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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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and Richmond, and was elected to Congress in 1859.
He challenged John F. Potter, M.C., in 1860, but refused
to fight with the weapons which the latter selected. He
fought against the Union, with the rank of brigadier-
general, in the civil war.

Frzhevalaki, or Frjevalski, pzria-val'ske, (Colonel
N ,) a Russian traveller, born in 1839. He became

t. : as k 9 as s: g hard; g as/; G, H, Tt,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as *; th as in this.

lanations, p. 23.1




an army officer, and was sent on numerous and impor-
tant government exploring expeditions, accompanied in
most cases by an armed force. The results of Przhe-
valski's explorations are of the highest value. D. 1888.

Frzipcovius, pzh5p-ko've-us, (SAMUEL,) a PoHsh
Socinian writer, born about 1592; died in 1670.

Przybylski, pzhlp-bll'skee, (HYACINTH,) a Polish
writer and translator, born at Cracow in 1756. He pro-
duced versions of Homer, Milton, Virgil, Horace, etc.
Died in 1819.

Fsalmanazar, sal-ma-na'zar, (GEORGE,) the assumed
name of a literary impostor, born about 1679, probably
in the south of France. He passed his youth as a vaga-
bond, pretended to be a native of Formosa, and pub-
lished in England a fictitious account of that island, ( 1 704.)
About the age of thirty-two he renounced his evil habits,
became religious, and applied himself diligently to study.
He obtained considerable success as an English author.
He wrote for a work entitled " Universal History" nearly
all of the ancient history except that of Rome, and left
memoirs of his own life, (1765.) His proper name re-
mains a secret. Died in London in 1753 or 1763.

See " Memoirs of * * *, commonly known by the name of George
Psalmanazar," 1765: " Nouvelle Biographic G&ieVale;" "Monthly
Review" for November and December, 1764.

Paaminenitus, sam-me-nl'tus, [Gr. i'dfi/u/mTof ; Fr.
PSAMMENITE, psf'mi'net',] King of Egypt, succeeded
his father, Amasis, in 526 B.C. He was conquered and
deposed in 525 B.C. by Cambyses. Soon after this event
he was accused of inciting the Egyptians to revolt, and
was put to death.

Psammetichus or Psametik. See PSAMMITICHUS.

Psammis, sam'mis, [Gr. ^ra/jfuf,] King of Egypt, a
son of Psammitichus, reigned from 601 to 595 B.C., and
was succeeded by his son Apries.

Fsammitichus, sam-mit'e-kus, or Psammetichus,
sam-met'e-kus, [Gr. Va/ifunxo; or J'a^Ti^of ; Fr. PSAM-
MITIQUE, psf me'tek' ; Egyptian, PSAMETIK,] a king of
Egypt, and founder of the Saitic dynasty, began to reign
about 670 B.C. According to Herodotus, he reigned fifty-
four years. During his reign, which was an important
epoch, the Greeks were first introduced into Egypt

See HERODOTUS, "History;" GROTE, " History of Greece.'*

Psammitique. See PSAMMITICHUS.

Fsellus, sel'lus, [-ftWof,] (MICHAEL,) a Greek scholai
of the ninth century, was a native of Andros, and emi-
nent for learning.

Fsellus, (MICHAEL CONST ANTINUS, ) a celebrated
Greek writer, born at Constantinople in 1020 A.D. He
is said to have been the most excellent scholar of his
time. He wrote in prose and verse on various subjects,
and received from several emperors the title of " Prince
of Philosophers." He was living in 1105.

Psyche, si'ke, [Gr. "tow ; Fr. PSYCH*, pseTci',] the
name given by ancient Greek poets and fabulists to a
personification of the human soul. Having gained the
affections of the god of Love, (Amor,) she lived happily
with him until her curiosity to know who he was de-
prived her of his presence. Wandering in search of
Amor, she entered the palace of Venus, who reduced
her to slavery, from which she was finally liberated by
the return of her first love. According to a beautiful,
allegory of Apuleius, Psyche was a daughter of a king,
and her beauty excited the jealousy of Venus, who per-
secuted her. She was represented in works of art as a
maiden with the wings of a butterfly.

See THORLACIUS, " Disquisitio raythologica de Psyche et Cu-
pidine," 1801.

Psychristus, sl-kris'tus, or Psycochristus, si-ko-
kris'tus, (JACOBUS,) an eminent physician of the fifth
century, was a native of Alexandria. He became phy-
sician to Leo the Great, who reigned at Constantinople
from 457 to 474 A.D.

Ptolemseus. See PTOLEMY.

Ftolemaus and FtolemSer. See PTOLEMY.

Ptolemee. See PTOLEMY.

Ptolemy, tol'e-me, [Gr. IlroAfuaZof ; Lat PTOLE-
MyE'us ; Fr. PTOLEMEE, pto'li'mi' ; Ger. PTOLEMAUS,
pto-leh-ma'us, plural PTOLEMAER, pto-leh-ma'er ; It.
TOLOMEO, to-Io-ma'o, plural TOLOMEI, to-lo-ma'ee,] J-,
surnamed SOTER, or " Saviour," the son of Lagus, was

the founder of the dynasty ol Greek kings of Egypt.
It is supposed that he was a son of Philip II. of Mace-
don, as his mother was a concubine of that king. He
had a high command in the army of Alexander, and
displayed great abilities as a general in India. He was
one of the personal attendants of Alexander, who ap-
pears to have regarded him with great favour. At the
distribution of provinces which followed the death of the
king, (3 2 3 B.C.,) Ptolemy obtained the government of
Egypt. He raised a large army, and formed a secret
alliance with Antipater against Perdiccas, who invaded
Egypt in 321 and was defeated. As the ally of Cas-
sander, Seleucus, and Lysimachus, he waged by sea
and land a long war against Antigonus. This war began
in 315, and was ended by the defeat of Antigonus at
Ipsus, in 301 B.C. By his able administration Ptolemy
rendered the kingdom prosperous and powerful. He
promoted commerce, science, and literature, and invited
many Greek philosophers and authors to his court.
Historians generally represent him as eminent for po-
litical wisdom. He died in 283 B.C., and was succeeded
by his son, Ptolemy Philadelphus.

See GEIBR, "De Ptolemaei Lagidae Vita et Scriptis;" ARRIAN.
"Anabasis," books ii.-vii. ; DIODORUS SICULUS, " History," books
xvii.-xx. ; DRUMANN, "Dissertatio de Rebus Ptolemzorum," 1821.

Ptolemy (Ptolemseus) IX, commonly called Ptol-
emy Philadelphus,* [Fr. PTOLEMEE PHILADELPHE,
pto'li'mi' fe'li'de'lf',] a son of the preceding, was
born at Cos in 309 B.C. His mother was Bereni'ce.
The partial favour of his father secured the throne for
him in preference to the eldest son, P. Ceraunus. He
pursued a pacific policy, promoted foreign commerce,
and employed his vast resources in the patronage ol
literature and science and the construction of public
works. He founded a great library at Alexandria, and
a museum which was the resort of eminent philosophers.
He had received a learned education, and manifested a
special interest in natural history. Among the celebrated
men whom he attracted to his court were the poet The-
ocritus, Hegesias the philosopher, Euclid the geometer,
and Aratus the astronomer. According to a tradition
which is credited by many, the Holy Scriptures were
translated into Greek by his command. His dominions
included. Cyprus, Lycia, Caria, Coele-Syria, and parts
of Arabia and of Libya. During his reign Egypt was
raised to a high degree of power and prosperity. He
died in 247 B.C.

See JUSTIN, " History," books xvii. and xviii. ; DROYSEN, " Hel-
lenismus :" GEORC GREEN, " Dissertatio de Ptolemzo (II.) Phila-
delpho," 1676 ; DRUMANN, "Dissertatio de Rebus Ptolemaeorum,"

Ptolemy (Ptolemaeus) ITX, surnamed EUER'GETES,
(the " Benefactor,") [Fr. PTOLEM^E EVERGETE, ptoli'-
mi' i'vdR'zhJt',] was a son of the preceding, whom he
succeeded in 247 B.C. To avenge the death of his sister
Bereni'ce, he invaded Syria about 245 B.C., defeated
Seleucus Callini'cus, took Babylon, and subjected many
large provinces of his enemy. His victorious career was
interrupted by a sedition in Egypt, to which he re-
turned about 243 B.C. He was distinguished as a patron
of literature, and made large additions to the library of
Alexandria. His reign was eminently prosperous. He
died in 222 B.C. According to Justin, he was poisoned
by his son, Ptolemy Philopator.

See JUSTIN, " History," book xxviL

Ptolemy (Ptolemaeus) IV., surnamed PmLep'A-
TOR.t the eldest son of the preceding, began to reign in
222 B.C. He was greatly inferior to his predecessors in
ability, and was notorious for cruelty and sensual vices.
He put to death his mother and his brother Magas. Hi
army defeated Antiochus the Great at Raphia, near
Gaza, in 217 B.C. He died in 205 B.C., leaving one son,
Ptolemy V.

* I.t. "brother-loving," so called in irony, because he had ex-
cluded his brother Ceraunus from the throne and put to death two
other of his brothers. Some writers, however, suppose that ne
received the surname (which may also mean "loving one's sister")
from his having married his sister Arsinoe, to whom he appears to
have been tenderly attached, and to whose memory he caused a
temple to be erected after her death.

t / e. " father-loving," so styled ironically because he was suspected
(though probably without sufficient grounds) of having poisoned ha

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 5, 6, \\, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; me"t; nftt; good; m<3oi)|




Ptolemy (FtolemEeus) V., surnamed EPIPH'ANES,
(the " Illustrious,") succeeded his father in 205 B.C., when
he was only five years old. During his minority Antio-
chus the Great conquered Ccele-Syria, Phoenicia, and
Judea, but was checked in his encroachments by the
intervention of the Romans. At his coronation, in 196
B.c, a decree was issued which has been preserved in
the famous inscription of the Rosetta Stone. In his
reign the power of the Egyptian monarchy declined
rapidly. He died (it is said, by poison) in 181 B.C.
See POLYBIUS, " History," books rv., xvi., xvii, etc.
Ptolemy (Ptolemaeus) VL, surnamed PHILOME'-
TOR, was an infant when he succeeded his father, Ptolemy
V., in 181 B.C. His mother, Cleopatra, was regent until
her death, in 173. Antiochus of Syria invaded Egypt
in 171 B.C, reduced several cities, and took the young
king prisoner. The title of king was then assumed by
a younger brother, Ptolemy Euergetes or Physcon.
Philometor was soon released, and reigned jointly with
his brother for several years. Dissensions having arisen
between them, about 164 B.C. Philometor invoked the
mediation of the Roman senate, who restored him to the
sole sovereignty of Egypt As an ally of Demetrius II.,
he led an army into Syria, took Antioch, and defeated
Alexander Balas, in 146 B.C. At this battle he was fatally
'njured by a fall from his horse.

See POLYBIUS, " History," books Txvii.-xxxiii.
Ptolemy (Ftolemseus) VTL, surnamed EUER'GETES
or PHYS'CON, obtained the throne in 146 B.C., and put to
death Ptolemy Eu'pator, the infant heir of the late king.
Provoked by his cruelty and vices, the people revolted,
burnt his palace, and drove him out of Egypt in 130 B.C.
He recovered the throne in 127, and died in 117 B.C.
See JUSTIN, " History," books xxxviii. and xxxhe.
Ptolemy (Ftolemaeus) VUL, surnamed SO'TER II.,
and more frequently called LATH'YRUS, [Fr. PTOLEMEE
L.ATHYRE, pto'Ii'ma' IfteR', ] succeeded his father,
Ptolemy VII., in 117 B.C. He reigned jointly with his
mother, Cleopatra, until 107, when she procured his ex-
pulsion in order to raise to the throne her favourite son,
Alexander. Ptolemy reigned in Cyprus until the death
of his mother, (89 B.C.,) and was then restored to the
throne of Egypt He died in 81 B.C., leaving a daughter,
Berenice, who succeeded him, and a natural son, Ptolemy

The ALEXANDER mentioned m the preceding para-
graph is styled Ptolemy IX. by some writers.
See JUSTIN, " History," book xxxix.

Ptolemy (Ftolemaeus) 2L, (sometimes called Alex-
ander n.,) the son of Ptolemy VIII., was killed by the
Alexandrians on account of his cruelty.

Ptolemy (Ftolemaeua) 3CT surnamed AULE'TES
(i.e. the " Piper,") [Fr. PTOLEMEE AULETE, pto'Ii'ma'
6'lit',] also surnamed NE'US DIONY'SUS, was a son of
Ptolemy VIII. He began to reign in 80 B.C. He was
one of the worst kings of the race of Ptolemies, and
was dethroned by his subjects in 58 B.C. In 55 he was
restored by the Roman proconsul Gabinius. He had
two sons named Ptolemy^ and a daughter, the famous
Cleopatra. Died in 51 B.C.

See DION CASSIUS, "History of Rome."
Ptolemy (Ptolemaeua) XTT of Egypt was the
eldest son of the preceding. According to his father's
will, he reigned jointly with Cleopatra from 51 to 48 B.C.
Dissensions between the minister Pothinus and the
young queen resulted in her expulsion. Ptolemy was
involved in war with Caesar, who entered Egypt in 48
B.C., and he was drowned in a retreat from a fight with
the Romans about the end of that year.

His brother PTOLEMY received from Caesar the title
of king in conjunction with Cleopatra ; but his reign was
nominal. He was put to death by Cleopatra in 43 B.C.
See CJESAR, " Bellum Civile."

Ptolemy, (Ptolemaeus,) a nephew of Antigonus,
King of Asia. He obtained in 315 B.C. command of one
of the armies of Antigonus, and defeated the generals of
Cassander in Asia Minor and Greece. He was put to
death by Ptolemy Soter in 309 B.C.

Ptolemy, (Ptolemaeus,) a son of Pyrrhus, King of
Epirus, born in 295 B.C., was a prince of great promise.
He was left in charge of Epirus when his father led the
expedition against Italy, in 280. He was slain in *
combat against the Spartans, in 272 B.C.

Ptol'e-mjf (Ptolemae'us) e-rau'nus, [Gr. AKfpo*.
yoc,] King of Macedonia, was a son of Ptolemy I. of
Egypt by his wife Eurydice. Having been disinherited
by his father, he retired to Thrace. He murdered
Seleucus of Macedonia, and usurped his throne, in 280
B.c About a year later he was killed in battle by the
Gauls, who had invaded Macedonia.

Ptol'e-my (Ptolemae'us) Clau'dl-us, [Gr. IlroX.-
pa2of KAaMiof; Fr. PTOLEME CLAUDE, ptola'ml'
klod,] a celebrated Greek astronomer and geographer,
was a native of Egypt, and lived at Alexandria. His
mature life probably extended from 125 to about 160
A.D. Of his personal history we know nothing. He
was the most celebrated, but not the greatest, astronomer
of antiquity. His contemporaries and commentator!
usually added to his name the epithet " admirable" or
"divine." He was also a great mathematician. His prin-
cipal work is a treatise on astronomy, entitled MfydXij
SuvTofif TTK 'A.arpovo/uaf, to which the Arabian translators
gave the name of "Almagest," composed of the Arabic
article ai and the Greek iity'um}, i.e. " greatest" In this
work he availed himself of the observations and dis-
coveries of Hipparchus, to whom he gives the credit with
commendable candour. Indeed, it is chiefly through th
medium of the "Almagest" that the merit of Hipparchus
has been recognized by the moderns. Ptolemy main-
tained that the earth is a sphere, and that the sun and
stars revolve daily around the earth, which is fixed in
the centre of the universe. " We find in the Almagest,"
says Delambre, " a clear exposition of the system of the
world, of the arrangement of the celestial bodies and
their revolutions, a complete treatise of rectilinear and
spherical trigonometry, and all the phenomena of diur-
nal motion explained and calculated with remarkable
precision. . . . Such was the ' Syntaxis,' (' Almagest,') a
monument of great value at the present day, since it
alone contains the verified (mire) history of the science,
and the whole astronomical knowledge of his times."
His astronomical theory is called the Ptolemaic system.
He also wrote a work on general geography, (Teu-
YpaQua} "C^yj/au:,) which for many ages was the chief
authority on that subject, and did not become obsolete
until the fifteenth century. He gave special attention
to the determination of the latitudes and longitudes
of places by mathematical processes, but neglected the
descriptive part of geography.

See SCHAUBACH, "Ueber den Griechischen Astronomen C.
Ptolemasus," 1825: FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grzca;" HBERBN,
" Commentatio de Fontibus Geographicorum Ptolemasi," etc., 1828 ;
DR. HOEFER, article in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Ptolemy Lagi, (or the son of Lagus.) See PTOL

Fub-lic'o-la, (L, GELLIUS,) a Roman general, was
elected consul in 72 B.C, and was defeated in battle by
Spartacus. He supported Cicero in opposition to Cati-
line. Died soon after 55 B.C

Publicola, (PUBLIUS VALERIUS,) one of the founders
of the Roman republic, was consul with Bmtus in 509
B.C, and was author of laws which protected the liber-
ties of the common people, who gave him the surname
of PUBLICOLA, " the people's friend." He was re-elected
consul in 508 and 507 B.C., and fought against Porsena,
who attempted to restore the Tarquins. It is supposed
that he was killed at the battle of Regillus, (496 B.c)

See NIEBUHR, ** History of Rome :" CICERO, " De Republics, "

Pub-lill-us, (VOL'ERO,) a Roman, who effected a
change in the constitution. He was tribune of the
people in 472 B.C, and procured for the plebeians
greater freedom in the election of tribunes.

Publl-us Sy'rus, an eminent mimographer, born in
Syria, lived at Rome in the time of Julius Cassar. He
was a slave in his youth. At games exhibited by Caesar
in 45 B.C Publius excelled all competitors as a composer
of mimes. There is extant a collection of proverbs or
moral sayings ascribed to him.

Pucci, poot'chee, (ANTONIO,) a comic poet of Italy in
the fourteenth century. He wrote a chronicle (" Centi-

r.a&t; <;zss; %hard; gas/;G,H,K,#aro/; N nasal; v.,trillcd;szsi; th as in Mir. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




loquio") in triplets, many historical poems, ("Serven-
tesi,") legendary poems, (" Reina d'Oriente," " Apollouia
di Tiro," " Bel Gherardino,") etc.

Fucci, poot'chee, |Lat. Pur/cius,] (FRANCESCO,) an
Italian theologian, born at Florence ; died in 1600.

Fuccinelli, poot-che-nel'Iee, (PLACIDO,) an Italian
biographer, born in Tuscany about 1609; died in 1685.

Fuccius. See Pucci.

Pucelle, pii'sel', (RENE\) a French lawyer, born in
Paris in 1655, was a nephew of Marshal Catinat. Died
in 1745.

Pucelle d'Orleans. See JOAN OF ARC.

Puchta, p&T>K'tS, (GEORG FRIEDRICH,) a German
jurist, born at Cadolzburg in 1798. He published an
excellent work on Roman law, " Cursus der Institu-
tionen," (3 vols., 1841-47,) and a " Manual of the Pan-
dects," (5th edition, 1854.) Died at Berlin in 1846.

Puchta, (WOLFGANG HEINRICH,) a German jurist,
father of the preceding, was born near Erlangen in 1 769 ;
died in 1845.

Pucitta, poo-chef ti, (VlNCENZO,) an Italian musica',
composer, born in Rome in 1778. He produced twenty-
three operas, and other compositions. Died at Milan in

Piickler-Muskau, pa"k'Ier mSoVWSw, (HERMANN
LUDWIG HEINRICH,) PRINCE OF, a German writer of
travels, born at Muskau, in Lusatia, in 1785. He visited
England, France, Northern Africa, and Asia, and gave
an account of those countries in a work entitled " Let-
ters of a Defunct," ("Briefe eines Verstorbenen," 1830.)
This was followed by "Semilasso in Africa," (1836,) and
other sketches of travel. Died in 1871.

Bee "Quarterly Review" for June. 1837; "Foreign Quarterly
Review" for May, 1832, May. 1834, and July, 1836.

Fuech-Dupont, piish dii'poN', (LEONARD,) a French
naturalist and anatomist, born at Bayeux in 1795; died
in 1828.

Pufendorf, poo'fen-doRf, written also Fuffendorf,
(ESAIAS,) a German writer, born in 1628, was a brother
of Samuel. He is supposed to be the author of a satirical
work entitled "Anecdotes of Sweden." Died in 1659.

Pufendorf, (SAMUEL.) See PUFFENDORF.

Pttf'fen-dorf, [Ger. PUFENDORF, poo'fen-doRf ; Lat.
PUFENDOR'FIUS,] (SAMUEL,) BARON, an eminent Ger-
man jurist and publicist, born near Chemnitz, in Saxony,
in 1632. He studied at Leipsic and Jena, giving his
attention chiefly to the political works of Grotius and
Hobbes. He published in 1660 his "Elements of Uni-
versal Jurisprudence," (in Latin,) which was received
with general favour. Puffendorf was soon after appointed
by the Elector-Palatine, Charles Louis, professor of the
law of nature and of nations at Heidelberg, that chair
having been created expressly for him. He exposed the
absurdities of the constitution of the Germanic empire
in his work " De Statu Imperil Germanici," published
under the name of "Severini de Mozambano," (1667,)
which attracted great attention. On the invitation of
Charles XI. of Sweden, he accepted a similar professor-
ship at Lund in 1670. He brought out in 1672 his
greatest work, entitled " On the Law of Nature and of
Nations," (" De Jure Naturae et Gentium.") This treat-
ise is regarded as superior in some respects to that of
Grotius. The new principles which he advocated were
violently opposed by some of his contemporaries ; but
the work procured for him a durable European reputa-
tion. He was subsequently appointed historiographer
to the King of Sweden, and made a baron. Died at
Berlin in 1694.

See JENISCH, "Vita Pufendorfii," 1802; DANIEL MULLBR,
" Laudes PufendoHU," 1723.

Fugatchel See POOGATCHEF.

Fugatschev. See POOGATCHEF.

Puget, pii'zhj', (FRAN-gois,) a French painter and
architect, was a son of Pierre, noticed below. He excelled
in portraits. Died in 1707.

French general, born in Paris in 1754. He had a high
command in the campaign against Spain in 1793. Died
in 1828.

Puget, (LoiSA,) a French musical composer, born in
Paris about 1810. She has produced songs that had a
great vogue in their day, and a couple of operettas.

Puget, (Louis,) a French naturalist, born at Lyons in
1629. He gained distinction by researches on magnetise
Died in 1709.

Fuget, (PIERRE,) an eminent French sculptor, archi-
tect, and painter, born at Marseilles in 1622, was a pupil
of Pietro da Cortona, with whom he worked at Rome.
He worked as architect at Marseilles, where he also
painted some historical pieces. About 1655 he renounced
painting, on account of ill health, and devoted himself to
sculpture, on which his celebrity is founded. At Genoa,
where he passed some years, he executed an admirable
statue of Saint Sebastian, abas-relief of the Assumption,
and other works. Having been invited by Colbert, he
returned to France in 1669, after which he produced, as
sculptor, " Alexander and Diogenes," and " Milo of Cro-
tona," which is regarded as his master-piece. He has
been called " the Michael Angelo of France." Died at
Marseilles in 1694.

See CICOGNARA, " Storia della Scultura :" SMERIC-DAVID, "Vie
de P. Puget, Peintre," etc., 1840: FBRAUD, " Cloge historique de
P. Puget," 1807; A. RABBE, " Eloge de P. Puget," 1807; " Nou-
velle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

Pughe, pu, (WILLIAM OWEN,) a Welsh philologist
and antiquary, born in Merionethshire in 1759 He
published a " Welsh-and-English Dictionary," (1793-
1803,) a collection of oJd Welsh poetry and chronicles,
entitled "Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales," (1801-07,)
and "Cambrian Biography," (1803.) Died in 1835.

Pugin, pii'zhaN', (AUGUSTUS,) an eminent architec-
tural draftsman, born in Normandy about 1765, emi-
grated to London in his youth. He published, besides
other works, " Specimens of Gothic Architecture, se-
lected from Various Ancient Edifices of England," (2
vols., 1821-23,) a "d " Specimens of the Architectural
Antiquities of Normandy," (1825-28.) Died in 1832.

English architect, born in London in 1811, was a son
of the preceding. He was a zealous Roman Catholic,
and an admirer of the mediasval Gothic style of archi-
tecture. He designed the Cathedral of Saint Marie at
Derby, and a great number of Roman Catholic churches
at Liverpool, Oxford, Cambridge, Reading, Newcastle,
and other places. It appears that his zeal would not
permit him to build a Protestant church. His writings,
one of which is entitled " The True Principles of Pointed
or Christian Architecture," (1841,) contributed much to
the prevalence of the Gothic style of churches. He
ruined his constitution by excessive labour, was sent to
a lunatic-asylum, and died in 1852.

See B. FERREY. "Recollections of A. N. Welby Pugin and Au-
gustus Pu^in :" " Blackwood's Magazine" for December, 1861.

Pugin, ^EDWARD WELBY,) an architect, and a son of
the preceding, was born in 1834. He designed several
large churches of Liverpool, and completed some works
which his father had commenced. Died June 5, 1875.

Puglio. See PULIGO.

Fugnani, poon-ya'nee, (GAETANO,) an Italian com-
poser, born at Turin in 1728 ; died in 1798.

Pugnet, piin'vj', (JEAN FRANC.OIS XAVIER,) a French
medical writer, born at Lyons m 1765, was chief phy-
sician of a hospital at Dunkirk from 1805 to 1821. Died
in 1846.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 245 of 425)