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against the cranes a warfare which was annually re-
newed. Some writers relate that an army of pygmies
once assailed Hercules when he was asleep.

Pylade. See PYLADES.

Fyl'a-des, [Gr. lTt*5w ; Fr. PYLADE, pe'ltd',] a son
of Strop'hius, King of Phocis, was a cousin and intimate
friend of Orestes, whose sister Electra he married. The
friendship of Pylades anc Orestes was proverbial. (See

Pyle, pil, (HoWARD,j \n American artist and writer,
born in Wilmington, Delaware, March 5, 1853. He has
devoted himself chiefly to art, and especially to the illus
tration of books. He has published " The Merry Ad
ventures of Robin Hood," (1883,) and many illustrated
articles in periodicals.

Pym, (JOHN,) an eminent British statesman and
orator, born at Brymore, in Somersetshire, in 1584- He

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (B^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




entered Broadgate Hall, now Pembroke College, Oxford,
in 1599, and was elected to Parliament in 1614, after he
had acquired financial skill by a service of some years
in the Exchequer. He became a leader of the country
party, and so strenuously opposed the measures of the
court that King James I. stigmatized him as "a very ill-
tempered spirit." He represented Tavistock in all the
Parliaments held in the reign of Charles I. In 1626 he
was one of the managers of an impeachment against the
Duke of Buckingham, and made a speech for -which he
was imprisoned by the court. He was released on his
election to the third Parliament He was once a friend
of Wentworth, who, having resolved to desert the pop-
ular cause, obtained a private interview with Pym and
began to sound him in a set speech. Pym, understand-
ing his drift, stopped him short with these words : " You
need not use all this art to tell me that you have a mind
to leave us ; but, remember what I tell you, I will never
leave you while your head is on your shoulders !" In
the Parliament which met in April, 1640, Pym made a
long and celebrated speech on grievances. "A more
massive document," says Forster, " was never given to
history." Pym and Hampden were the most eminent
leaders of the popular party when the Long Parliament
met, in November, 1640. He attacked Wentworth (now
Earl of Strafford) in a powerful speech, which had such
an effect that he was unanimously, and without delay,
impeached of high treason. "The result," says Forster,
"proved this to have been, what Pym anticipated, the
master-stroke of the time. It struck instant terror into
every quarter of the court, and left the king, for a time,
powerless and alone." At the trial of Strafford he ap-
peared as accuser. His influence is thus estimated by
Clarendon: "I think Mr. Pym was at this time [1641]
the most popular man, and the most able to do hurt,
that hath lived in any time." On the 22d of November,
1641, he presented to the House the Grand Remon-
strance, a final appeal to the people. In January, 1642,
the king attempted to arrest Pym and four other mem-
bers of the House ; but they escaped. (See CHARLES
I., and HAMPDEN.) Pym had received, through Lady
Carlisle, timely notice of this attempt. At a conference
of the two Houses on the subject of grievances, in the
same month, Pym made a celebrated speech. He was
nicknamed " King Pym" by the royalists. He was ap-
pointed lieutenant-general of the ordnance of the king-
dom in November, 1643. He died in December of that
year, leaving several children. Pym was a consummate
master of parliamentary science and political tactics. He
was not extreme in his opinions, and did not partake
of the Puritanic formality and rigorism which prevailed
among the members of his party. "There is nothing
more remarkable in the speeches of Pym," says Forster,
"than what maybe emphatically termed their wisdom.
. . . The wisdom I have spoken of was, as it always
is with the greatest men, a junction of the plain and
practical with the profound and contemplative ; to such
an extent, however, in his case, and in such perfection,
as may not be equalled in that of any other speaker of
ancient or modern times, with the single exception
of Burke."

See FORSTER, " Lives of Eminent British Statesmen :" CLAREN-
DON, "History of the Rebellion;" HUME, "History of England."

Pym, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English physician, born in
Edinburgh or in Warwickshire about 1775. He served
as surgeon in the army, and was appointed inspector-
general of the army hospitals about 1816. He wrote
a "Treatise on the Yellow Fever," (1815.) Died in

Pynacker. See PYNAKER.

Pynaker or Pynacker, pi'na'ker, (ADAM,) a skilful
Dutch landscape-painter, born at Pynaker, between Delft
and Schiedam, in 1621. He studied at Rome, and re-
turned to Holland. " In his small compositions," says
the " Biographic Universelle," "he shows himself a skil-
ful artist. We distinguish the form and aspect of the
different species of trees ; his colour is always beautiful
and true ; his distances and skies are vapory," etc.
Died about 1676.

Fjfn'chon, (THOMAS RUGGLES,) D.D., LL.D., an
American clergyman, born at New Haven, Connecticut,

January 19, 1823. He graduated at Trinity College.
Hartford, in 1841, held rectorships in the Episcopal
Church, and was a professor in Trinity College, 1855-74.
and its president, 1874-83.

Pyn'chon, (WILLIAM,) an Anglo-American writer
on theology, born about 1591. He emigrated from
England in 1630, and was one of the first settlers of
Springfield, Massachusetts. Died in Buckinghamshire
in 1662.

Pyne, pin, (JAMES B.,) an able English landscape-
painter, born at Bristol in 1800. He became a resident
of London about 1835, and visited Italy and Switzerland
in 1846. In 1853 ho published some beautiful landscapes
in a volume entitled "The English Lake District" His
style is vigorous and brilliant, but not free from manner-
ism. He was vice-president of the Society of British
Artists for many years. Died in 1870.

Pyne, (LouiSA FANNY,) an English soprano-singer
born in 1832. With her elder sister, Mrs. Gallon, she
visited the United States in 1854, and was received with
favor. In 1868 she married Frank Bodda, a singer, and
shortly after retired from the stage.

Pyne, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an English painter and
writer, born in London in 1770. He painted portraits
and landscapes with some success, but gained more
distinction by his publications, viz., "The Microcosm,
or a Picturesque Delineation of the Arts, Manufactures,
etc. of Great Britain," (1803,) a "History of the Royal
Residences," (3 vols., 1819,) and " Wine and Walnuts,'
(1823.) Died in 1843.

See " Autobiography of William Jerdan," vol. lit chap. vii.

Fjfn'apn, (RICHARD,) an early printer, who was born
in Normandy, and lived in E-ngland about 1500. He was
king's printer in the reign of Henry VII.

I%ot, peV, (JEAN JACQUES RICHARD,) a French phy-
sician, born at Isomes (Haute-Marne) in 1792; died in

Pypers, pi'pers, (PIETER,) a Dutch poet, born at
Amersfoort in 1749. He wrote several short poems,
and produced many dramas, some of which were trans-
lated or imitated from the French. Died in 1805.

See VAN DER AA, " Biographisch Woordenboek."

Fyra, pee'ra, (JACOB EMANUEL,) a German poet, born
in Lusatia in 1715. He wrote "The Temple of True
Poetry," and other poems. Died in 1744.

Pyr'a-mus, [Fr. PYRAME, pe'rim'.j See THISBE.

Pyrard, pe'rf R', (FRANCOIS,) a French voyager, born
at Laval about 1570. He published a "Narrative of a
Voyage to the East Indies," (1611,) which is highly
commended. Died in 1621.

Py-rel-cus, a Greek painter of unknown period, is
supposed to have lived after Alexander the Great He
painted low subjects with success.

Pyr-got'e-lea, [nupxoreAtff,] an excellent Greek en-
graver of gems, lived about 330 B.C. An edict of Alex-
ander the Great designated him as the only artist who
was permitted to engrave the royal seal-rings or gems
The extant works ascribed to him are probably forgeries.

Pyrker, pfieVker, (JoHANN LADISLAW,) a German
poet, born at Langh, in Hungary, in 1772. He became
Archbishop of Erlau in 1821. Among his poems is one
entitled " Pearls of the Good Old Time," (" Perlen der
heiligen Vor/eit," 1823.) Died in 1847.

Py-rom'a-ehus, | Ylvpo/iaxof, ] sometimes written
Phyromachus or Philomachus, a Greek statuary,
who is supposed to have flourished about 300 or 250
B.C. A famous statue of Asclepius is ascribed to him.

Pyr'rha, a daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, was
the wife of Deucalion. According to tradition, she and
her husband were saved in an ark when mankind were
generally drowned by a deluge. (See DEUCALION.)

Fyr'rho or PyVrhon, [n>/>uv,] a Greek philosopher
and skeptic, was a native of Elis, and was born about
380 B.C. He was a pupil of Anaxarchus or Anaxan
drus. It is said that he accompanied Alexander the
Great to India. His writings, if he left any, are not
extant. He had numerous disciples, and is regarded as
the founder of a skeptical school, the doctrines of which
are called Pyrrhonism. He recommended a suspension
of judgment, and cultivated a habitual composure or

a, e, I 6. u, v. Ion?; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n&t; good;




tranquillity of mind, (<bra9'a.) After his return from
India he became high-priest at Elis. Died about the
age of ninety.

See C. MALLET, "Etudes philosophiques," torn* ii. ; DIOGHNK>
LABRTIUS: MUNCH, " De Notione et I ndple Scepticism! nominatim
Pyrrhonismi," 1797; " Nouvelle Biographic G^nirale."

Pyrrhon. See PYRRHO.


Pyr'rhua, [llvpfiof,] King of Epirus, a son of King
jEacides and Phthia, was born about 318 B.C. His
father was killed in battle while Pyrrhus was a child.
The young prince himself was expelled by the Epirotes
at the age of seventeen, and then joined the army of
Demetrius, who was his brother-in-law. He signalized
his courage at the battle of Ipsus, (301 B.C.) Having
mised a small army, he entered Epirus, and obtained
the throne in 295 B.C. His courage and generosity
rendered him very popular. Ambition appears to have
been his ruling passion. In 291 B.c he was involved in
a war against Demetrius, his brother-in-law, for the pos-
session of Macedonia, which he invaded in 287 B.C. The
army which Demetrius led against him, impelled by ad-
miration of the character of Pyrrhus, deserted to him in
a body, and Demetrius fled from the kingdom. Pyrrhus
divided his conquest with his ally Lysimachus, who soon
made himself master of all Macedonia. An irresistible
temptation was presented to the ambition of Pyrrhus by
the Tarentines, who in 281 B.C. solicited his aid in a war
against the Romans. His wise minister Cineas could
not prevail on him ta renounce his vast projects of for-
eign conquest. In 280 B.C. he crossed over to Italy with
about 25,000 men and a number of elephants. The
frivolous and unwarlike Tarentines failed to support him
with the large army which they had promised. He en-
countered the superior numbers of the Romans on the
river Siris, and defeated them after a long and obstinate
contest. His victory was so dearly bought that he is
reported to have said, " Another such victory, and I must
return to Epirus alone." He made overtures of peace,
which were rejected by the Roman senate.

In 279 B.C. another battle was fought, near Asculum
where the Romans lost 6000 and Pyrrhus 3500 men
Pyrrhus was unable to improve his victory, and, having
received an invitation to aid the Greeks of Sicily against
the Carthaginians, he concluded a truce with the Romans
in 278 B.C. He remained two years in Sicily, and gained
some victories, but failed to conquer the island. Hav-
ing returned to Tarentum to renew the war against the
Romans, he was defeated by M. Curius Dentatus near
Beneventum. He retired from Italy to Epirus in 274
B.C, and invaded Macedonia, of which he soon became
master in consequence of the desertion of the Macedonian
rmy from Antigonus Gonatas. At the request of Cle-
onymus, he engaged in a new enterprise, a war against
the Spartans, who repulsed his attack on their capital.
He was killed in Argos, in battle, in 272 B.c, after hav-
ing been stunned by a tile thrown from a house by a
woman. He was the greatest general of his time, and
Hannibal is reported to have said that he was the great-
ist of any age. " He was reputed," says Plutarch, "to
excel in military experience and personal prowess all the
princes of his time. But what he gained by his achieve-
ments he lost by vain hopes ; his desire of something
absent never suffered him effectually to persevere in a
present pursuit."

See PLUTARCH, "Life of Pyrrhus;" ]. B. JOURDAN, " Histoin
ie Pyrrhus," a vols., 1749, and English version of the same; LIVY

* History of Rome," book xjocv. ; JACOB ABBOTT, " History ol
Pyrrhus," 1853.

Py-thag'o-ras, [Gr. Uvdayapaf ; Fr. PYTHAGORE, pe'-
ci'goR' ; It. PITAGORA, pe-ta'go-ra,] one of the most
celebrated philosophers of antiquity, was born in Samos
about 600 B.C Very little is known with certainty re-
specting his personal history. His father was Mnesar-
chus, a merchant, and generally believed to have been
a foreigner, (not a native of Samos,) but whether a
Phoenician or Pelasgian is uncertain. He is said to have
been first instructed in his own country by Creophilus
and afterwards by Pherecydes in Syros. There was a
prevailing belief among the ancients that Pythagoras
travelled very extensively, visiting Egypt, Babylon, and
even India. That he visited Egypt seems very probable

and it is perhaps not improbable that he journeyed
as far as Babylonia. The notion that he included India
in his travels would seem to have no other ground than
the circumstance that certain doctrines of his bear a
triking resemblance to some of those held by the Indian
Rahmans or Booddhists. He not only taught the doc-
rine of metempsychosis, (or transmigration of souls,)
ut, like the Hindoos, made this the ground for incul-
ating the duty of kindness and tenderness towards
nimals, and of abstinence from their flesh. It is related
riat on a certain occasion he interceded to prevent a
og from being beaten, saying that he recognized in its
ries the voice of one of his friends who had died. Py-
hagoras attached a great importance to the study of
lathematics. He is regarded as the inventor of several
mportant geometrical theorems, among which may be
lamed the following: that the three angles of a triangle
.re together equal to two right angles, and that in any
ight-angled triangle the square formed on the hypo-
enuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two
rdes. He is said also to have been the inventor of
tringed musical instruments.

It is said that Pythagoras first made use of the word
, hilosopher, (<tiA6oo^of,) applying it to himself. He had,
we are told, witnessed the various public games of
reece, and came at length to Phlius, in Achaia. Leon,
he king of that country, was delighted with his ingenuity
and eloquence, and asked him what art or profession he
bllowed. He replied that he was a philosopher. Leon
isked him wherein philosophers differed from other men.
^ythagoras answered that as at the public games some
tvere contending for glory and others were buying and
elling for the sake of gain, but there was one class
vho came simply as spectators, so in human life there
vere those who, regarding as unworthy of a wise man
ie desire of fame or of gain, sought above all to be-
come wise : those he called philosophers, or lovers of

Pythagoras differed essentially from the other cele-
rated teachers of wisdom among the ancient Greeks,
n that he combined the character of priest with that of
hilosopher. He appears to have given great attention to
he means of acquiring influence over the minds of men,
ind for this purpose established a secret brotherhood
among his disciples and followers. He had certain doc-
trines of which he spoke only to his chosen disciples,
which, as being strictly limited to those within the
Favoured circle, were called esoter'ic, (tourepixd.) Othei
doctrines were freely communicated to those witAmt, 01
to the people at large : these were called txottr'ic, (i^ure-
Doto.) One of the necessary parts of the discipline of his
pupils was the practice of absolute silence. According
to some authorities, they were required to maintain
silence for five years, and during that period were not
allowed once to behold the face of Pythagoras ; but this
is probably an exaggeration.

So great was his authority with his disciples that when
any one asked why they believed this or practised that,
they were wont to answer, avrdf ityri, (or IIJHI,) i.e. "he
himself said so," (in Latin, ipst dixit,) which was re-
garded as the most efficient mode of silencing all cavils


Pythagoras, on returning from his travels, settled at
Crotona, in Italy, where for a time he seems to have pos-
sessed an almost boundless influence over the minds of
the people. Many of the most wealthy and influential
among the citizens of Crotona joined the brotherhood,
which soon became the controlling power in the state.
Its extraordinary success appears to have rendered its
members so arrogant that they became objects of jeal-
ousy and bitter hatred to those who were not admitted
to the favoured circle, that is, to the large majority of
the populace. An attack was made upon them while
assembled in one of their general meetings. The building
in which they met was set on fire, so that a great numbei
of them perished in the flames : only the younger and
more active, it is said, were able to escape. According
to one account, Pythagoras himself perished with the
others on this occasion, though some writers state that
he died at Metapontum soon after the expulsion of his
disciples from Crotona. A similar reaction took place

c u k; c as s; % hard; g as, ; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trillid; s as ; th as in this. (J^=See Explanations, p. .)




In other parts of Italy; many of the Pythagoreans were
killed, and many others were driven into exile. The
brotherhood as an organization was completely sup-
pressed. Amid the uncertainty which prevails in regard
to the history of Pythagoras and his doctrines, we can
form only an imperfect conjecture respecting the greater
number of his religious and philosophic tenets. None
of his writings are extant ; and what we know of his
philosophy is derived mainly from writers who under-
stood it very imperfectly.

See ANDRE DACIER, "Vie de Pythagore," 1706; A. POSTELMAN,
'Leven van Pythagoras," 1724; HAMBERGER, " Dissertatio de Vita
tt Symbolis Pythagorz," 1678; EILSTDCK, " Historisch-kritisches
Leben des weltweisen Pythagoras," 1756; TIEDEMANN, " Griecheu-
'ands erste Philosophen, Oder Leben des Orpheus, Pythagoras," etc..

Fytb/e-as [Gr. llwfcroc; Fr. PYTHKE, pe'ti'l of Mas-

silia, in Gaul, an ancient Greek navigator of unknown
period. He probably lived between 350 and 200 E.c
He sailed to the western and northern parts of Europe,
and wrote an account of his discoveries, which is not
extant He described a place called Thule, composed
of a mixture of earth, sea, and air. His statements
were credited by Hipparchus, but discredited by Strabo
and others. He is believed to have circumnavigated

Pythl-a, the name of the priestess of Apollo at
Delphi, where she uttered oracles.

Pythias. See DAMON.

Fjfth'i-us, [niftof,] a surname of Apollo, applied to
him because he was worshipped at Delphi, the ancient
name of which was Pytho.

Fythius. See PHILEUS.

Py'thou, [IliiOuv,] the name of a fabulous dragon cf
Delphi, killed by Apollo.


Quack'en-bos, (GEORGE PAYNE,) an American
teacher and educational writer, born in New York in
1826, published an "Advanced Course of Composition
and Rhetoric," (1854,) "Primary History of the United
States," (1860,) "English Grammar," (1862,) and other
works. Died December 24, 1881.

Quack'en-bos, (JOHN DUNCAN,) an American
author, was born at New York city in 1848. He be-
came a physician, was professor of rhetoric at
Columbia College 1891-95, and at Barnard College
for Women 1891-93. His works are many and
varied, some of them being school-books, others
medical treatises.

Quad-ra'tus, [Gr. Koiiparof,] an early Christian min-
ister, who, according to Saint Jerome, was chosen Bishop
of Athens in 125 A.D. He presented an Apology for
the Christian religion to Adrian in 126 A.D.

Quadri, kwa'dRee, (ANTONIO,) an Italian writer on
statistics and political economy, was born at Vicenza in
1777. He obtained in 1815 the office of secretary of the
government at Venice.

Quadri, (GIOVANNI LODOVICO,) an Italian architect
and engraver, born at Bologna in 1700 ; died in 1748.

Quad-rl-ga'rl-us, (QuiNTus CLAUDIUS,) a Roman
historian, lived about So B.C. He wrote Roman Annals,
some extracts from which are preserved by Aulus

Quadrio,kwl'dRe-o, (FRANCESCO SAVERIO,) a learned
Italian Jesuit and critic, born in Valtellina in 1695. He
was employed as professor at Padua, Bologna, Venice,
etc. He published, besides other works, a general his-
tory of poetry of all nations, (" Storia e Ragione d'ogni
Poesia," 7 vols., 1739-59,) a work of great labour and
some value. It contains extracts from a great number
of poets. Died in 1756.

Quaglio, kwai'yo, (ANGELO,) an able scene-painter,
was a brother of the following. Died in 1815.

Quaglio, (DoMENico,) a painter, born at Munich in
1786, was surnamed THE GERMAN CANALETTO. He
acquired a wide reputation as a painter of architecture.
Among his works is a picture of the Ratisbon Cathedral.
He contributed much to revive a taste for the archi-
tecture of the middle ages. Died in 1837. His father.
GIUSEPPE, born in 1747, was a skilful scene-painter.
Died at Munich in 1828.

See NAGLHR, " Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon,"

Quaglio, (GiULlo,) an Italian fresco-painter, born at
Laino, was the ancestor of several artists, noticed above
and belnw. Died in 1800.

Quaglio, (LORENZO,) an architect, born at Laino in
1730, was a son of Giovanni Maria, an architect, who
worked at Vienna. Lorenzo designed theatres at Man-
heim and Frankfort. He died at Munich in 1804. He
was an uncle of Giuseppe, noticed above, and father of
GIOVANNI MARIA, a painter of architecture and dra-
matic scenery, who was born in 1772.

Quain, kwan, (JoNES,) a skilful anatomist, born at
Mallow, Ireland, studied in Paris. He distinguished
himself as professor of anatomy and physiology in the
London University, now called University College, and
resigned this position in 1836. His chief work is " Ele-
ments of Anatomy," (6th edition, 1856,) which is said to
be better than any English work previously published
on systematic anatomy. Died in 1865.

Quain, (RICHARD,) a younger brother of the pre-
ceding, and a distinguished anatomist and surgeon, was
born at Mallow. He became professor of anatomy at
University College, London, about 1836. He was ap-
pointed professor of clinical surgery at the University
College Hospital in 1848. He published an excellent
work entitled "The Anatomy of the Arteries of the
Human Body," (1845.) Died September 17, 1887.

Quain, (SIR RICHARD.) a cousin of the preceding, be-
came a physician to the Consumption Hospital, Bromp-
ton, and invented the Stethometer. Died in 1898.

Quaini, kwi'nee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian painter,
born at Bologna in 1611, was particularly successful in
painting architectural views. Died about 1680.

Quaini, (LODOVICO,) a son of the preceding, was born
at Bologna in 1643, and was a pupil of Carlo Cignani,
whom he imitated. He is said to have painted the land-
scapes and architecture of some of Cignani's great works.
He worked in partnership with Franceschini at Rome,
Genoa, etc., and painted some historical pictures com-
posed by himself. Died in 1717.

Quandt, kwant, (JoHANN GoTTLOB,) a German writer
on fine arts, born at Leipsic in 1787, became distin-
guished as an amateur and collector of pictures. Among
his works are "Excursions in the Domain of Art," and
" Lectures on Esthetics." Died in 1859.

Quanz, kwants, (JoHANN JOACHIM,) a German com-
poser, born near Gbttingen in 1697; died in 1773.

Quarenghi, kwa-ren'gee, (GiACOMO IL CAVALIERE,)
an Italian architect, born at Bergamo in 1744. Invited
by the empress Catherine, he went to Saint Petersburg,
and acquired a high reputation by works erected in that
city. Among these are the Exchange, and the Theatre
of the Hermitage. Died in 1817.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 247 of 425)