circumstances, having no warning, was open,
so that nothing not even the eyelid was interposed
to mitigate the blow. He instantly fell prostrate and
powerless, as if the brain itself had received a severe
concussion. After some weeks he was able to resume
hi* studies ; but the sight oi his left eye though this
was to appearance unchanged was gone forever.

This early misfortune, while it tended to check his
somewhat exuberant vivacity, far from discouraging him
in the pursuit of his studies, seemed to excite hi him
a more earnest and determined resolution to become
a respectable scholar. He graduated in August, 1814,
and soon after commenced the study of law. But the
excessive use of his remaining eye induced a severe
inflammation in the organ, followed by opacity of the
cornea, so that for some weeks the power of v ; sion was
completely lost.

Among the many interesting and admirable traits
in Mr. Prescott's character, perhaps none is more re-
markable than the invincible cheerfulness and heroic
resignation with which he bore the frequent and severe
suffering and the life-long privations to which he was
subjected in consequence of the injury of hU sight.

In the hope of improving his general health, which
had been seriously impaired by confinement, and also of
indirectly benefiting his eyes, he was induced to under-
take a voyage to Europe. He set out in the autumn of
1815. He remained abroad nearly two years, visiting
England, France, and Italy. His sight, though not
strong enough to permit him to read much, seems to
have been sufficient to give him a vivid enjoyment of
the various scenes and places through whirh he trav-
elled ; but his health appears not to have been benefited
by his foreign tour, and in the summer of 1817 he re-
turned to his native country. He now decided to aban-
don the law and devote himself wholly to literature.
His eye, however, was so irritable and feeble that he was
obliged to pass much of his time in a darkened room,
with barely light enough to admit of some one reading
to him, this being now his only means of cultivating
an acquaintance with his favourite authors.

In May, 1820, Mr. Prescott was married to Miss Susan
Amory ; and the union appears to have been a singularly
happy one. About 1821 he commenced a systematic
course of reading, (by the ear,) which was to embrace
the works of the best English prose writers from Roger
Ascham to the present day, and afterwards the best
productions of the literatures of France and Italy. He
appears to have enjoyed with a peculiar zest the great
works of Italian genius, and especially the " Divina Corn-
media" of Dante. He seems to have taken less delight
in the celebrated authors of France, though he admired
Montaigne and Pascal, and, above all, La Fontaine and
Moliere. In the autumn of 1824 he commenced in
earnest the study of that magnificent language and lite-
rature which have been immortalized by the genius of
Lope de Vega and Cervantes. " This," says Mr. Tick-
nor, " was the opening of the Spanish campaign, which
ended only with his life." He had at one time enter-
tained the design of writing a sort of general history
of Italian literature ; but this was now abandoned lor
labour in a different field. After "long choosing," to
adopt the words of Milton, "and beginning late," he at
last decided, in January, 1826, to write the " History of
Ferdinand and Isabella," which, eleven years later, was
published, in three 8vo volumes, simultaneously in Bos-
ton and in London. The success of the work was of the
most flattering kind, and at once placed him in the very
highest rank of contemporary historians. After six
years of additional labour, appealed his " Conquest of
Mexico," (3 vols. 8vo, 1843.) Four years afterwards he
gave the world his "Conquest of Peru," (2 vols. 8vo.)
In 1845 appeared a volume of his "Miscellanies," con-
sisting of contributions to the " North American Review."
In 1850 he made a short visit to Europe. Soon after his
return he commenced the " History of the Reign of
Philip II. of Spain," a work which he did not live to
complete, although the first three volumes were published
in his lifetime, the first two having appeared in 1855,
the third in 1858. The entire work was designed to
be included in 6 vols. 8vo. The third volume was pub-
lished in the summer of 1858, after the occurrence of
his first slight apoplectic attack, (February 4, 1858,) fron-
which he seemed speedily to recover. He resumed hii
literary labours, but was forced to limit himself to the
lightest kind of work ; and he never afterwards had that
enjoyment in his studies which he had experienced in
previous years. On the 28ih of January, 1859, he was

a. i \, 6, fl, ?. long; k, 4, 6, same, less p olonged; a, e, I, 5, u, $, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; mil; not; good; mflon;




seized with a second attack of apoplexy, of which he
died in about three hours.

In person Mr. Prescott was tall and well formed, with
light-brown hair, a fine clear complexion, and an ex-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 241 of 425)