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pression of countenance singularly bright, genial, and
attractive. " His smile," says Mr. Ticknor, " was abso-
lutely the most contagious I ever looked upon." His
disposition was in the highest degree social, generous,
and kindly. " Indeed, take him for all in all," says Mr.
Ticknor, " I think no man ever walked our streets, as
he did day by day, that attracted such regard and good
will from so many ; for, however few he might know,
there were very many that knew him, and watched him
with unspoken welcomes as he passed along."

Mr. Prescott's merits as a historian are of the very
highest order. In vigour of thought and in grandeur of
style he has undoubtedly been surpassed by many of
the great masters of historical composition ; but he pos-
sessed other qualities, which, if less imposing, are far
more essential to the character of a perfect historian.
In that spirit of thorough research which never rests
satisfied until every field has been explored and every
accessible source of information consulted and ex-
hausted, he has had few if any superiors ; while in that
impartiality which proceeds from a high and scrupulous
sense of justice and unswerving devotion to truth, he
has perhaps never been equalled certainly never sur-
passed by any historian, of whatever age or country.
His style, moreover, is for the most part remarkable for
its animation, clearness, and grace ; and in the general
treatment of his subject he exhibits in an eminent de-
gree the " eloquence" and " lucid order" which the great
poet-critic of ancient Rome tells us will not be wanting
to him who knows how to choose his subject wisely.

(For the opinions of various eminent critics on the
works of Mr. Prescott, the reader is particularly re-
ferred to Allibone's " Dictionary of Authors.")

See, also, the admirable " Life of William Hickling Prescott," by
GKOBGB TICKNOR, Boston, 1864; R. W. GRISWOLD, " Prose Writers
of America ;" DUYCKINCK, " Cyclopaedia of American Literature,"
vol. ii. ; "American Cyclopaedia ;" "Quarterly Review" for Decem-
ber, 1843, and September, 1847 ; " North American Review" fol
January, 1864.

Fresl, pRsl, (JAN SWATOPLUK,) a Bohemian botanist,
born at Prague in 1791. He wrote " Symbolas Botanicx,"
(1832,) and other works. Died in 1849.

Presle, de, deh pRil, (CHARLES MARIE WLADIMIR
BRUNET,) a French Hellenist, born in Paris in 1809.
He published, besides other works, a " Critical Inquiry
into the Succession of Egyptian Dynasties," (1850,) and
" Greece since the Roman Conquest," (" La Grece depuis
la Conquete Romaine," 1859.) Died Sept. 12, 1875.

Freesense, de, d?h pRi'soN'sa', (EDMOND,) an emi-
nent French Protestant divine and pulpit orator of the
present age. Among his works are a " History of the
First Three Centuries of the Church," " The Religions
before Christ : being an Introduction to the History of
the First Three Centuries of the Church," (1862,) and
"Jesus Christ: his Times, Life, and Work," (1866.)
He sat in the national assembly, 1871-75, and in 1883
was chosen senator for life. Died April 8, 1891.
His wife, (nie du Plessis,) was the author of a
number of charming stories for children, and of poems,
which have gone through many editions.

Prestel, pReVtel, (JOHANN GOTTLIEB,) a German
engraver and portrait-painter, born at Griinbach, in
Suabia, in 1739. He worked at Nuremberg for some
years. Died in 1808.

Pres'ter John or JoSo, [Fr. LE PRETRE JEAN,
leh pritR zhoN,] ("the Priest John,") the title of an
imaginary personage whom the Europeans of the middle
ages supposed to reign in the interior of Asia and to
have been converted to Christianity. Rubruquis, a friar,
was sent by Louis IX. of France to search for Prester
John, in 1253, and explored Central Tartary, but did nol
find him. The general belief in his existence originated
perhaps in a report of some Nestorian missionaries that
Oong, (or Oungh,) a Khan of Tartary, had been con
verted by them.

Pee S. BARING-GOULD, "Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, "

Pres'tgn, (HARRIET W.,) an American littfrattur, born
at Danvers, Massachusetts. She has contributed to the

'Atlantic Monthly" and other magazines, and published
' Aspendale," " Love in the Nineteenth Century, 1 '
'Mereio," a translation from Frederick Mistral, (1872,)
and "Troubadours and Trouveres New and Old," (1876.)

Fres'tpn, (JOHN,) an eminent English divine and
Puritan, born at Heyford, in Northamptonshire, in 1587,
adopted Calvinistic opinions. He was chosen master of
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, about 1622. He was the
author of a "Treatise on the Covenant," and other
works. By the favour of the Duke of Buckingham, he
obtained the lectureship of Trinity Church, Cambridge.
According to Fuller, he was "an excellent preacher, a
celebrated disputant, and a perfect politician." Died
in 1628.

Pres'ton, (JOHN S.,) an American politician, brother
of W. C. Preston, was born near Abingdon, Virginia, in
1809. He removed to South Carolina, where he was
elected to the State legislature. Soon after the election
of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency, he joined the seces-
sionists. Died at Columbia, South Carolina, May I, iSSi.

Preston, (MARGARET JUNKIN,) an American poetess,
daughter of George Junkin, D.D., was born at Lexington,
Virginia, in 1838. She contributed to the leading maga-
zines, and published " Silverwood," (1856,) " Beechen-
brook," (1868,) "Old Song and New," (1870,) "Car-
toons," (1876,) etc. Died in Baltimore, March 28, 1897.

Preston, (THOMAS,) an English dramatist, was a
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. He wrote about
1564 "A Lamentable Tragedy, mixed full of Pleasant
Mirth, containing the Life of Cambyses, King of Persia."
Died in 1598.

American clergyman, born at Hartford, Connecticut,
July 23, 1825. He graduated at Trinity College, Hart-
: ord, in 1843, entered the Episcopalian ministry in 1846,
aecame a Romanist in 1849, and in 1850 was ordained a
priest. He was chosen vicar-general of the archdiocese
-}( New York, and in 1881 was appointed a domestic
prelate of the papal court. Among his very numerous
Dooks are " Reason and Revelation," (1868,) " Protestant-
ism and the Church," (1882,) and "God and Reason,"
(1884.) Died in 1891.

Preston, (WILLIAM,) an American general, born near
Louisville, Kentucky, in 1816. He practised law in
Louisville, and was sent as minister to Spain in 1858.
He joined the disunionists in 1861, and was appointed a
brigadier-general. Died September 21, 1887.

Preston, (WILLIAM C.,) an American Senator and
orator, born in Philadelphia in 1794. His grandmother
was a sister of Patrick Henry. He studied in Edin-
burgh. About 1822 he removed to Columbia, South
Carolina, where he practised law and gained much dis-
tinction. He was elected a Senator of the United States
by the legislature of South Carolina in 1832. He op-
posed the policy of John C. Calhoun, and resigned his
seat about 1842. He was afterwards president of the
South Carolina College. Died at Columbia in 1860.

Preston-Grange, LORD. See GRANT, (PATRICK.)

Frest'wich, (Sir JOSEPH,) an English geologist,
born at Pensbury, near London, March 12, 1812. He
was educated at University College, London, and be-
came an amateur geologist, publishing important
scientific papers, also " Geology," (2 vols., 1886 and
1888.) From 1 874 to 1 887 he was professor of geology
at Oxford. He was knighted in 1896. Died the
same year.

Pretender, The First See JAMES FRANCIS ED-

Pretender, The Second. See CHARLES EDWARD

Freti, pRa'tee, (GiROLAMO,) an Italian poet, born in
Tuscany in 1582 ; died in 1626.

Freti, (MATTIA,) called IL CALABRESE, an Italian
painter, born in Calabria in 1613, was a pupil of Lan-
franc and Guercino. He worked in Rome, Naples, and
other places, preferring scriptural and tragical subjects.
Among his works are frescos of the life of Saint An-
drew, at Rome. His design was vigorous rather than
graceful, and his colouring sombre. Died in 1609.

See PASCOLI, "Vite de' Pittori moderni;" LANZI, " History of
Painting in Italy."

a *; c as i; g hard; g as/; G, H, K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilltd: s as ; th as in this.

ee Explanations, p. 23.}




Preuschen, pRoi'shen, (A. T.,) a German litterateur
and theologian, born in Hesse in 1734. Among his
works is "Monuments of Ancient Physical and Political
Revolutions in Germany," (1787.) He invented typorr^i-
trie, or the art of printing plans and maps with movable
types. Died in 1803.

Freuss, pRoiss, (JOHANN DAVID ERDMANN,) a Ger-
man historian, born at Landsberg, on the Warthe, in
1785. He published several works relating to Frederick
the Great and his times, among which is a " Biography
of Frederick the Great," (1832-34.) Died in 1868.

Freval, de, deh pRa'vtl', (CLAUDE ANTOINE HIP-
POLYTE,) VicoMtE, a French general, bom at Salins
(Jura) in 1776. He became a lieutenant-general in 1814,
and president of the committee of war in the council
of state in 1837. He gained distinction as a writer on
military affairs. Died in 1853.

Provost, (EUGENE MARCEL,) a French novelist,
born at Paris in 1862. He was in a tobacco factory at
Lille until 1891. His works embrace " Le Scorpion,"
(1887,) " La Cousine Laura," (1890,) " Les Demi-
Vierges," (1894,) etc.

Prevost, prev'ost, ? (Sir GEORGE,) an English gen-
eral, born in 1767. He distinguished himself at the
attack on Martinique in 1809, and became Governor-
General of the British possessions in North America in
1812. He was defeated at Plattsburg in 1814, soon after
which he was recalled. Died in London in 1816.

See "Some Account of the Public Life of General Sir George
Prevost," London, 1833.

Provost, pRa'vo', (ISAAC BENotr,) a Swiss natu-
ral philosopher, born at Geneva in 1755. He became
professor of philosophy at Montauban in 1810. His
chief work is a " Memoir on the Cause of the Caries of
Wheat, and of other Diseases of Plants," (1807.) Died
in 1819.

See P. PROVOST, " Notice sur I. B. Prevost," 1820.

Prevost, (JEAN,) a Swiss medical writer, born near
Bale in 1585. He succeeded Alpini as professor of
botany at Padua in 1617, and wrote many works, which
were often reprinted. Died at Padua in 1631.

Provost, (Louis CONSTANT,) an eminent French
geologist, born in Paris in 1787. He published in 1820
an important work " On the Geological Constitution of
the Basin of Vienna," (in Austria,) and became professor
of geology at the Sorbonne in 1831. Among his works
are " Chronology of Rocks and Synchronism of Forma-
tions," (1845,) and " Bearing of Ancient Fossils in the
Basin of the Gironde." Died in 1856.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'n^rale."

Frevoat, (PIERRE,) a Swiss natural philosopher, born
at Geneva in 1751, was eminent for the variety and pro-
foundness of his learning. He became professor of
philosophy at Berlin in 1780, and professor of belles-
lettres at Geneva about 1784. In 1788 he published a
work "On the Origin of Magnetic Forces." He obtained
the chair of philosophy at Geneva in 1793, and that of
general physics in 1810. He published, besides other
works, " Researches on Heat," (i 792,) " Radiant Caloric,"
(1809,) and an " Exposition of the Principles of Radiant
Heat," (1832,) which were highly esteemed. Died in 1839.

See A. P. DECANDOLLE, " Notice sur P. Provost," in the "Bi-
bliotheque universelle de Geneve," 1839.

Prevost, (PIERRE,) a French painter of landscapes
and panoramas, born near Chateaudun in 1764. He
designed or painted from nature panoramas of Rome,
Naples, Jerusalem, Athens, etc. " He would perhaps
have obtained," says Peries, " only the second rank of
landscape-painters, if a new discovery had not induced
him to adopt a kind of painting in which he remains un-
rivalled." The invention of the panorama is ascribed
both to Prevost and to Robert Fulton. Died in 1823.

Prevost, (ZACHEE,) an eminent French engraver, born
in Paris in 1797. He obtained a medal in 1827 for
" Corinne at Cape Misenum," after Gerard, and a medal
of the first class in 1839. He engraved "The Wedding
at Cana," after Paul Veronese, (1852.) Died in 1861.

Provost d'Exiles, pRa'vo' dek'sel', (ANTOINE FRAN
QOIS,) a French writer, born in Artois in 1697. He took
the monastic vows in his youth, but soon became dis-

gusted with that life, and fled to Holland. He wrote
nearly two hundred volumes, including many works of
fiction, among which his novel entitled " Manon Les-
caut" (1733) was especially celebrated. He published a
"General History of Voyages," (2ovols., 1745-70.) Died
in 1763.

Provost d'Exmes, Le, leh pR^'vo' deksm, (FRAN-
COIS,) a French litterateur, born near Argentan in 1729
died in 1793.

Frevost-Paradol, pRa'vo' pjfri'dol', (LuciEN ANA-
TOLE,) a French litterateur and orator of great eminence,
born in Paris in 1829. He obtained from the French
Academy in 1851 the prize of eloquence for an "Eloge
de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre." In 1856 he began to
write for the " Journal des Debats," of which he was
for many years one of the ablest editors. He was ad-
mitted into the French Academy in 1865, in place of
Ampere. On this occasion Guizot addressed him in a
very complimentary speech. He published a volume of
" Essais de Politique et de Litterature," ( 1 859,) " Esi.ais
de Politique et de Morale," (1862,) and "Etudes sur les
Moralistes Franjais," (1864.) He had a great talent for
irony and raillery. In June, 1870, he was appointed
minister to the United States. He committed suicide at
Washington, July 20 of the same year.

Preyer, pri'er, (JoHANN WILHELM,) an eminent Ger-
man painter, born at Rheydt, Rhenish Prussia, in 1803.
He was educated at Dusseldorf, where he lived for many
years. Among his earlier pictures was the " Bock Bier,"
in the New Pinakothek at Munich. His chief reputation
was won as a painter of still life, in which department he
was almost unrivalled. Died in 1889. His son Paul
and daughter Erailie also won distinction as artists.
The elder Preyer was a dwarf.

Prey'er, (THIERRY WILHELM,) a German physi-
ologist, born at Manchester, England, in 1841. He
studied in several German universities, and in 1869
became professor of physiology at Jena. His best-
known work is " The Soul of the Child." Others are
"The Struggle for Existence," "On the Causes of
Sleep," etc.

Fri'am, |Gr. npia^oc ; Lat PRI'AMUS; Fr. PRIAM,
pRe'SN*,] a famous king of Troy, in whose reign occurred
the siege of Troy, which is the theme of Homer's " Iliad."
He was a son of Laomedon, and the father of Hector,
Paris, and other heroes. According to Virgil, he was
killed by Pyrrhas at the capture of Troy.

Friamus. See PRIAM.

Friape. See PRIAPUS.

Fri-a'pus, [Gr. Hpiairof; Fr. PRIAPE, pRe'tp',] an
obscene idol of the Greek and Roman mythology, repre-
sented as a son of Bacchus and Venus, and worshipped
as the protector of flocks of sheep and goats, of grape-
vines and gardens, and as the god of fertility.

Price, (BARTHOLOMEW,) an English clergyman and
mathematician, born in 1818 at Coin Saint Dennis. He
graduated in 1840 at Pembroke College, Oxford, and
in 1853 was appointed professor of natural philosophy
in his university. His most noted work is a " Treatise
on the Infinitesimal Calculus," (5 vols., 1857-65.) Died
December 29, 1898.

Price, ( BON AMY,) an English economist, born in
Guernsey, May 22, 1807. In 1829 he graduated at Wor-
cester College, Oxford, in which university he became
in 1868 professor of political economy. Among his
works are "The Principles of Currency," (1869,) "Of
Currency and Banking," (1876,) "Practical Political
Economy," (1878,) etc. Died January 8, 1888.

Price, (DAVID,) an English Orientalist, born in 1762.
He served as a major in the army of the East India
Company, and published a " Chronological Retrospect ;
or, Memoirs of the Principal Events in Mohammedan
History from the Death of the Arabian Legislator to
the Accession of the Emperor Akbar," (4 vols., 181 1-21.)
Died in 1835.

Price, (LI K.,) an American lawyer, born in Brad-
ford, Chester county, Pennsylvania, July 20, 1797- He
was admitted to the bar in 1822. He published "Liens
and Limitations," (1857,) a book on the law of real

i, e, !, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, !, o. u. v. short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon;




estate, (1874,) ana various other works. Died at Phila-
delphia, November 15. 1884.

Price, (JAMES,) an English chemist or alchemist, born
in 1752. He committed suicide in 1783.

Price, (Sir JOHN,) an English or Welsh antiquary,
wrote a " Defence of British History," in answer to
Polydore Vergil, (1573.) Died about 1553.

Price, (JOHN,) an English critic, born in London in
1600. He published commentaries on Scripture. Died
in a convent at Rome in 1676.

Price, (JOHN,) an English divine, who was chaplain
to General Monk, and became rector of Petworth, in
Sussex, under the reign of Charles II. He published
"The Mystery and Method of his Majesty's Happy
Restauration," etc., (London, 1660.) Died in 1691.
See " Monk's Contemporaries." by GUIZOT.
Price, (RICHARD,) an eminent English dissenting min-
ister and speculative philosopher, was born at Tynton,
in Glamorganshire, in 1723. He was chaplain to Mr.
Streathfield, or Streitfield, from 1743 to 1756, after
which he preached at Newington Green Chapel and the
Gravel-Pit Meeting-House, at Hackney. He married
in 1757 a Miss Blundell. He advocated the cause of
American liberty in his " Observations on Civil Liberty
and the Justice and Policy of the War with America,"
(1776,) which was a popular work. In 1778 he was in-
vited by Congress to become a citizen of the United
States ; but he declined. He was an intimate friend of
Dr. Franklin and Dr. Priestley. Among his chief works
are a "Review of the Principal Questions and Diffi-
culties in Morals," (1758,) "Four Dissertations, on
Providence, Prayer, the State of Virtuous Men after
Death, and Christianity," (1766-68,) and Sermons. Died
in London in 1791.

See "Life of R. Price," by W. MORGAN, 1815.
Price, (STERLING,) an American general, born in
Virginia. He emigrated to Missouri, and represented a
district of that State in Congress from 1845 to 1847. He
was Governor of Missouri from 1853 to 1857, and joined
the disunionists in 1861. He served as major-general at
Wilson's Creek in August, 1861, took Lexington, Sep-
tember 20, and retired to Springfield. He commanded
a division at Pea Ridge, March, 1862, and at Corinth, in
October of that year. In September, 1864, he entered
Southeastern Missouri with an army, made a successful
raid to Lexington, and, after several fights, returned by
a different route to Arkansas about the end of October.
Died in 1867.

See a notice of Sterling Price in " Southern Generals," 1865.
Price, (Rev. THOMAS,) a distinguished Welsh scholar,
born at Pencaerelin, near Builth, in 1787. He became
vicar of Cwmdu in 1825. He wrote, besides other works,
"A Critical Essay on the Language and Literature of
Wales," and (in Welsh) a " History of Wales and the
Welsh Nation from the Early Ages to the Death of
Llewelyn ap Gruffydd," (1836-42,) which is said to be
the best work on the subject. Died in 1848.

Price, (Sir UVEDALE,) an English gentleman, born in
Herefordshire in 1747. He made some improvements
in landscape-gardening, and wrote a work on that sub-
ject, entitled "An Essay on the Picturesque as compared
with the Sublime and Beautiful ; and on the Use of
Studying Pictures for the Purpose of Improving Real
Landscape," (1794.) An enlarged edition was published
in 2 vols., 1797. Died in 1829.

Price, (WILLIAM,) an English Orientalist, born in
1780. He went to Persia in 1810 as secretary of the
British embassy. He published a " Grammar of the
Hindostanee, Persian, and Arabic Languages," (1823,)
and other works. Died in 1830.

Prichard, prltch'ard, (JAMES COWLES,) an eminent
English ethnologist and physiologist, born at Ross,
Herefordshire, in 1785. He graduated as a physician at
Edinburgh, and began to practise at Bristol about 1810.
In 1813 he published "Researches into the Physical
History of Mankind," (i vol. ; 3d edition, 5 vols., 1849,)
a work of high reputation. He wrote a more popular
treatise on the same subject, entitled " The Natural His-
tory of Man," (1843.) Among his important works are
"The Diseases of the Nervous System," (1822,) "The

Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations," (1831,) and a
"Treatise on Insanity," (1834.) He removed from Bristol
to London in 1845. Died in December, 1848.

See CALLISEN, " Medicinisches Schriftsteller-Lexikon ;" "Quar-
terly Review" for September, 1836 ; " Eraser's Magazine" for Novem-
ber, 1844.

Prichard, prltch'ard, (Rev. REES,) a Welsh poet,
born in Carmarthenshire; died in 1644.

Prideauac, prld'o or prld'ux, (HUMPHREY,) a learned
English divine and historian, born at Padstow, in Corn-
wall, in 1648. He was educated at Oxford, where he
published the inscriptions of the Arundel marbles in
1676. He became prebendary of Norwich in 1681, rectoi
of Bladen in 1683, rector of Saham in 1686, archdeacon
of Suffolk in 1688, vicar of Trowse in 1696, and Dean
of Norwich in 1702. He opposed the acts of James II.
which caused the revolution of 1688. His principal
works are "A Life of Mahomet," (1697,) once held in
high esteem, but now admitted to be very deficient in
impartiality as well as in true historical research, and a
" History of the Connection of the Old and New Testa-
ment," (6 vols., 1715-17,) which was much esteemed
and often reprinted. Died in 1724.

See "Life of H. Prideaux," anonymous, 1748: " Biographia
Britannica. "

Prideaux, (JOHN,) an English divine of great learn-
ing, was born at Stowford, in Devonshire, in 1578. He
became in 1615 regius professor of divinity at Oxford,
canon of Christ Church, and rector of Ewelme. In 1641
he was appointed Bishop of Worcester. He suffered
much loss in consequence of his adherence to the royal-
ist party in the civil war. He left many works on the-
ology, logic, and other subjects. Died in 1650.

See WOOD, "Athens Oxonienses."

Prierias. See MAZOLINI.

Priessnitz, pRees'nits, (VlNCENZ,) celebrated as the
founder of the system of hydropathy, ( JCaltwasscrmr,
"cold-water cure,") was born at Grafenberg, in Austrian
Silesia, in 1799. Having been severely injured by a
loaded cart passing over his body, he was enabled to
effect a cure by the application of cold water, which he
subsequently made use of as a healing agent in various
diseases when consulted by his neighbours. In 1826
he opened a hydropathic institution at Grafenberg, which
was soon resorted to by invalids from different parts of
Germany and other countries of Europe. The fame
of his successes became at length so great that the num-
ber of his annual guests exceeded one thousand. His
system excluded all medicine and stimulants of whatever
kind, as well as blistering and depletion in any form,
relying only on the various applications of wa^er, abun-
dant out-door exercise, wholesome diet, etc. He died
in 1851. The water-cure has been received with favour
in the principal countries of Europe, and in the United

See DECKBN-HIMMELREICH, "V. Priessnitz und die Wassercur."
1845; SHLINGER, "Vincenz Priessnitz," 1852.

Priestley, preest'le, (JOSEPH,) an eminent English
philosopher, chemist, and theologian, was born at Field-
head, near Leeds, on the I3th of March, 1733. He
studied at a dissenting academy at Daventry about three
years, (1752-55,) and became versed in Latin, Greek,
and Hebrew. At an early age he admitted doubts re-
specting some doctrines of the orthodox creed, though
he had been educated as a Calvinist. He preached to
a small company of dissenters at Needham-Market from
1755 to 1758, and then removed to Nantwich, Cheshire.
In 1761 he became tutor of languages and belles-lettres
in the academy of Warrington, and published "Th*
Scripture Doctrine of Remission," in which he rejects
the dogma of the atonement.

During a visit to London he formed an acquaintance
with Dr. Franklin, who encouraged him to write a " His-
tory of Electricity." He published in 1767 a work with
this title, which was favourably received. He was elected
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1766. In 1767 he took
charge of a dissenting congregation at Leeds, where he
wrote several works on theology and found recreation
in experiments on pneumatic chemistry. He obtained
in 1773 the Copley medal for his "Observations on Dif
ferent Kinds of Air." He discovered the effect of respi-

eas*; 9 as*; ^hard; gas/'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: sasz; thasinMw.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 242 of 425)