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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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raria:" HANKIUS, "Scriptores Byzaiuini ;" " Nouvelle Biographic
Ge^erale."

Procopius, (ANTHEMIUS.) See ANTHEMIUS.

Procopius, (DEMETRIUS,) a biographer, born at Mos-
copolis, in Macedonia, lived about 1730. He wrote, in
Greek, a series of biographies of Greek scholars of the
seventeenth century, which is commended. It was
published by Fabricius in 1722 in his "Bibliotheca
Graeca."



i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon.



PROCOPIUS



PROPERTIUS



Procopiua OF GAZA, a biblical commentator, flour-
ished about 550 A.D.

Pro-oo'pl-us Ra'sa, an able Bohemian general, suc-
ceeded Ziska in 1424 as the leader of the Hussites or
Taborites. He defeated the Austrians in a number of
battles, and ravaged Moravia, Austria, and Saxony. In
1431 he routed an imperial army which had invaded
Bohemia. He was killed in battle in 1434.

Pro-crfis'tes, [Gr. UpoKoivrrif ; Fr. PROCRUSTE, pRo'-
kRiist',] (i.e. " the Stretcher,") a surname of DAMASTES
or POLYPEMON, a famous robber, who compelled his
captives to lie on a bed, and made them coincide with
it in length by cutting off their legs or stretching them
in case they were too long or too short. He was killed
by Theseus.

Froc'ter, ( ADELAIDE ANNE,) an English poetess,
born in London in 1825, was a daughter of Bryan
Waller Procter. She became in 1853 a contributor to
" Household Words" and " All the Year Round," and
published in 1858 "Legends and Lyrics." A second
volume of " Legends and Lyrics" came out in 1861.
Died in 1864.

Procter, (BRYAN WALLER,) an English poet, who
wrote under the assumed name of BARRY CORNWALL,
was born about 1790. He studied law, and was called
to the bar in 1831. He acquired distinction by a volume
entitled "Dramatic Scenes, and other Poems," (1819.)
His tragedy of " Mirandola" (1821) was performed with
success. Among his other works are " The Flood of



obtained much popularity. Died October 4, 1874.

Proctor, (REDFIELD,) an American statesman,
born at Proctorsville, Vermont, in 1831. He became
a member of the Vermont legislature in 1867, lieu-
tenant-governor in 1876, and governor in 1878. In
1889 he was made secretary of war by President
Harrison, and in 1891 became United States Senator
from Vermont.

Froc'tor, (RICHARD ANTHONY), a distinguished Eng-
lish astronomer, born at Chelsea, March 23, 1837. He
was educated at King's College, London, and at Saint
John's, Cambridge, graduating in 1860. He published a
great number of astronomical works and books of popu-
lar science, including "Saturn and its System," (1865,)
" Half-Hours with the Stars," (1869,) "Other Worlds
than Ours," (1870,) "A Treatise on the Cycloid,"
(1878,) "Chance and Luck," (1887,) and others,
mostly on scientific subjects. Died at New York in
1888.

Proc'u-lus, an eminent Roman jurist, was a contem-
porary of Nerva. He gave his name to a school or sect,
(Proculiani or Proculani.) Among the jurists cited in
the Digest he is the second in order of time.

Proculus, a Roman officer, who attempted to usurp
imperial power in Gaul in 280 A.D. He was defeated
by Probus, and put to death.

Prodl-cus, \Hp6SiKOf,] an eloquent Greek Sophist or
philosopher, born in Ceos, lived about 430 B.C. He
lectured at Athens and other places. Among his pupils
or auditors were Isocrates, Euripides, and perhaps Soc-
rates. He was accused of atheism without sufficient
evidence. He wrote a beautiful apologue entitled " The
Choice of Hercules," an outline or abridgment of which
Has been preserved by Xenophon.

See XENOPHON, " Memorabilia ;" HUMMKL, " Dissertatio his
lories de Prodico Sophista." 1847: PLATO, " Protagoras."

Frogne. See PROCNE.

Prcetides, preVe-dez, the daughters of Prcetus, King
of Argolis or Argos, were named Lysippe, Iphinoe, and
Iphianassa. According to the fable, they became insane
and imagined that they were cows.

Prcetus, pree'tHS, (Gr. LVrof,] a king of Argos, was
a twin-brother of Acrisius, by whom he was defeated in
a contest for the throne. He afterwards recovered a
share of the kingdom, by the aid of Jobates. He is
said to have given Melampus a part of his kingdom
for curing his daughter of insanity.



Prokesch-Osten, von, fon pRo'kSsh os'ten, (ANTON,)
BARON, an Austrian diplomatist, general, and able writer
born at Gratz, in Styria, in 1795. He was sent as am-
bassador to Athens in 1834, to Berlin in 1849, and to
Constantinople in 1855. He published "Memoirs and
Souvenirs of the Orient," (1836,) and " History of the
Decline of the Greeks in Turkey," (1876.) Died in 1876.

Proklus. See PROCLUS.

Prokne. See PROCNE.

Prokofief or Prokophief, pro-ko'fe-2f, (!VAN PRO-
KOFIEVITCH,) a Russian sculptor, born in Saint Peters-
burg in 1758, was a pupil of Julien, of Paris. He worked
with success at his native place. Died in 1828.

Pro-ko'po-vitch, (THEOPHANES,) a Russian prelate,
born at Kiev in 1681. He became Bishop of Pskof in
1715, and composed, at the request of Peter the Great,
an ecclesiastical code, in which priests are treated as
employees of the civil power. Died in 1736.

See TCHISTOVITCH, "The'ophane Prokopovitch ct TWophilaetr
Lopatinski." 1861.

Promethee. See PROMETHEUS.

Fro-me'the-us, [Gr. npo/aidnif ; Fr. PROMKTHAE,
pRo'mi'ta',] a personage of the Greek mythology, was a
son of lapetus. According to one tradition, he stole fire
from heaven, for which offence Jupiter chained him to
a rock or pillar, and an eagle daily devoured his liver,
which was nightly restored. ^Eschylus represents him
as an immortal being, a benefactor of men, the giver of
fire, and a heroic sufferer, who was oppressed by the
power of Jupiter, but maintained an inflexible spirit
until he was liberated by Hercules. His name signifies
" forethought" Some authors relate that he created a
man out of clay and animated him with fire which he
stole from heaven, and that he was the husband of Pan-
dora. (See ^ischylus, " Prometheus Bound.")

See, also, LASSAULX, "Prometheus; die Sage und ihr Sinn, 1
1843-

Pro-mo'tus, (.^LIUS,) a physician of Alexandria,
whose period is unknown. It is supposed that he lived
before the Christian era. Some of his works are extant
in manuscript.

Prompsault, pRAN'so', (JEAN HENRI ROMAIN,) a
French ecclesiastical writer, born at Montelimart in
1798. He published a "Dictionary of Canon Law,"
and several works on grammar. Died in 1858.

Prony, de, deh pRo'ne', (GASPARD CLAIR FRANC.OIS
MARIE RICHE,) a French mathematician and engineer,
born at Chamelet (Rhone) in July, 1755. He was ap-
pointed in 1791 director of the Cadastre, and received
an order to compose logarithms or mathematical tables
adapted to the decimal division of the circle, a work of
great labour and utility. In 1791 he was appointed chief
engineer of bridges and causeways. He became about
1794 professor of mechanics in the Polytechnic School, a
member of the Bureau of Longitudes, and a member of
the Institute. In 1798 he was invited by Bonaparte to
join the expedition to Egypt, but declined. He received
the title of baron in 1828, and became a peer of France
in 1835. Among his principal works are "Hydraulic
Architecture," (2 vols., 1790-96,) "Philosophical Me-
chanics," (1800,) "Lectures on Analytical Mechanics,"
(1810,) and a " Hydrographic and Statistical Description
of the Pontine Marshes," (1823,) which is a work of
much merit. He wrote a number of articles for the
" Biographic Universelle." Died in 1839.

See ARAGO, " Notices biographiques," tome iit. ; " Eloge dfl
Prony," by C. DUPIN; " Nouveile Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Properce. See PROPERTIUS.

Fropertius, pro-per'she-us, [Fr. PROPERCE, pRo'-
p?Rss'; It. PROPERZIO, pRo^Rt'se-o,] (SEXTUS AURI
Lius,) an eminent Roman elegiac poet, born in UmbriA
about 50 B.C. He informs us that he was born in Umbria,
on the border of Etruria. His paternal estate was confis-
cated by Octavius because his father had been a partisan
of Antony. He began early to write poetry, became a resi-
dent of Rome, and obtained the patronage of Maecenas.
His life appears to have been that of "a man of wit
and pleasure about town." His career as a poet was
influenced by a passion for Cynthia, a poetess and lady
of superior talents, who furnished a theme for his early
elegies. He chose Callimachus as his model, and be-



as k: c as s; g hard; g asy; G. H. TH,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as *: th as in this. I JCfp'See Explanations, p. 2.V



PROPERZIO



2004



PR OUT



came a rather pedantic imitator of the Greeks. His
ityle is censured as too artificial. Both ancient and
modern critics, however, assign to him a high rank as
a poet. He enjoyed the friendship of Ovid. The time
of his death is unknown. Four books of elegies are the
only works of Propertius that are now extant A cor-
rect English version of his first book was published
anonymously in 1781. Among the best editions of the
text is that of Lachmann, (Leipsic, 1816.)

See "Vita Prppertii," in LACHMANN'S edition, 1816 ; GILLET BE
MOIVRE, "La Vie et les Amours de Properce," 1744; " Nouvelle
Lliographie Ge'ne'raJe ;" " Westminster Review" for January, 1854.

Properzio. See PROPERTIUS.

Propiac, de, deh pro'pe'ik', (CATHERINE JOSEPH
FERDINAND GIRARD,) a French littfrattur, born at
Dijon in 1759 ; died in 1823.

Pros'er-plne, [Gr. \\epoetpovri, ( Prrscph' ant ; ) Fr
PROSERPINE, pRozen'pen'; Lat. PROSERPI'NA,] the
goddess and queen of the infernal regions, was said
to have been a daughter of Jupiter and Ceres, and the
wife of Pluto. The poets feigned that as she was gather-
ing flowers near Enna she was abducted by Pluto ; that
Ceres, not knowing what had become of her, searched
for her with torches in all parts of the earth for nine
days; that Helios revealed the secret of her abduction ;
that Jupiter, induced by the importunity of Ceres, re-
quested Pluto to restore her, and that Pluto consented
that she should spend two-thirds of the year with the
gods above, and the other third in the lower world.
Later writers say that she was to pass the half of her
time in Hades and the other half in the regions of light.
She is supposed to be a symbol of vegetation, and of
the creative and destructive power of heat.

Proske, pros'keh, (KARL,) a German musical archae-
ologist, born at Grbbing, in Upper Silesia, in 1794. He
edited a celebrated collection of ancient church music,
called " Musica Divina." Died December 20, 1861.

Prosper, pRos'paiR', surnamed AQUITA'NUS, ("of
Aquitaine,") a theologian, born at Bordeaux, in Gaul,
about 404 A.D. He was a zealous opponent of the Semi-
Pelagians, and wrote in defence of the doctrines of Saint
Augustine. His works, among which are some poems,
are still extant. Died after 463 A.D.

Pros'per Ti'ro or Ty'ro, a poet, who is often con-
founded with Prosper Aquitanus, was born in Gaul, and
lived about 400 A.D. He wrote a " Poem of a Husband
to his Wife," (" Poema Conjugis ad Uxorem.")

Prost, pRo, (CLAUDE,) BARON, a French general,
born at Auxonne in 1764 ; died in 1834.

Prost de Royer, PRO deh rwa'ya', (ANTOINE FRAN-
COIS,) a French jurist, born at Lyons in 1729; died in
1784

Pro-tag'o-ras, (Gr. npurayopof ; Fr. PROTAGORE,
pRo'ti'goR',] an eminent Greek philosopher and Sophist,
born at Abdera, in Thrace, flourished about 440 B.C. He
is said to have been a pupil of Democritus ; but this
is doubted by some, because Protagoras was probably
older than his supposed master. According to Plato
and Diogenes, he was the first who adopted the name
of Sophist and taught for pay. He taught oratory at
Athens and other cities. He was banished from Athens
because he said that he did not know whether the gods
existed or not. His works, which treated on ethics,
physics, etc., are lost, but his peculiar doctrines are ex-
plained in the "Theaetetus" of Plato. He reached the
age of seventy or more, and died about 410 B.C. It was
a maxim of Protagoras that "man is the measure of the
universe or of all things, and that whatever he judges to
be true is true." Cicero says, "Putef id cuique Terum
esse quod cuique videatur." (" Quasstiones Academics.")

See PLATO'S dialogue entitled " Protagoras ;" GROTE, " Plato and
ths other Companions of Socrates," 3 vols., 1865: HERBST, " Des



TK, " History of Greece," chap, livii,

Frotagore. See PROTAGORAS.

Protain, pRo'tiN', (JEAN CONSTANTIN,) a French
architect, born in Paris in 1769. He was employed in
Egypt in 1798-99 as architect to the commission of arts
ind sciences, and became a member of the Institute of
Cairo in 1801. Died in 1837.



Frotais, pRo't^', (PAUL ALEXANDRA; a French
painter, born in Paris in 1826. He followed the French
armies in the Crimean war and in the Italian campaign
of 1859, and from the first his art was almost entirely
devoted to military subjects. Died January 27, 1890.

Protee. gee PROTEUS.

Protet, pRo'ty, (AUGUSTE LEOPOLD,) a French rear-
admiral, born at Saint-Servan about 1810. He was
Governor of Senegal from 1850 to 1855, during which
period he made an exploration of that region. He was
killed in a battle against the Taepingsof China, in 1862.

Pro'te-us, [Gr. ripurrff; Fr. PROTEE, pRo'ti',] a
divinity of the Greek mythology, was sometimes called
a son of Neptune and a king of Egypt. He was repre-
sented as a prophetic old man, who lived in the sea and
could foretell future events, but eluded those who seized
and importuned him to prophesy, by transforming him-
self into a great variety of shapes. If his efforts to
escape were baffled, he resumed his original or usual form
and revealed his secret knowledge. His occupation was
to tend the flocks of seals or sea-calves belonging to
Neptune.

See HOMER, "Odyssey," book iv. ; VIRGIL, "Georgia," book
iv. 387-529.

Protogene. See PROTOGENES.

Pro-tog'e-nes, [Gr. IIpuToyevjjf; Fr. PROTOGENE,
pRo'to'zh^n',] a Greek painter of great celebrity, was a
native of Cannus, in Caria. He flourished about 332
B.C., was a contemporary of Apelles, and lived mostly
at Rhodes. The name of his master is not known. His
advancement in fame and fortune was retarded by his
modesty, until Apelles visited Rhodes and purchased, at
the enormous price of fifty talents each, several of his
pictures, which he proposed to sell as his own works.
(See APELLES.) In the opinion of some, Protogenes
carried the elaboration of his works to a fault ; but
Cicero speaks of his works as perfect in every respect.
His master-piece was a picture of lalysus, on which he
is said to have expended seven years. One of the ad-
mirable parts of this picture was the foam at the mouth
of a hound, " which," says Pliny, " he produced, after
many vain efforts, by throwing a sponge at the place,
under the impulse of vexation or despair."

See PLINY, " Natural History," book xxxv. ; SUIDAS, " Proto-
genes;" K. O. MiiLLER, " Archaologie der KunsL"

Froudhon, pRoo'd6N', sometimes written Frudhon,
(JEAN BAPTISTS VICTOR,) a French jurist, born in
Franche-Comte in 1758. He was for many years pro-
fessor of law at Dijon. He published, besides other
works, an excellent treatise on the laws of Usufruct,
etc., "Traite des Droits d'Usufruit, d'Usage, d'Habita-
tion et de Superficie," (9 vols., 1823-25,) said to be the
best work on that subject. Died in 1838.

See LOKAIN, " filoge historique de M. Proudhon," 1830.

Proudhon, (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a French socialist and
political writer, born at Besancon in 1809. In 1848 he
became editor of "The Representative of the People,"
and was elected to the Constituent Assembly. He made
a motion which a large majority of the Assembly rejected
as " an odious attack on public morality and subversive
of the rights of property." He published several works
on social and political economy. In his essay entitled
" What is Property ?" (" Qu'est-ce que la Proprie'te ?")
he affirms that "property is robbery," ("La proprie^,
c'est le vol.") Died in 1865.

See J. VRAO, "Proudhon et son Economic politique," 1853.
QUBRARD, " La France Litte'raire ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'-
rale:" " Blackwood's Magazine" for March, 1849.

Proust, pRoo, (Louis JOSEPH,) a French chemist,
born at Angers about 1760. He was admitted into the
Institute in 1816. He contributed many memoirs on
chemistry to various periodicals, and distinguished him-
self as a supporter of the theory of equivalents or definite
proportions. Died in 1826.

Prousteau, pRoo'to', (GuiLLAUME,) a French jurist,
born at Tours in 1628. He founded a public library at
Orleans, and wrote legal works. Died in 1715.

Prout, prowt, (EBENEZER,) an English musical com-
poser and critic, born at Oundle, Northamptonshire, in
1835. He was editor of the "Monthly Musical
Record," afterwards musical critic of the " Athe-
naeum," and professor of music at Dublin in 1894.



E, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged: i. e, 1. 6, fl, y, short; a, e, j, Q, obscure; far, fill, fit; m4t; nftt; pood; ni67m ;



PR OUT



2005



PRZHEVALSKI



Frout, FATHER, the assumed name of FRANCIS MA-
HOMY. (See MAHONY.)

Prout, prowt, (SAMUEL,) a skilful English painter
of architecture, scenery, etc., was born at Plymouth in
1783. He published about 1816 "Views in the North
and West of England," " Rudiments of Landscape," and
other successful works. He acquired distinction as a
painter in water-colours, a delineator of mediaeval archi-
lecture, and a lithographer. After a tour on the conti-
nent, he published lithographic " Fac-Similes of Sketches
made in Flanders and Germany," and " Sketches in
France, Switzerland, and Italy," (1839.) Died in 1852.
Ruskin pronounces him " a very great man, who, though,
partly by chance and partly by choice, limited in range
of subject, possessed for that subject the profoundest
and noblest sympathy. ... In reality he is to be num-
bered among the true masters of the nobler picturesque."
("Modern Painters.")

See J. RUSKIN, " Memoir of S. Prout," in the "Art Journal,"
1849.

Prout, (WILLIAM,) an eminent English chemist and
physician, was born in 1786. He practised in London,
and was probably the first physician who applied the
doctrines of chemistry to the explanation of the phe-
nomena of disease. Among his important works are
one " On the Nature and Treatment of Stomach and
Renal Diseases ; being an Inquiry into the Connection
of Diabetes, Calculus, etc. with Indigestion," and
"Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function of Diges-
tion considered with Reference to Natural Theology. "'
The latter is one of the " Bridgewater Treatises." Died
in London in 1850.

Frovana, pRo-vi'nl, (ANDREA,) an Italian admiral,
born in Piedmont in 1511 ; died in 1592.

Provenzale, pRo-vJn-za'la, (MARCELLO,) an Italian
painter in mosaic, born at Cento in 1575. Among his
works is a portrait of Paul V. Died in 1639.

Provoost, pro'vost, ? (SAMUEL,) D.D., an American
divine, born in New York in 1742, was chaplain to the
Continental Congress and subsequently to the United
States Senate. He was elected Bishop of New York in
1786. Died in 1815.

Frovostaye, de la, deh li pRo vo'stj', (FERDINAND
HERVlS,) a French natural philosopher, born at Redon
n 1812. He wrote on optics, heat, etc. Died in 1863.

Proyart, pRwa'yaV, (Abbe" LIEVIN BONAVENTURE,)
a French historian, born at Arras in 1743, published,
besides other works, a " History of Stanislas, King of
Poland," (2 vols., 1782,) which is commended. Died
in 1808.

Prudence. See PRUDENTIUS.

Prudent, prii'd&N', (MILE,) a French composer and
pianist, born at Angouleme in 1817. Among his works
is "Fantaisie sur Lucie," (1842.) Died May 14, 1863.

Frudentius, pru-deVshg^s, or Pru'dence, SAINT,
a learned bishop, born in Spain. He became Bishop of
Troyes about 846. He wrote against Erigena on pre-
destination. Died in 861.

See LE CLEEC, "Vie de Saint- Prudence," 1689; BRBYBR, "Vie
de Saint-Prudence," 1725.

Pruden'tius (pru-dSn'she-us) [Fr. PRUDENCE, pRii'-
d6Nss'] Clem'ens, (AURELIUS!) a Latin Christian poet,
was bom in Spain in 348 A.D. He practised law, and
became a judge of a civil and criminal court. He wrote,
In barbarous or unclassical Latin, hymns, and other re-
ligious poems, which procured for him a high reputation
in the middle ages and are admired by some modern
critics. He visited Rome about 405, and passed his
latter years in Spain. Erasmus thought that his piety
and learning entitled him to a place among the doctors
of the Church.

See LUDEWIG, " Dissertatio de Vita A. Prudentii dementis,"
169*; TILLEMONT, " Me"moires eccle"siastiques. "

Prudhomme, pRu'dom', (Louis MARIE,) a French
revolutionist, born at Lyons in 1752. He issued an ultra-
republican journal in Paris in 1789. Among his works
is a "History of the French Revolution," (6 vols., 1796,)
which is of little value. Died in 1830.

Prudhomme, or Sully-Prudliomine, sii'le' pRii'-
dom', (RENE FRANCOIS ARMAND,) a French poet, born
in Paris, March 16, 1839. He was one al the original



" Parnassiens," or " impossibles" a set of young authors
who professed a peculiar devotion to art for art's sake.
His " Stances et Poe'mes" include that chff-d'ceuvre, " Le
Vase fele." He published several volumes of philosophic
verse, including a translation of a part of Lucretius's
" De Natura," with a very able preface. His "Expres-
sion in the Fine Arts" (1884) has a high value. He has
been chosen to the Academy.

Frudhon, (JEAN BAPTISTS VICTOR.) Sec PROC-
DHON.

Prud'hon, prii'doN', (PIERRE PAUL,) a French histor-
ical painter, was born at Cluny (Saone-et-Loire) in 1758.
Having studied in Rome, he settled in Paris in 1789,
and obtained a high reputation. Among his works are
"Venus and Adonis," "The Abduction of Psyche," and
"Justice and Divine Vengeance pursuing Crime." The
gracefulness of his style has procured for him the sur-
name of "the French Correggio." Died in 1823.

See ARSENE HOUSSAYE, " Philosophers and Actresses," vol. ii. ;
VOIART, " Notice historique sur la Vie de Prud'hon," 1824 ; QUA-
TREMEREDE QuiNCY, "Notice sur P. P. Prud'hon," 1824: "Noo-
velle Biographic G^ne"rale."

Prtmelle, pRu'nSl', (CLEMENT FRANC.OIS Vicrot
GABRIEL,) a French physician, born at La Tour du Pin
(Isere) in 1777. He lectured at Montpellier from 1807
to 1819, and published several medical works. Died
in 1853.

Fruner, pRoo'ner, (FRANZ,) a German physician and
ethnologist, born in Bavaria in 1808. He became chief
physician of Abbas Pasha of Egypt in 1847, before
which he had visited Syria and other parts of the Le-
vant He afterwards returned to Europe. Among his
works are "Man in Space and Time," (1859,) and "The
Carthaginians in France," (1870.) Died in 1882.

Prusias, pru'she-as, [Gr. npouoinr,] I., King of Bithy-
nia, was a grandson~of Nicomedes I. He began to reign
about 228 B.C., and gained a great victory over the Gauls
in 216. He aided Philip of Macedon in his first war
against the Romans, but became the ally of the latter
about 190 B.C. The power and prosperity of the king-
dom were increased by his ability as a ruler. He
lacked the virtue or courage to refuse when the Romans
demanded the surrender of Hannibal, who had taken
refuge in his dominions.

See POLYBIUS, "History;" APPIAN, "Syriaca."

Frusias H. OF BITHYNIA was the son and successor
of the preceding. He began to reign about 180 B.C. He
was neutral in the war between the Romans and Perseus,
his brother-in-law. In 156-154 he waged war against
Attalus of Pergamus. Having rendered himself odious
by his cruelty, he was killed by his subjects in 149 B.C.

Frutz, pRoots, (ROBERT ERNST,) a German poet and
prose writer, born at Stettin in 1816. He became pro-
fessor of literary history at Halle in 1849. Among his
works are "Poems," (1841,) "Political and Literary
Essays," (2 vols., 1847,) and " Dramatic Works," (4
vols., 1847-49.) Died June 21, 1872.

Prynne, prln, (WILLIAM,) an English Puritan poli-
tician and antiquary, was born near Bath in 1600. He
published in 1632 a scurrilous pamphlet, entitled " His-
trio-Mastix, or a Scourge for Stage-Players," for which
the court of the Star-Chamber sentenced him to pay a
large fine, to be exposed in a pillory, to lose his ears,
and to be imprisoned for life. He was released by a
warrant from the Speaker of the Commons in 1641, and
elected to the Long Parliament. He was an opponent
of Cromwell's, and was ejected from the House of'
Commons by the army in 1648. He compiled several
volumes of Records. Died in 1669.

See ANTHONY WOOD, "Athenz Oxonienses;" DISRAELI, "Ca-
lamities of Authors."

Fry'pr, (ROGER A.,) an American Confederate gen-
eral, born in Dinwiddie county, Virginia, July 19, 1828.
He was editor of several papers issued at Petersburg


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 244 of 425)